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Full text of "Fact, fancy, and fable; a new handbook for ready reference on subjects commonly omitted from cyclopaedias; comprising personal sobriquets, familiar phrases, popular appellations, geographical nicknames, literary pseudonyms, mythological characters, red-letter days, political slang, contractions and abbreviations, technical terms, foreign words and phrases, Americanisms, etc."

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3 1924 073 177 689 

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91 iEeto flanlitiooft 


















By a. C. McClurg & Co, 

A.D. i88g. 


IN the words of John Dryden, " Some will think this book needs 
no excuse, and others will receive none ; " but for those who 
belong to neither class, and who judge the work on its merits, a 
few words of introduction and explanation seem necessary. 

Not the least of the problems connected with the compilation of 
a work having a distinct plan, and bearing such a title as " Fact, 
Fancy, and Fable," is to decide what to admit and what to exclude. 
Occasionally there must needs be a deviation from the set rule ; yet 
in the main the lines of selection will be found to be clearly laid 
down and closely adhered to. Approximately, our " Fact " embraces 
Americanisms, Memorable Days, Pseudonyms, Political Nomencla- 
ture, Foreign Words and Sentences, and Contractions and Abbre- 
viations ; " Fancy " deals with Personal Sobriquets and Nicknames 
of all kinds, and with Familiar Phrases and Folk-Sayings ; while the 
realm of the purely mythological belongs to " Fable." 

The wholly fictitious characters of satires and novels and of ro- 
mance and poetry, which consume so large a portion of the works of 
Wheeler and Brewer, and must ever be of secondary popular interest, 
have been reserved for a future compilation, should the same be 
deemed advisable. Only where a nominally fictitious character is 
a portraiture or a burlesque of a real personage has the reference 
been admitted here. 

A glance at the scheme of " Fact, Fancy, and Fable," outlined on 
the titlepage, will enable the reader to form some idea of the scope 
of the work. Briefly stated, the aim of the author has been to amass 
a great amount of useful or curious information which has hitherto 
been either inaccessible to the general reader or so widely scattered 
among a score or more of different volumes as to be practically un- 
attainable when most needed. Thus, for pen-names the anxious 
inquirer has had to turn to Frey's " Initials and Pseudonyms " or 


some kindred work ; for mythological characters and events, to the 
various classical dictionaries ; for Americanisms, to Bartlett's ad- 
mirable compilation ; for personal sobriquets, to Wheeler's " Noted 
Names of Fiction ; " for every-day and folk sayings, to Brewer's 
" Dictionary of Phrase and Fable," to the same author's " Reader's 
Handbook," Wheeler's " Familiar Allusions," or to Edwards's 
" Words, Facts, and Phrases." Much information pertaining to our 
Red-Letter Days may be gleaned, amid a mass of other data, from 
Chambers's " Book of Days ; " but this fruitful subject is only partially 
treated therein. Political nomenclature must also be sought for in 
divers channels ; and not until one has essayed to run to earth some 
apparently self-explanatory phrase does it become apparent how 
little has been done to catalogue such matters. The interesting sub- 
ject of Geographical Nicknames is nowhere else treated at the length 
it deserves. Contractions and Abbreviations, and Foreign Words 
and Phrases, may be found appended to any good dictionary ; but in 
no case, it is believed, have these ever been set forth so fully as in 
the present instance. It will be admitted that there is a distinct 
advantage in having all these matters grouped under one alphabet. 

The books above enumerated may be said to constitute the bibli- 
ography of the various topics, and to all of them grateful acknowledg- 
ment is made in so far as the writer has profited by their contents. 
But in addition thereto many other works of reference, indirectly 
related to the subjects involved, as also modern history and biogra- 
phy, both English and foreign, have been ransacked for references, 
and much correspondence carried on with friends and authorities at 
home and abroad. 

The departments embracing Geographical Nicknames, Red-Letter 
Days, and Political Nomenclature are thought to be noteworthy in 
that they deal with subjects never before adequately treated ; in all 
other directions the constant aim has been to include every entry 
likely to be sought for. While it would be folly to claim or expect 
that complete success in this respect has been attained, the author 
indulges in the modest hope that in the following pages much will 
be found that has never before been collated. For instance, in none 
of the works mentioned above is there to be found an explanation of 
the allusion contained in the phrase "Legislature of a Thousand 
Drinks." It occurs in Dana's "Two Years before the Mast," and 
refers to an episode in the early annals of California. To Mr. Hubert 
Howe Bancroft, the historian of the Pacific coast, the writer is in- 
debted for an account of the origin of the nickname. So with the 


sayings "Between the Devil and the Deep Sea," "Angel Gabriel 
Riots," "Gladstone's Umbrella," "Spellbinders," "Nigger in the 
Woodpile," " Cain of America," " Gossamer Days," " California 
Column," " Cockerel Church," and a hundred others. It may easily 
be that the world is not actually suffering for lack of such " hole and 
corner" information, but the inquiry-columns of the periodical press 
afford ample evidence that there is no little popular interest therein. 

It remains to be said that scattered throughout the dictionary 
will be found many entries gleaned from the author's previously pub- 
lished writings during the past decade. The articles on " Caspar 
Hauser," " Junius," " The Man of the Iron Mask," and the " Wander- 
ing Jew," are condensed from his little book " Who Was He i " pub- 
lished in 1887. 

H. F. R. 

New York City, 1889. 


A. When written as an indorsement 
on the margin or face of a document, 
A signifies Approved or Accepted or 
Audited, as the case may be. The small 
a indicates one, or unity s as, " one dol- 
lar a pound," — meaning one dollar for 
each pound. When written @, it signi- 
fies at J as, "12 lbs. at 50 cts." 

A 1. First quality; the registry mark 
of underwriters, indicating first-class. 
American vessels are registered A, and 
afterward distinguished by figures in de- 
scending grade ; as, A i, A iX, A \yi, 
A ijf, A 2, etc. In the English Lloyds 
" A I " denotes that the vessel is well 
built and seaworthy, the figure I indi- 
cating that her rigging, anchors, cables, 
etc., are in good condition. A 2 indi- 
cates that the equipments are unsat- 
isfactory. The ordinary expression as 
to the highest mercantile standing is 
"A No. i7' 
A. or Ans. Answer. 
A. A. A. G. Acting Assistant Adju- 
A. A. G-. Assistant Adjutant-General. 
A. A. F. S. American Association 
for the Promotion of Science. 

Aaron's Serpent. England has been 
so named because she absorbed the va- 
rious petty states of India; Germany, 
because she did likewise for the smaller 
German states. The allusion is to Ex. 
vii. 10-12. 

A. A. S. AcademicB Americana 
Socius. Fellow of the American Acad- 
emy (of Arts and Sciences). 

A. A. S. S. Americana Antigua- 
riancB Societatis Socius. Member of 
the American Antiquarian Society. 

A. B. Artium Baccalaureus. Bach- 
elor of Arts. 

A. B. That is, "able-bodied,"— the 
rating on board ship of all skilled or I 

able seamen. A ship's "boys" are un- 
skilled mariners, no matter what their 

Ab. The fast of Ab, or " Black 
Fast," as it is sometimes called among 
the Jews, occurs annually about Aug. 
10, and lasts from sunset to sunset. 
This fast is one of the most solemn 
occasions in the Hebrew worship, and 
is scrupulously observed by orthodox 
Jews. It commemorates the destruction 
of the two temples of Judaea. The tem- 
ple of Solomon was destroyed by Neb- 
uchadnezzar, king of Babylon, which 
sad event of Jewish history occurred 
in the month of Ab. The second tem- 
ple was destroyed by Titus the Ro- 
man. This happened on the 9th of Ab. 
Hence the season of fasting and lam- 
entation which marks the event as each 
year goes by. 

Abactu ad posse valet consecutio. 
(Lat.) Inference by induction from what 
has been to what may be. 

Abaddon. The Hebrew designation 
of the fallen angel or evil spirit who is 
called ApoUyon in Greek. 

Ab agendo. (Lat.) From acting or 

Abandannad. A slang sobriquet for 
the purloiners of pocket-handkerchiefs ; 
t. e., bandannas. Supposed to be a cor- 
ruption or contraction of " a bandanna 

Abandon fait lairon. (Fr.) Negli- 
gence makes the thief. 

Ab ante. (Lat.) Before ; previously. 

Ab antiquo. (Lat.) From olden 

Abaris. In classic myth a priest of 
Apollo to whom the deity presented a 
golden arrow on which to traverse the 
air, and which also rendered him invis- 
ible. Hence the allusion to the arrow, 
or dart, of Abaris. 



A bas. (Fr.) Down ; down with. 

Abaster, Abates, and 2!ton. The 
three horses of Pluto (g. v.). 

Abb. Abbott's U. S. Circuit and Dis- 
trict Court Reports. 

Abbot of Misrule. The master of 
revels, especially of Christmas festiv- 
ities, in the Middle Ages. 

Abbot of Unreason. A medisval 
personage who held sway in the houses 
of the nobility during the Christmastide 
festivities. The same as " Lord of Mis- 

Abby Wiiiey. The stage-name of 
Mrs. R. B. Chamberlain. 

Abcedeurian. One who teaches or is 
learning the ABC. 

Abcedaiian Hymns. Those in 
which each verse, from the first to the 
last, began with successive letters of 
the alphabet in regular progression. 

A. B. C. P. M. American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 

Abdallah. (Pseud.) Otway Curry, a 
writer for the American press. 

Abderitan. Another name for an 
idiotic or foolish person. The natives 
of Abdera, in Thrace, were famed in an- 
cient times for their dense stupidity. 

Abderite. The nickname for a scof- 
fer. See Laughing Philosopher. 

Abdiel. The angel who defied Luci- 
fer when he urged the angels to revolt. 

Abdiel. (Pseud.) (i) Joshua William 
Brooks. (2) Samuel Hull. 

A beau jeu beau retour. (Fr.) 
One good turn deserves another. 

Abel Eeene. A village schoolmas- 
ter, afterward a merchant's clerk. He 
was led astray, lost his place, and 
hanged himself. 

Abel Shufflebottom. (Pseud.) Rob- 
ert Southey(i774-i843). 

Aberdeen. (Pseud.) Hugh D. Mcln- 

Abessa. The impersonation of ab- 
beys and convents, represented by 
Spenser in the " Faerie Queene " as a 

Ab extra. (Lat.) From without. 

Ab hoc et ab hac. (Lat.) From 
this and that; confusedly. 

AbialL An African deity, wife of 
Makembi. She is invoked In time of 

Ab identitate rationis. (Lat.) "From 
identity of reason." For the same reason. 

Abigail. Another name for a lady's 
or waiting maid. Abigail, in i Sam. 
XXV. 3, repeatedly styles herself David's 
handmaid. The term was also much 
used by the Queen Anne novelists, — 
probably in allusion to Abigail Hill, after- 
ward the famous Mrs. Masham, who was 
woman-in-waiting to her royal mistress. 

Abigail Perkins. (Pseud.) James 
Otis Kaler in the " Boston Globe." 

Abingdon Law. Summary punish- 
ment without trial. In 1645 Lord Es- 
sex and Waller held Abingdon, a town 
in Berks, against Charles L The town 
was unsuccessfully attacked by the 
Royalists in 1644 and 1645. On these 
occasions the besieged put every Irish 
prisoner to death, without the sem- 
blance of a trial. Hence the origin of 
the term "Abingdon Law." 

Ab inconvenienti. (Lat.) From the 

Ab incunabulis. (Lat.) From the 
cradle ; from childhood. 

Ab initio. (Lat.) From the begin- 

Ab IntegTO. (Lat.) Anew; afresh. 

Ab intestate. (Lat.) Without a will; 

Ab intra. (Lat.) From within. 

A bis et k blano. (Fr.) "From 
brown to white." By fits and starts. 

Abl. Ablative. 

Abnormis sapiens. (Lat.) Wise by 
natural good sense ; endowed with good 

Aboard. The extent to which in 
the United States the nautical term 
"aboard" has extended its meaning to 
land affairs, is quite amusing. Travel- 
lers by rail are urged to go aboard the 
cars, as railway carriages are called, 
the conductor finally cr)ring out, "All 
aboard ! " 

Abolitionists. A term, denoting the 
Anti-Slavery party in the United States, 
which appeared soon after the founding 
of "The Liberator" by William Lloyd 
Garrison in 1831. Garrison, Wendell 
Phillips, John Brown, E. P. Lovejoy, 
Joshua R. Giddings, John P. Hale, Sal- 
mon P. Chase, and Charles Sumner 
were avowed Abolitionists. 

There never was a time when all Americans 
acquiesced in slavery. The Society of Friends — 
the original English settlers of Pennsylvania — 
opposed it, and so from time to time did others ; 
but the acrimonious contest over slavery out of 
which grew the term "Abolition" and' its de- 
rivatives, dates from 1829, when William Lloyd 


Garrison began the severe arraignment of slave- 
holders as criminals. In 183 1 he started his pa- 
per, " The Liberator." The next year a society 
was formed in Boston for the purpose of pro- 
moting the cause of emancipation ; that was the 
New England Anti-Slavery Society. The Ameri- 
can Anti-Slavery Society was formed at Philadel- 
phia in 1833, Beriah Green, president, and John 
G. Whittier one of the secretaries. Their num- 
ber was small ; but in 1840 they divided into two 
wings, one favoring abolition vrithin the Union, 
the other denotmdng the Constitution as a bul- 
wark of slavery. Wendell Phillips, the chief 
orator of the cause, was especially virulent in 
denunciation of the Constitution. The cause of 
anti-slavery grew much more rapidly tlian the 
party which was its highest embodiment. There 
wa.s never any very large number of American 
citizens who were, prior to the civil war, avowed 
AboUtionists. Gradually the principle of eman- 
cipation gained ground, however. At the South, 
and largely in Democratic circles North, the Re- 
publicans were called Abolitionists, — often with 
the epithet " Black" prefixed. After the war, a 
majority of the Northern people took pride in 
eliding to have been Abolitionists. In 1844, 
when the Abolitionists polled 62,300 presidential 
votes, the Whigs attributed the defeat of Clay 
by Polk to the defection of Anti-Slavery Whigs. 
The ticket then was Bimey and Morris. In oper- 
ating the " underground railroad " the Abolition- 
ists took the lead, as they did in all anti-slavery 
movements. Their first martyr was Elijah P. 
Lovejoy, of Alton, 111., who was killed by a mob in 
1839. John Brown was the most famous of the 
list. John Quincy Adams, Joshua R. Giddings, 
John P. Hale, Salmon F. Chase, and Charles 
Sumner were conspicuous in Congress for boldly 
avowing Abolitionism before the formation of the 
Republican party. It was not until emancipa- 
tion had become an accomplished fact that the 
party finally disbanded. The Colonizationists, 
who wanted to do away with slavery by return- 
ing the negroes to Africa, were bitterly hostile 
to the Abolition movement. They never went 
into politics. — Hale. 

A bon chat bon rat. (Fr.) "To 
good cat good rat." They are well 
matched ; tit-for-tat. 

A bon march^. (Fr.) Cheap. The 
Bon Marchi in Paris is an immense 
establishment, where everything is sold, 
much frequented by foreign shoppers 
and bargain-hunters. 

Abonnement. (Fr.) Subscription. 

Ab origine. (Lat.) From the begin- 

Aborigines. This word is explained 
in every dictionary, English, Latin, or 
French, as a general name for the in- 
digenous inhabitants of a country. In 
reality it is the proper name of a pecu- 
liar people of Italy, who were not 
indigenous, but were supposed to be 
a colony of Arcadians. The error 
has been founded chiefly on the sup- 
posed derivation of the word from ab 
origine, Never was a more eccentric 

etymology, — a preposition with its gov- 
erned case made plural by the modern 
final .r ! 

Abou Hassan. A rich merchant, 
transferred during sleep to the bed and 
palace of the Caliph Haroun-al-Raschid. 
Next morning he was treated as the 
caliph, and every effort was made to 
make hira forget his identity. The 
same trick was played on Christopher 
Sly in the induction of Shakspeare's 
comedy, " Taming of the Shrew." 

Abou-JsUiia. In Mohammedan my- 
thology, the angel of death. 

Above Par, Below Par. These 
are common Americanisms. " Par " is 
a commercial term signifying that cer- 
tain stocks or shares can be bought 
on the Stock Exchange at their nomi- 
nal value ; as when ;^loo worth of 
London and Northwestern Railway 
stock can be bought for ;^ioo, there 
being neither premium nor discount. 
" Par," therefore, may be taken to mean 
level, or average. It is used in Amer- 
ica to denote the state of health or 
spirits of a person. " Below par " means 
low in health or spirits; "above par" 
signifies in better health or spirits than 

Ab ovo. (Lat.) "From the egg." 
From the beginning. 

Ab ovo usque ad mala. (Lat.) 
"From the egg to the apples." From 
the beginning to the end of anything. 
At a Roman entertainment eggs were 
the first and apples the last dish 

Abp. Archbishop. 

A. B. Pbilologer. (Pseud.) Lau- 
rence Sterne, author of the " Sentimen- 
tal Journey," etc. 

Abr. Abridgment, or abridged. 

Abracadabra. A famous ancient for- 
mula, to which was ascribed mysterious 
powers, said to be of Persian origin. 
No other combination of letters was re- 
garded with so great veneration, and it 
was thought to be an infallible preven- 
tive of fevers and agues. Here are the 
directions for its preparation and use 
given by an old writer : — 

Write the letters of the word so as to form a 
triangle, capable of being read many ways, on a 
square piece of paper. Fold the paper so as to 
conceal the vmting, and with white thread stitch 
it into the form of a cross. This amulet wear in 
the bosom, suspended by a linen ribbon, for nine 
days ; then go in dead silence, before sunrise, to 
the banks of a stream that flows eastward, take 



the amulet from off the neck, and fling it back- 
ward into the water. If you open or read it, the 
charm is destroyed. 





A E R A C A D 

A B R A C A 

A B R A C 

A B R A 

A B R 

A B 


See Om Mani Padma Hum. 

Abraham ITewland. A colloquial 
term for a Bank of England note. For 
many years in the early part of the 
present century Abraham Newland was 
cashier, and signed all the notes. To 
counterfeit these was a capital offence ; 
whence arose the famous couplet : — 

" I have heard people say, sham Abram you may, 
But you must not sham Abraham Newland." 

Abrahamic Covenant. The cov- 
enant made by God with Abraham that 
Messiali should spring from his seed. 

Abraham's Bosom. The repose of 
the happy in death. The figure is taken 
from the ancient custom of allowing a 
dear friend to recline at dinner on one's 
bosom. Thus the beloved John reclined 
on the bosom of Jesus. 

Reclining on the triclinium^ or dinner-bed, 
the guest lay usually upon his left side, leaving 
his right hand free to reach the food. His head 
would thus easily come into contact with the 
breast of the person on his left. It was in this 
way that John leaned on the bosom of Jesus 
while at supper. This is also mentioned in John 
xiii. 25 ; xxi. 20. A figtuative use of the custom 
referred to is made in Luke xvi. 22, 23 ; John 
L 18. — Freeman. 

Abram Man. A slang term for a 
begging impostor. The name is de- 
rived from the occupants of the Abra- 
ham Ward in Bedlam, who used to 
solicit alms of charitable visitor^. The 
phrase "to sham Abram" means to 
feign sickness or distress in order to 
shirk honest labor. See Abraham New- 

A bras ouverts. (Fr.) With open 

Abraz. In classic mjfth, one of Au- 
rora's horses. See Aurora. 

Abraxas, or Abracaz. In Persian 
mythology, the Supreme Being. 

Abraxas Stones. Stones with the 
word " Abraxas " engraved on them, used 
as a talisman. The word sj^mbolizes the 
mystic number 365 and the number of 
intelligences between earth and deity. 

Abrege. (Fr.) Abridgment. 

A. B. S. American Bible Society. 

Absalom. In Dryden's poem, " Ab- 
salom and Achitophel," the former char- 
acter stands as a nickname for the way- 
ward son of Charles II., the Duke of 
Monmouth (1649-1685). 

Absence d'esprit. (Fr.) Absence of 

Absens hasres non etit. (Lat.) 
" The absent will not be the heir." Out 
of sight, out of mind. 

Absente reo. (Lat.) The defendant 
being absent. 

Absit invidia. (Lat.) Let there be 
no ill-will. 

Absil omen. (Lat.) Mayit not prove 

Absolutism tempered by Assassi- 
nation. Count Ernst Friedrich MUn- 
ster, Hanoverian envoy at St. Peters- 
burg, discovered that Russian civilization 
is " merely artificial," and first published 
to Europe the epitomization of the Rus- 
sian Constitution, that it is " absolutism 
tempered by assassination." 

Absquatulate. To run away, or ab- 
scond. An American word, compounded 
of ab, squat, to go away from your squat- 
ting. A " squatting " is a tenement taken 
in some unclaimed territory without pur- 
chase or permission. The persons who 
take up a squatting are termed " squat- 

Absque argento omnia vana. (Lat.) 
Without money all is vain. 

Absque hoc. (Lat.) Without this. 

Absque ulla conditione. (Lat.) Un- 

Absyrtus. In classical mythology 
a brother of Medea who fled with her 
from Colchis. Being nearly overtaken 
by her father, she slew ADS3Ttus and 
divided his body into fragments, which 
she dropped behind her, that her father 
might be hindered in his pursuit by 
stopping to pick up the remains of his 

Abundat dulcibus vitas. (Lat.) He 
abounds with pleasant faults. 

Ab uno disce omnes. (Lat) " From 
one learn all." From a single example 
you may have an idea of the whole. 

AbusuB non tollit usum. (Lat.) 
Abuse is not an argument against proper 

A. C. Ante Christum. 
birth of Christ. 

Before the 



A. C. Arch-chancellor. 
. Acacians. (i) Followers of Acacius, 
bishop of Caesarea in the fourth century, 
who held peculiar doctrines respecting 
the nature of Christ. (2) Partisans' of 
Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, 
promoter of the Henoticon (482-484). 

Acad. Academy. 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Academy of Natu- 
ral Sciences. 

Academic City. A name given to 
Worcester, Mass., in allusion to the 
number and excellence of its educa- 
tional institutions. See Heart of the 

Academics. Followers of Plato, who 
taught in the Academy, a garden planted 
by one Academes. 

AcademicuB. (Pseud.) (i) Rev. Aula 
Macaulay, who contributed to " Ruddi- 
man's Weekly Magazine " under this 
signature. (2) Charles Seager, M. A. 
(3) William Pulteney Alison. (4) John 
Loveday, D. C. L., in his contributions 
to the "Gentleman's Magazine." 

Academy Figures. Drawings in 
black and white chalk, on tinted paper, 
from living models used by artists. So 
called from the Royal Academy of 

A cader va chi troppo alto sale. 
(Ital.) Who climbs too high, goes to 

Acadia, or Acadie. The original 
name, but now the poetical designa- 
tion, of Nova Scotia. It was granted 
by Henry IV. of France, Nov. 8, 1603, 
to De Monts, a Frenchman, and a com- 
pany of Jesuits, who were finally ex- 
pelled from the country by the English 
governor and colonists of Virginia, who 
claimed all that coast by virtue of its 
prior discovery by the Cabots in 1497. 
In 1621 Sir William Alexander, a Scotch- 
man, applied to and obtained of James 
I. a grant of the whole peninsula, which 
he re-named Nova Scotia, in honor of 
his native land. The country frequently 
changed owners during the next cen- 
tury, and in 1713 was finally ceded to 
England. In 1755 the French residents 
were forcibly expatriated by the Eng- 
lish, which event forms the subject of 
LoRgfellow's poem, " Evangeline." 

A capite ad calcem. (Lat.) From 
head to foot ; thoroughly. 

A oapricoio. (Ital.) At will ; agree- 
ably to the fancy. (Mus.) 

Acariatre. (Fr.) Ill-natured; cross; 

A causa persa, parole assai. (Ital.) 
When the cause is lost there is enough 
of words. 

Ace. Accusative. 

Accedas ad curiam. (Lat.) You 
may come into court. 

Accelerando. (Ital.) Gradual quick- 
ening of movement [Mus.] 

Aocepta. (Lat.) The receipts in ac- 

Accessit. (Lat.) He came near. 

Acciacatnra. (Ital.^ A species of 
arpeggio. (Mus.) 

Accoltellatori. Literally, "gladia- 
tors." A name given to secret assas- 
sins who infested Ravenna and other 
places in Italy in 1874. 

According to Gunter. In the United 
States this phrase is used as the equiv- 
alent of the English " According to 
Cocker." Gunter was an English math- 
ematician of great eminence, who died 
1626. He invented " Gunter's scale " 
and the surveying chain universally 
•known as "Gunter's chain." 

Acct. Account. 

Accueil. (Fr.) Reception; greeting; 

Accusare nemo se debet, nisi co- 
ram Deo. (Lat.) No one is bound to 
accuse himself, unless before God. 

Accusative, The. A nickname con- 
ferred on John Calvin by his mates in 

Ace Clubs. (Pseud.) J. C. Loftin. 

Aceldama. A field of battle, or any 
place where much slaughter has taken 
place. The name is derived from the 
locality to the south of Jerusalem, so 
called, which the priests piu-chased with 
the thirty pieces of silver paid to Judas 
for the betrayal of Christ. 

Acephalites. Literally, "without a 
head." (i) Certain of the Eutychians 
who in the fifth century were " deprived 
of Mongus, their head," through his re- 
nunciation of his errors. (2) A body of 
reformers in the reign of Henry I. who 
"acknowledged no leader." (3) Another 
name for the mythical Blemmyes, a peo- 
ple said to inhabit the interior of Africa, 
who had no heads, their mouth and eyes 
being placed in their chests. 

Acerrima prozimorum odia. (Lat.) 
The hatred of the nearest relatives is 
most intense. 



Acervatim. (Lat.) By heaps. 

Acestes. In classical mythology a 
son of the river-god Crinisius, who m a 
trial of skill at archery shot an arrow 
into the air with such velocity that it 
took fire, and left a flaming path until it 
was wholly consumed. 

Ac etiam. (Lat.) And also. 

Achaean League. A federation be- 
tween the twelve cities of Achaia. Alex- 
ander the Great dissolved it ; but it was 
revived in 280 b. c, only to be finally 
broken up by the Romans in 147 B. c. 

A chaque saint sa ohcindelle. (Fr.) 
To every saint his candle ; that is, con- 
ciliate every source of possible favor. 

A charge. (Fr.) At expense. 

AchariuB. (Pseud.) Fredrik Wilhelm 

Acharne. (Fr.) Bloodthirsty. 

Achates. In classical mythology the 
companion of JEntas, whose fidelity has 
given us the phrase ^dus Achates, — 
faithful Achates. 

Acheron. In classical mythology a 
son of Sol and Terra, who was changed 
into a river in Hades. The word is 
sometimes used as a synonym for hell 

Acherontian Books. The celebrated 
books of augury which the Etruscans 
received from Tages, grandson of Ju- 

Acherusia. A chasm or abyss in 
Pontus, said to communicate with the 
nether world, and through which Her- 
cules hauled Cerberus to earth. 

Acheta, or Acheta Domestica. 
(Pseud.) Miss L. M. Budgen, an Amer- 
ican poet. 

A chevEil. (Fr.) On horseback. 

Achilles. In classical mythology son 
of Peleus and of Thetis, a Nereid. He 
was the chief personage of Homer's 
Iliad, and was famed more than all the 
Greeks in the Trojan war for bravery, 
strength, and personal beauty. At 
birth his mother immersed him in the 
River Styx, and he was thus made in- 
vulnerable, save in the heel by which 
she held him; but he was killed by 
Paris, to whom Apollo discovered his 
weak spots. 

Achilles. Albert III., Margrave of 
Brandenburg, was so named. See also 

Achilles' Heel of England, (i) Ire- 
land has been so named. A legend has 

it that Achilles was vulnerable only in 
the heel, and that in consequence of 
a wound in that part he died. In 
allusion to the almost constant disaf- 
fection existing in Ireland during the 
last two centuries, and from the fact 
that foreign invasion has more than 
once descended on her shores, the " sis- 
ter isle " has come to be regarded as 
the spot where England might be most 
easily assailed should she ever be em- 
broiled in an extensive foreign war. 
(2) Carlyle so named Hanover, which, 
he said, was "liable to be strangled at 
any time for England's quarrels ; the 
Achilles' heel to invulnerable England." 

AchiUeB of England. The Duke of 
Wellington (1769-18J2) was thus fre- 
quently referred to. 

Achilles of Germany. Albert, Elec- 
tor of Brandenburg (1414-1486). 

Achilles of Rivers. The Columbia 
River, the largest American river that 
enters the Pacific Ocean. It is a noble 
stream, remarkable for grand and pic- 
turesque scenery. Like the famous 
Homeric hero, it may be said to be vul- 
nerable at its heel, for a treacherous 
and constantly shiJEting bar obstructs 
navigation at its mouth ; though, this 
passed, the largest steamers can ascend 
115 miles to Vancouver. 

Achilles of Rome. A sobriquet for 
Sicinius Dentatus (flourished 405 B. c). 

Achilles' Puzzle. This is an argu- 
ment that Achilles could never catch 
a tortoise, because while the man 
was running the intervening distance, 
the tortoise would still get some dis- 
tance ahead, and so on to infinity. 
It was invented by Zeno the Eleatic, 
4SS B-C. 

Achilles' Spear. Telephus tried to 
stop the march of the Greek army on 
its way to Troy, and received a wound 
from Achilles. The oracle told him, as 
"Achilles gave the wound, only Achilles 
could cure it." Whereupon Telephus 
went to the tent of the hero, and was 
cured, — some say by an herb called 
"Achilles," and others by an empla&- 
trum of rust scraped from the spear. 
Hence it was said that " Achilles' spear 
could both hurt and heal." 
Whose smile and frown, like to Achilles' spear, 
Is able with the change to kill or cure. 

Shakspeare, z Henry VI., act v. sc. i. 

Achilles' Tendon. The sinew run- 
ning from the heel to the calf of the 



Achitophel. The Earl of Shaftes- 
bury is thus satirized in Dryden's "Ab- 
salom and Achitophel." Achitophel 
was the treacherous friend and adviser 
who deserted David and fled to Absa- 
lom, and who afterward hanged himself. 
2 Sam. xvii. 

Aohor. The god of flies. He was 
adored by the Cyrenians, in the belief 
that they thereby secured immunity 
from annoyance by those insects. 

Achtequedjams. In Hindu mythol- 
ogy the eight colossal elephants who 
sustain the earth on their heads. 

Acis. In classical mythology a Sicil- 
ian shepherd, beloved of Gjuatea, but 
crushed under a rock by Polyphemus, the 
Cyclops, in a fit of jealousy. Galatea, 
when his life-blood gushed forth from 
under the stone, changed it into a river. 

Ackland Ton Boyle. The stage- 
name of Mr. A. Boyle. 

Ackncvirledge the Corn. An ex- 
pression which means " to confess or 
acknowledge a charge or imputation." 
The following is the origin of the 
phrase : — 

Some years ago a raw customer from the 
upper country determined to try his fortune at 
New Orleans. Accordmgly he provided himself 
with two flat-boats, one laden with corn, and 
the other with potatoes, and down the river he 
went. The night after his arrival he went up 
town to a gambling-house. Of course he com- 
menced betting, and, his luck proving unfortu- 
nate, he lost. When his money was gone, he 
bet his " truck ; " and the com and potatoes 
followed the money. At last, when completely 
cleaned out, he returned to his boats at the 
wharf, when the evidences of a new misfortune 
presented themselves. Through some accident 
or other, the flat-boat containing the com was 
sunic, and a total loss. Consoling himself as 
well as he could, he went to sleep, dreaming of 
gamblers; potatoes, and com. It was scarcely 
sunrise, however, when he was disturbed by the 
** child of chance," who had arrived to take pos- 
session of the two boats as his winnings. Slowly 
awakening from his sleep, our hero, rubbing his 
eyes and looking the man in the face, replied : 
" Stranger, / acknowledge the corrij — take 'em ; 
but the potatoes you can't have, by thunder I " 

A coelo usque ad centrum. (Lat.) 
"From heaven as far as the centre." 
From the sky as far as to the centre of 
the earth. 

A coeur ouvert. (Fr.) " With heart 
open.'' Openly; frankly; with the most 
perfect candor. 

A compte. (Fr.) On account ; in part 

A contre-oceur. (Fr.) Against the 
heart; against the grain; against one's 
will; reluctantly; grudgingly. 

Acorn. (Pseud.) James Cakes. 

A corps perdu. (Fr.) With might 
and main ; desperately ; headlong. 

A coup sGr. (Fr.) With certainty ; 
certainly ; sure to win. 

A couvert. (Fr.) Under cover ; pro- 

Acraaia (Feebleness). In Spenser's 
"Faerie Queene," an enchantress who 
lived in the " Bower of Bliss," situate in 
" Wandering Island." She transformed 
her lovers into monstrous shapes, and 
kept them captive. Sir Guyon crept 
up softly, threw a net over her, and 
bound her in chains of adamant ; then 
broke down her bower and burnt it to 

Aerates (Incontinence). Called by 
Spenser the father of Cymochles and 

Acre Fight. The conflicts of the 
Scottish border were so named because 
they were fought in the open field, — 
Lat. ager, a field. 

A. C. S. American Colonization So- 

Act. Active ; acting. 

Actaea. (Pseud.) Mrs. Elizabeth 
Cary Agassiz. 

Actaeon. In classical mythology a 
mighty hunter who, having intruded on 
Diana while bathing at a fountain, was 
changed by her into a stag, and in that 
shape was killed by his own dogs. 

Actian Tears. Augustus founded 
athletic games at Actium to commemo- 
rate his naval victory over Antony. 
Hence Actian years were those in 
which the contests took place, — every 
fifth year. 

Act! labores jucundi. (Lat.) Fin- 
ished labors are pleasant. 

Act of Faith. See Auto da 7±. 

Act of Uniformity. This Act, which 
was passed in 1661, for regulating pub- 
lic worship, etc., obliged all the clergy to 
subscribe the Thirty-nine Articles. Up- 
wards of two thousand conscientious min- 
isters left the Church of England and 
became dissenters rather than submit. 

Acton Bell. (Pseud.) Anne Bronte, 
sister of Charlotte Bronte (1820-1849). 

Actum est de republica. ^Lat.) It 
is all over with the commonwealth. 

Actum et tractatum. (Lat.) Done 
and transacted. 

A. D. Anno Domini. In the year of 
the Lord. 



Ada Bartling. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Gustavus Levick. 

Ada Boshell. The stage-name of 
Mrs. J. W. Grath. 

Ada Cavendish. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Frank Marshall. 

Ada Clare. (Pseud.) Mrs. Jane 

Ada Oilman. The stagername of 
Mrs. Leander Richardson. 

Ada Gray. The stage-name of Mrs. 
Charles A. Watkins. 

Ada Hall. The stage-name of Mrs. 
T. S. Dare. 

Ada Harland. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Brander Mathews. 

Ada Melville. The stage-name of 
Mrs. J. H. Hazleton. 

Ada Newcomb. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Paul Hamlin. 

Ada Rehan. The stage-name of 
Ada Crehan. 

Ada Stanhope. The stage-name of 
Mrs. A. Bothner. 

Ada Vernon. The stage-name of 
Mrs. E. A. Taylor. 

Ada 'Wilkes. The stage-name of 
Mrs. J. F. McLeod, nie McCoffery. 

Ad absurdum. (Lat.) To an ab- 

Adagio. (Ital.) A very slow degree 
of movement, demanding much taste 
and expression. (Mus.) 

Adagio assai or molto. (Ital.) Very 
slow and expressive. (Mus.) 

Adagio cantabile e sostenuto. 
(Ital.) Very slow and sustained. (Mus.) 

Adam. (Pseud.) Arthur Hugh Clough, 
an English writer. 

Adamastor. The spirit of the Stormy 
Cape (Good Hope), described by Ca- 
moens in the "Lusiad" as a hideous 

Adam Bede. This famous portrait- 
ure in George Eliot's novel of the same 
name represented the author's father, 
Robert Evans. 

Adam Bell. A famous outlaw who 
roamed the forests of northern England. 
Such was his skill with the long bow 
that his name has become a synonym 
for an expert archer. 

Adam Cupid, — /. «., Archer Cupid ; 
so called from Adam Bell, the celebrated 
archer. See supra. 

Adam's Ale, or Adam's Wine. War 
ter as a beverage ; from the supposition 
that Adam had nothing but water to drink. 

Adam's Apple. The name colloqui- 
ally given to the swelling in the fore- 
part of the male throat, because of the 
old saying that a piece of the forbidden 
fruit stuck there and left the mark on 
all of Adam's descendants. 

Adam's Needle. In Gen. iii. 7 we 
are told that Adam and Eve sewed fig- 
leaves together and made themselves 
aprons. If they did this, the bayonet- 
like leaves of the Yucca would have 
made admirable needles j whence the 
nickname of this plant. 

Adam's Peak. (Port., Pico de Adam.) 
A fanciful name given by the Portuguese 
to a mountain in Ceylon. The Arabs 
say that Adam stood thereon on one 
foot bewailing his expulsion from Para- 
dise, till Jehovah forgave him. 

Adam's Profession. Gardening, agri- 
culture. Adam was appointed by God 
to dress the Garden of Eden and to 
keep it ; and after the fall he was sent 
out of the garden " to till the ground." 

There is no ancient gentleman, but gardeners, 
ditchers, and grave-makers ; they hold up Adam's 
profession. — Hamlet^ v. i. 

Adams and Clay Republicans. In 
1825 the Federalist party was of no 
influence ; the Democratic-Republican 
was the only real party. In it" there 
were two factions, — the supporters of 
President John Quincy Adams and his 
lieutenant, Henry Clay, known as above, 
and the followers of Andrew Jackson, 
known as Jackson Republicans, or Jack- 
son Men. The Adams and Clay Re- 
publicans ultimately became Whigs. 

Ad aperturam libri. (Lat.) "At 
the opening of the book." As the book 
opens ; without study or preparation. 

Ad arbitrium. (Lat.) At pleasure. 

Ad astra. (Lat.) "To the stars." 
To heaven, or an exalted state. 

Ad astra per aspera. (Lat.) To 
the stars through difficulties. 

A. D. C. Aide-de-camp. 

Ad calendas Grreecas. (Lat.) " At 
the Greek calends," — that is, never; 
the Greeks having no calends. 

Ad captandum vulgus. (Lat.) To 
catch the rabble : to please the multi- 

Addendum. (Lat.) An addition, or 

Addle. (Pseud.) Adelaide J. Cooley. 

Addle Glenmore. (Pseud.) Mrs. 
Alice McClure Griffin, an Americaa 



Adding insult to injury. A fly bit 
the bare pate of a bald man, who, en- 
deavoring to crush it, gave himself a 
heavy blow. Then said the fly, jeer- 
ingly, "You wanted to revenge the sting 
of a tiny insect with death : what wiU 
you do to yourself, who have added in- 
sult to injury ? " 

Quid fades tibi, 
Injuriae qui addideris contumeliam ? 
Ph^drus, The Bald Man and the Ply, 

Addison of the North. Henry Mac- 
kenzie (1745-1831), author of "The 
Man of Feeling" and " The Man of the 

Addled Parliament. Th e Parliament 
which sat from April 5, 1614, to June 7, 
1 61 5, was so named because, although 
it remonstrated with the king because 
of his levying " benevolences," it passed 
no enactments. 

Adelaide. (Pseud.) Miss Elizabeth 
Bogart, an American poet. 

Adelaide Moore. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Valentine. 

Adelaide Neilson. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Lee. 

Adelaide Randel. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Atwood. 

Adelaide Thornton. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Paul Nicholson. 

Adele Belgarde. The stage-name of 
Adele Levy. 

Adele Bray. The stage-name of 
Mrs. F. M. Kendrick. 

Adele Giuri. The stage-name of 
Madame Pizzarno. 

Adele Measor. The stage-name of 
Mrs. J. C. Buckstone. 

Adelina Patti The stage-name (and 
also the maiden name) of Madame 
Nicolini, formerly the Marchioness de 

Adeline. (Pseud.) Mrs. E. F. A. 

Adeline Hynes. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Henry DeLorme. 

Adeline Stanhope. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Nelson Wheatcroft. 

Adelphagia. In classic myth the 
goddess of Gluttony. She possessed a 
shrine in Sicily. 

Ademar, in Tasso's "Jerusalem De- 
livered," is intended to portray the 
Archbishop of Poggio, an ecclesiastical 
warrior who, with William, Archbishop 
of Orange, besought Pope Urban on his 
knees that he might be sent on the Cru- 
sade. He took four hundred armed men 

from Poggio, who sneaked off during a 
drought, and left the Crusade. Ademar 
was not aUve at the time, having been 
slain at the attack on Antioch by Clo- 
rinda; but in the final attack on Jerusa- 
lem his spirit came with three squadrons 
of angels to aid the besiegers. 

A Deo et rege. (Lat.) From God 
and the king. 

Adeste Fideles was composed by 
John Reading, who also wrote " Dulce 
Domum," the famous song of Win- 
chester College. It is miscalled the 
" Portuguese Hymn " from being heard 
at the Portuguese Chapel by the Duke 
of Leeds, who supposed it to be a part 
of the Portuguese service. 

Ad eundem. (Lat.) To the same 
(rank or class). 

A deuz. (Fr.) > For two voices or 

A duo. (Ital.) \ instruments. (Mus.) 

A deuz mains. (Fr.) With both 
hands ; two-handed. 

Ad finem. (Lat.) At or toward the end. 

Ad gustum. (Lat.) To one's taste. 

Adhominem. (Lat.) "To the man;" 
that is, to the interests or passions of 
the man. 

Adhuc sub judice lis est. (Lat.) 
The matter in question is still unde- 

Adiaphorlsts, i. e., " indifferentists." 
A name given to those of the adherents 
of Melanchthon who held that certain 
of the tenets of Luther were matters of 
no moment to salvation. 

Adieu jusqu'au revoir. (Fr.) Good- 
by till we meet again. 

Adieu pour toujours. (Fr.) Fare- 
well forever. 

Adina. (Pseud.) Rev. Joseph H. In- 
grahara, author of " The Prince of the 
House of David." 

Ad infinitum. (Lat.) To infinity ; 
without end. 

Ad inquirendum. (Lat.) For in- 

Ad interim. (Lat.) In the mean- 

Ad internecionem. (Lat.) "To de- 
struction ; " to extermination. 

Adirondack. (Pseud.) L. E. Chit- 
tenden, an American litterateur. 

Adirondack Murray. W. H. H. 
Murray, American author and clergy- 
man, born in Guilford, Conn., 1840, au- 
thor of " Camp Life in the Adiron- 
dacks," " Adirondack Tales," etc. 



A discretion. (Fr.) At discretion ; 
without restriction. 

Adj. Adjective. 

Adjt. Adjutant. 

Adjt.-Gen. Adjutant-General. 

Ad Ub. Ad libitum. (Lat) At 
one's pleasure or taste ; at will or 
discretion, implying, as in music, that 
the time is at the pleasure of the per- 
former, or that he is at liberty to in- 
troduce whatever embellishments his 
taste directs. Another musical mean- 
ing of this term is where one or more 
accompanying instruments may be in- 
troduced at pleasure. ' 

Ad litem. (Lat.) For the action (at 

Ad literam. (Lat.) " To the letter." 
Letter for letter. 

Ad longum. (Lat.) At length, 

Adm. Admiral ; admiralty. 

Adm. Co. Admiralty Court. 

Ad medium filum. (Lat.) To the 
middle line. 

Admetus. In classical mythology a 
beauteous youth, beloved of Venus and 
Proserpine, who being killed by a wild 
boar while hunting, was changed into an 
anemone by Venus. 

Administration Resorts. A name 
given to Frenchman's Bay and Bar Har- 
bor, Me., and the vicinity, from the fact 
that several members of President Cleve- 
land's cabinet passed the summer there 
in the years 1885-1888. 

Admirable Crichton. James Crich- 
ton (1551-1573). a Scottish scholar who 
took the degree of M. A. at the early age 
of fourteen. 

Admirable Doctor. Roger Bacon 
(1214-1292) was so named. 

Admiral of the Red. A slang sobri- 
(juet for a tippler, whose nose or face 
is often of a fiery tint. 

Admire. Americans retain the old 
English use of this word in the sense 
of " wonder at." Shakspeare speaks of 
" most admired disorder," which sounds 
like nonsense to modern English ears, 
but which an American would under- 
stand to mean "in a wonderful or ex- 
traordinary state of disorder." They 
also use the word in the sense of "to 
desire very much." Thus, in New Eng- 
land it is not uncommon to hear such 
phrases as "I should admire to go to 
Paris," etc. It is still used in some 
parts of England in the sense of "to 
wonder at." Not long ago an old woman 

in Oxfordshire told a clergyman that " if 
he saw her husband he would quite ad- 
mire him, he looked so ill." 

Ad modum,. (Lat.) After the man- 
ner of. 

Admonitionists. In 1571 a number 
of Puritans sent a written " admoni- 
tion " to Parliament, in which they de- 
nounced everything in the doctrine and 
usage of the Church of England which 
did not chime with the Geneva tenets. 

Admr. Administrator. 

Admx. Administratrix. 

Ad nauseam. (Lat.) "To disgust." 
To an extent to make one sick. 

Adonai's. A poetical name applied 
by Shelley to Keats in the famous line : 
Oh, weep for Adonai's I he is dead. 

Adonists. Hebrews who believe it 
a sin to speak the name of Jehovah. In- 
stead, they say " Adonai," from the He- 
brew adon, lord. 

Adoptian Controversy, The. An 
echo of the Arian dispute, originating in 
Spain near the close of the eighth cen- 
tury, — the land in which the doctrines 
of Arius longest survived. Elipandus, 
the archbishop of Toledo, advanced the 
opinion that " Christ, in respect of his 
divine nature, was doubtless by nature 
and generation the Son of God;" but 
that as to his human nature he must 
be considered as only declared and 
adopted through the divine grace, as 
with all other holy men. See Arian 

Ad quod damnum. (Lat.) To what 

Adrammelech. The deity of the peo- 
ple of Sepharvaim, — supposed to per- 
sonify the sun. To him living infants 
were burned in sacrifice. 

Adrastus. In classical mythology a 
king of Argos and the founder of the 
Nemaean Games. 

Ad referendum. (Lat.) For further 
consideration, — much the same mean- 
ing as the Scotch law term, avizan- 

Ad rem. (Lat.) To the point or pur- 

Adrian. (Pseud.) James L. Cole 
(i 799-1823), an American poet. 

Adrienne. (Pseud.) Miss Susan C. 
Hooper, a contributor to the "Magno- 
lia Weekly," of Richmond, Va., in war- 

Ad summam. (Lat.) On the whole; 
to sum up the matter ; in conclusion. 



Ad summum. (Lat.) To the high- 
est amount or point. 

Adullamites. An attempt, in the 
year 1866, by the Government of Earl 
Russell and Mr. Gladstone to carry a 
measure which would have brought 
about a sweeping reduction of the elec- 
tive franchise, gave occasion to a large 
number of the more moderate Liberals 
to secede from the Whig leaders and 
vote with the Conservatives. The desig- 
nation of " Adullamites " was fastened 
on the new party in consequence of Mr. 
Bright having in the course of debate 
likened them to the political outlaws 
who took refuge with David in the cave 
of Adullam (i Samuel xxii. i, 2), — a 
comparison taken up by Lord Elcho, 
who humorously replied that the band 
congregated in the cave was hourly in- 
creasing, and would succeed in deliver- 
ing the House from the tyranny of Saul 
(Mr. Gladstone) and his armor-bearer 
(Mr. Bright). 

Ad tmguem. (Lat.) " To the nail." 
With perfect accuracy; nicely. A phrase 
borrowed' from sculptors, who, when 
modelling, give the finishing touch with 
the nail. 

Ad unum omnes. (Lat.) All to a 

Ad utrumque paratus. (Lat.) Pre- 
pared for either alternative. 

Ad T. Ad valorem (Lat.) See 

Adv. Adverb. 

Ad valorem. (Lat.) " According to 
the value." Thus, an ad valorem duty 
of twenty per cent, means a duty of 
twenty per cent, upon the value of the 

Advent, or Time of Advent. (Lat. 
" the approach," or " coming.") A term 
applied by the Christian Church to cer- 
tain weeks before Christmas. In the 
Greek Church the time of Advent com- 
prises forty days ; but in the Romish 
Church and those Protestant Churches 
in which Advent is observed, only four 
weeks. The origin of this festival as 
a Church ordinance is clear. The first 
notice of Advent as an appointment of 
the Church is found in the Synod of 
Lerida (a. d. 524), at which marriages 
were interdicted from the beginning of 
Advent until Christmas. The four Sun- 
days of Advent as observed in the 
Romish Church, the Church of Eng- 
land and its offshoots, and in the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church in the United 

States, were probably introduced into 
the calendar by Gregory the Great. 

Adversary, The. Another name for 
Satan. See i Pet. v. 8. 

Adversity Hume. A nickname be- 
stowed on Joseph Hume (1777-1855) 
in the time of " Prosperity Robinson," 
and as a foil to him, because of Hume's 
gloomy predictions of trouble and dis- 
aster in store for the English nation. 
See Prosperity Robinson. 

Ad vitam aut culpam. (Lat.) "For 
life or fault." For life or till fault. Said 
of the tenure of an office only terminable 
by death or delinquency. 

Ad vivum. (Lat.) To the life. 

Advt. Advertisement. 

iSacus. In classical mythology the 
son of Jupiter and .lEgina, famed for his 
mercy and probity, and who after death 
was appointed one of the three judges 
in Hades. 

.Sgeon. In classical mythology a 
monster having a hundred arms and 
fifty legs, who, together with his brothers 
Cottus and Gyges, vanquished the Ti- 
tans by hurling upon them three hun- 
dred rocks at once. 

Aeger. In Scandinavian mythology 
the god of the ocean. Rana is his wife ; 
they had nine daughters, clad in white 
robes or veils, who represented the 
white-capped billows. 

.Sigeus. In classical mythology a 
king of Athens, after whom the .lEgean 
Sea was named. 

.ZBgina. In classical mythology a 
daughter of the river-god Asopus, and 
a favorite of Jupiter. 

^ginetan Sculptures. Sculptures 
excavated by a company of Germans, 
Danes, and English (181 1), in the little 
island of ^Egina. They were purchased 
by Ludwig, Crown Prince of Bavaria, 
and now ornament the Glyptothek at 

iEgis. (i) The wonderful shield 
worn by Jupiter. (2) The short cloak 
or mantle worn by Minerva, covered 
with scales and fringed with serpents. 

.aigresclt medendo. (Lat.) " He 
becomes sick by the doctoring." The 
remedy is worse than the disease. 

A. B. I. O. U. The initials of a motto 
devised by Frederick, Emperor of Ger- 
many, — AustricB est imperatura orbi 
universo, or, in English, "Austria's 
empire is over all universal." It was 
satirically paraphrased so as to read : 



" Austria's empire is obviously up- 
set ; " and Frederick the Third in the 
fifteenth century made another motto 
reading: Austria erit in orbe ultima, 
— "Austria will one day be lowest in 
the scale of empires." 

.ZBIia Iiaelia Crispis. The subject of 
a famous inscription in Bologna, dating 
from mediaeval days, which has long 
puzzled the learned. It runs thus : 
" ^lia Laelia Crispis, neither man, nor 
woman, nor hermaphrodite; neither girl, 
nor boy, nor old woman ; neither harlot 
nor virgin, but all of these ; destroyed 
neither by hunger, nor sword, nor 
prison, but by all of them ; lies neither 
in heaven, nor in the water, nor in the 
ground, but everywhere ; Lucius Aga- 
tho Priscus, neither her husband, nor 
her lover, nor her kinsman ; neither sad, 
glad, nor weeping, but all of these at 
once ; knows and knows not what he 
has ijuilt, which is neither a funeral 
pile, nor a pyramid, nor a tomb, that 
is, a tomb without a corpse, a corpse 
without a tomb, for corpse and tomb 
are one and the same." Some have 
doubted whether the riddle has any 
meaning ; but many very ingenious ex- 
planations have been put forth. Some 
hold that it signifies "rain-water," oth- 
ers the "reasoning faculty," others "the 
philosopher's stone," others " love," 
others "a shadow," others "hemp," oth- 
ers " an embryo." Professor Schwartz 
thinks it means " the Christian Church," 
and quotes in support of his opinion 
Gal. iii. 28. Yet other writers have 
denied its antiquity, and regard it as 
emanating from the fancy of some mod- 
ern author; but this last theory is not 
well established. 

.Smilia Julia. (Pseud.) Miss Emily 

^Bmonia. An ancient name for Thes- 
saly, noted for its magic. 

iEmonian Art. Magic; the "black 
art." So named from /Emonia, as 
Thessaly was anciently called, noted 
for its sorcerers. 

.Simonian, The. Another name for 
Jason (q. v.), who received this title be- 
cause his father was king of Thessaly. 
See supra. 

.Sneas. In classical mythology a 
Trojan prince, son of Anchises and 
Venus, renowned for his loving care 
of his father. He is the hero of the 
" .(Eneid." 

2iquam servare mentem. (Lat.) To 
preserve an equable mind. 

Siqao animo. (Lat.) With an equa- 
ble mind. 

iBre perennins. (Lat.) More en- 
during than brass. 

.Sirians. Followers of ^rius, a 
presbyter of the fourth century, who 
maintained that bishops and presbyters 
were alike in order and office ; that 
Lenten and other fasts should not be 
observed; and that prayer should not 
be made on behalf of the dead. 

.Sschylus of France. Prosper 
Jolyot de Cr^billon, 1674-1762. 

.Ssculapius. In classical mythology 
the son of Apollo, and the deity who 
presided over the art of healing. 

.Sisop. (Pseud.) Mrs. Lillie Dever- 
eux Blake used this pen-name in the 
"New York Evening Telegram.'' 

.Sisop of England. John Gay (fl. 

.Ssop of France. Jean de la Fon- 
taine (fl. 1621-1695). 

.Ssop of Germany. Gotthold Ephra- 
im Lessing(fl. 1729-1781). 

.Sisop of India. Bidpai, or Pilpai, 
who fl. about three centuries n. c. 

.ffit. jEtatis. Of age ; aged. 

.Sitatis suae. (Lat.) Of his age, or 
Of her age. 

.Stliiopem lavare. (Lat.) " To wash 
an African." To wash a negro white, — 
labor in vain. 

.Sitians. Followers of yEtius, an 
Arian heretic who flourished about 351. 

A. F. or A. Fir. Firkin of ale, 

A. F. B. S. American and Foreign 
Bible Society, 
Affaire d'amour. (Fr.') A love affair. 

Affaire d'honneur. (Fr.) " An affair 
of honor ; " a duel. 

Affaire du coeur. (Fr.) An affair of 
the heart. 

Affetuosamente. (Ital.) With ten- 
derness and pathos. (Mus.) 

Affetuoso. (Ital.) With tenderness 
and pathos. (Mus.) 

Afflatus. (Lat.) Inspiration. 

A fin. (Fr.) To the end. 

A fortiori. (Lat.) " With stronger or 
greater reason." Arguments drawn 
from consequences or facts are so called. 

Afr. African. 



Afric. A diminutive appellation of 

So geographers in Afric maps 
With savage pictures fill their gaps, 
And o'er unhabitable downs 
Place elephants for want of towns. 

Swift, Poetry^ a Rhapsody, 

Africa, Head of. See Head of 

After-cast. A throw of dice after 
the game is ended ; anything done too 

Ever he playeth an after^ast 

Of all that he shall say or do. — Gower. 

After-clap. An after-clap is a catas- 
trophe or threat after an affair is sup- 
posed to be over. It is very common 
in thunderstorms to hear a " clap " after 
the rain subsides and the clouds break. 
What plaguy mischief and mishaps 
Do dog him still with after-claps. 

Hudibras, pt. i. 3. 

After us the Deluge. This was a 
saying of Madame de Pompadour. It 
is generally attributed to Metternich. 

Aft-meal. An extra meal ; a meal 
taken after and in addition to the ordi- 
nary meals. 

A. G. Adjutant-General. 
' Ag. Argentum (silver). 

Agag. Under this name Sir Edmond- 
bury Godfrey, the justice who received 
the famous deposition of Titus Gates, 
is satirized in " Absalom and Achito- 
phel," Dryden's great satire. See I 
Sam'. XV. Godfrey was murdered and his 
body cast into a ditch near Primrose 
Hill, London. 

Agamemnon. In classical mythology 
a brother of Menelaus, king of Mycenae, 
and commander of the Grecians in the 
Trojan war. 

Aganippe. In classical mythology a 
fountain at the foot of Mount Helicon, 
in Bceotia, consecrated to Apollo and 
the Muses, and believed to possess the 
power of inspiring those who drank of 
its waters. 

Agar-To-wn. See English Conne- 


Agate. (Pseud.) Whitelaw Reid, 
American correspondent and editor 
" New York Tribune" (b. 1837). 

Agatha Singleton. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Graham Earle. 

Age. See Goldex Age; Silver 
Age ; Iron Age, etc. 

Agelasta (Joyless). The stone on 
which Ceres rested when worn out by 
fatigue in searching for her daughter. 

Agenda. (Lat.) Things to be done. 

Age quod agis. (Lat.) " Do what 
you are doing." Finish what you have 
in hand ; attend to what you are about. 

Agitato con agitazione. (Ital.) With 
agitation; anxiously. [Mus.] 

Agla. A cabalistic title for the Deity, 
composed of the initials of the Hebrew 
words Attih, Gibbor, Leholdm, Adonii, 
and signifying, "Thou art strong for- 
ever, O Lord ! " 

Agiaus. (Pseud.) Henry Timrod, a 
Southern poet, contributor to " Southern 
Literary Messenger" (fl. 1829-1867). 

Agl. Dept. Department of Agricul- 

Agnes. The heroine of " David Cop- 
perfield," by Charles Dickens. A sort 
of female Verdant Green, who is so un- 
sophisticated that she does not even 
know what love means. Also the name 
of a character in Molifere's " L'Ecole 
des Femmes." 

Agnes Booth. The stage-name of 
Mrs. John ShofEel. 

Agnes Ethel. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Tracy. 

Agnes Herndon. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Joseph A. Jessel. 

Agnes Hewitt. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Lytton Sothern. 

Agnes Leonard. The stage-name of 
Mrs. F. C. Bangs. 

Agnes Robertson. The stage-name 
of the first wife of Dion Boucicault. 

Agnes 'Wallace. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Samuel B. Villa. 

Agnoitae (from the Greek ayvoia, ig- 
norance), (i) A sect founded by Theo- 
phronius of Cappadocia about 370, who 
doubted God's omniscience. (2) Fol- 
lowers of Themistius of Alexandria, 
about 530, who held peculiar tenets 
respecting Christ's body, and doubted 
his divinity. 

Agnostic. This is derived from a 
Greek word yvaa-TSs'whh a privative, and 
means " not made known." Originally 
the sect of the agnostics arose among 
the Christians of the third and fourth 
centuries. Its belief was that God does 
not know all things, and cannot be 
known. Nowadays an agnostic does 
not call himself a Christian; he pre- 
tends to no knowledge of God, and 
claims that He cannot be known, and 
that nothing can be known, save by 
experience. He says his mind is recep- 
tive, open to conviction; but his pas- 



siveness is always defensive, and often 

A gorge ddployfe. (Fr.) At the 
top of one's voice ; to an immoderate 

Agr. Agriculture. 

A grands frais. (Fr.) At great ex- 
pense ; very expensively. 

Agricola. (Pseud.) (i) Rev. Percival 
Stockdale, who in 1779 wrote several 
communications in the " Public Adver- 
tiser " over the above signature. (2) Wil- 
liam Elliott, American author. (3) James 
Anderson, author of numerous essays in 
the "Bee." (4) Philip Norborne Nich- 
olas (i 773-1 849) in the "Richmond En- 
quirer." (5) John Young, a Canadian 
agricultural writer (1773-1837) in the 
" Halifax Recorder," 1818. 

A. G. S. S. American Geographical 
and Statistical Society. 

Agt. Agent. 

Aguecheek. (Pseud.) Charles Bul- 
lard Fairbanks,who contributed sketches 
of travel to the " Saturday Evening Ga- 
zette," of Boston, circa 1859. 

A. H. Anno Hegirm, in the year of 
the Hegira. 

Abasuerus. The patronymic of sev- 
eral monarchs of Persia, similar to the 
Pharaoh of the Egyptian kings, and 
equivalent in meaning to the French 
Coeur de Lion. 

Ahmed, Prince. Noted for the tent 
given him by the fairy Paribanou, which 
would cover a whole army, but might 
be carried in one's pocket ; and for the 
apple of Samarcand, which would cure 
all diseases. See infra. 

Ahmed's Apple. A cure for every 
disorder. This apple the prince pur- 
chased at Samarcand. 

A. H. M. S. American Home Mis- 
sionary Society. 

Aholibamah. A granddaughter of 
Cain, in Lord Byron's drama of 
" Heaven and Earth," loved by the ser- 
aph Samiasa. She is a proud, ambi- 
tious, queen-like beauty, a female type 
of Cain. When the Flood comes, her 
angel-lover carries her under his wings 
to some other planet. 

Ahriman, in the Magian system the 
spirit of darkness or evil. See Ormuzd. 

Aide-de-camp. (Fr.) Assistant to 
a general. 

Aidenn. An Anglicized form of 
the Arabic word for Eden, often used 

as an equivalent for the celestial para- 
dise. , . , . , 
Tell this soul with sorrow laden, if, withm the 

distant Aidenn, 
It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels 
name Lenore. PoE, The Raven. 

Aide-toi et le ciel f aidera. (Fr.) 
Help thyself, and Heaven will help thee. 

Aiken Dunn. (Pseud.) Thomas C. 
Latto in the " Brooklyn Times." 

Ain. (Pseud.) William Stevens. 
Ain is the Hebrew word for " nobody." 

Air Ecoasais. (Fr.) A Scotch air. 

Air Martyrs. See Pillar Saints. 

Aitiaiche. (Pseud.) Annie T. How- 
ells, an American writer. 

Ajaz. In classical mythology a son 
of Telamon, king of Salamis, and next to 
Achilles the bravest, the most renowned, 
and the most beautiful of all the Greeks 
who fought at Troy. Another Ajax, son 
of Oileus, is called the Lesser Ajax. 

Akuan. In Persian mytliology the 
giant slain by Rustan. 

Al. Aluminium. 

Al, All', Alia. (Ital.) To the, or, in 
the style of. (Mus.) 

Ala. Alabama. 

Alabama. The name is derived from 
a Creek word meaning " Here we rest." 

A I'abandon. (Fr.) Unprotected or 
uncared for. 

A la belle etoile. (Fr.) Under the 
stars ; in the open air. 

A la bonne heure. (Fr.) That 's 
right ; excellent ; very well ; as you 

A I'abri. (Fr.) Under shelter; un- 
der cover. 

A la campagne. (Fr.) In the coun- 

A la Chinoise. (Fr.) After the Chi- 
nese fashion. 

Aladdin's Lamp. The source of 
wealth and good fortune. After Alad- 
din came to his wealth and was married, 
he suffered his lamp to hang up and 
get rusty. 

Aladdin's Window. The phrase 
" To finish Aladdin's window " means 
to attempt to complete something begun 
by a great genius, but left imperfect. 
The London "Times" applied the illus- 
tration to Earl Russell's attempt to 
patch up the vacancy made in the min- 
istry by the death of Lord Palmerston. 
The genius of the lamp built a palace 
with twenty-four windows, all but one 



being set in frames of precious stones ; 
the last was left for the sultan to finish ; 
but after exhausting his treasures, he 
was obliged to abandon tlie task as 

A la a^rob^e. (Fr.) By stealth. 

Aladiae. The sagacious but cruel 
old king of Jerusalem in Tasso's epic, 
" Jerusdem Delivered." This is a ficti- 
tious character, inasmuch as the Holy- 
Land was at the time under the domin- 
ion of the caliph of Egypt. Aladine is 
slain by Raymond. 

A la Fran9aise. (Fr.) After the 
French fashion. 

Alako. Son of Baro-Devel, the su- 
preme god of the gypsies. 

A la lettre. (Fr.) Word for word ; 
literally ; to a tittle. 

A lAm^ricaine. (Fr.) After the 
American fashion. 

A la mode. (Fr.) According to the 
custom ; in fashion. 

Alamo Massacre. During the Texan 
war of independence 140 Texans were 
besieged in a fort called the Alamo, 
near San Antonio, by two thousand 
Mexicans. Santa Anna finally stormed 
the place, and six Texans who survived 
the conflict were subsequently murdered 
after surrendering under a promise of 
protection. " Remember the Alamo ! " 
was ever after a thriUing Texan war- 

Alan Pairford. (Pseud.) John Kent, 
editor of the " Canadian Literary Mag- 
azine " about 1834 et seq. 

A I'Anglaise. (Fr.) After the En- 
glish fashion. 

A I'antique. (Fr.) According to the 
old fashion or way. 

A la Farisienne. (Fr.) After the 
Parisian fashion. 

A la port^e de tout le monde. (Fr.) 
Within reach of every one. 

Alaric Cottin. A satiric name con- 
ferred by Voltaire on Frederick the 
Great of Prussia, who was famed alike 
for his military conquests and for his 
dabbling in literature. The name has 
reference to Alaric the Visigoth, whose 
valiant deeds Frederick was supposed 
to have emulated, and to the Abbd Cot- 
tin, an obscure scribbler of the seven- 
teenth century. See Trissotin. 

Alastor. (Greek, "not to forget.") 
The evil genius of a house. Cicero 
says: "He meditated killing himself 

that he might become the Alastor of 
Augustus, whom he hated." Shelley 
has a poem entitled "Alastor; or, the 
Spirit of Solitude." 

Alb. Albany. 

Alba. (Pseud.) Alexin? B. White, 
an American writer. 

Albani, Madame. The professional 
name of Mrs. Ernest Gye, whose maiden 
name was Marie Emma Lajeunesse. 
The name "Albani" is derived from 
Albany, N. Y., the city where she made 
her dibut as a singer. 

Albanian Gates. A defile in the 
Caucasus, formerly closed on the north 
by a massive iron gate near the city of 

Albano. (Pseud.) Count Carl Au- 
gust Adlersparre, German poet and 

Albany, Albin, or Albainn. An 
appellation often used by the mediaeval 
chroniclers and romancers for the High- 
lands of Scotland. It may indeed be 
safely assumed that Albion, or Albany, 
was the original name of Britain among 
its Celtic inhabitants, — on account, it is 
supposed, of the gleaming whiteness of 
the south-coast cliffs, from Latin albus, 

Albany Beef. The flesh of the Hud- 
son River sturgeon is so nicknamed. 
It is a staple commodity of food among 
the population of the river towns. See 
Block Island Turkey. 

Albany Congress. A body which 
met at Albany in 1754 with the object 
of drawing up a plan of union for the 
Thirteen Colonies. 

Albany Controversy. In 1698 Hen- 
drick Van Rensselaer bought from the 
Schaghticoke Indians a tract of six 
square miles on the Hoosac River, and 
secured a patent therefor. This pur- 
chase interfered greatly with the growth 
of the city of Albany, N. Y., and Van 
Rensselaer refusing to sell, the dispute 
became a state affair. In 1699 the con- 
troversy was amicably settled, and he 
passed his patent over to the city. 

Albany Regency. A term given to 
the cliques, both Whig and Democratic, 
which, centred at Albany, ruled the 
politics of New York for many years, — 
the term " Albany Regency " applying 
to each, but more particularly to the 
Democratic factions from 1820-1854. 

Albert. (Pseud.) Rev. John Arm- 
strong, a Scottish poet (1771-1797). 



Albert J. Booth. (Pseud.) Cecil 
Burleigh, contributor to various period- 

Albert 'Welser. The stage-name of 
William P. Graw. 

Albertazzo. The hero of " Orlando 
Furioso," who married Alda, daughter 
of Otho, duke of Saxony. His sons 
were Hugh or Ugo and Fulke or Fulco. 
From this family springs the royal 
family of England. 

Albiazar, in Tasso's epic, "Jerusalem 
Delivered," was one of the leaders of 
the Arab host which joined the Egyp- 
tian armament against the Crusaders. 
" A chief in rapine, not in knighthood bred." 

Albion. See Albany, supra. 

Albion. The signature of George 
James Stephenson, M. A. (d. 1888), an 
English religious author and correspon- 
dent of the New York " Christian Ad- 
vocate.'' One of his most useful works 
is a volume of nearly seven hundred 
pages, entitled " The Methodist Hymn- 
Book, Illustrated with Biography, His- 
tory, Incident, and Anecdote." He also 
wrote " Memorials of the Wesley Fam- 
ily," "The Life and Work of Pastor 
C. H. Spurgeon to his Forty-third 
Birthday," " Hymns and Hymn- Writers 
of every Age and Nation," " The Meth- 
odist Hymn-Book and its Associations," 
"The History of City Road Chapel, 
London," " The Origin of Alphabetical 
Characters," and many others. 

Albion, New. See New Albion. 

Alcestis, in classic mythology a 
daughter of Pelias and wife to Admetus, 
to save whose life she died. She was 
brought back to the upper world by 

Alcibiades. (Pseud.) (i) James An- 
derson, editor of the " Bee " (1790), and 
author of numerous essays therein over 
the above signature. (2) Alfred Ten- 
nyson in sundry communications to 
"Punch," circa 1846. 

Alcibiades' Tables represented a 
god or goddess outwardly, and a Sile- 
nus, or deformed piper, within. Eras- 
mus has a curious dissertation on these 
tables, emblematic of falsehood and dis- 

Whoso wants virtue is compared to these 

False tables wrought by Alcibiades ; 

Which noted well of all were found t've bin 

Most fair without, but most deformed within. 
Wm. Browne, Britannia's Pastorals. 

les {g. v.). 

Another name for Hercu- 

Alcinous. In classic mythology a 
king of Drepane, or of Phasacia, who 
succored the Argonauts on their return 
from Colchis, and Ulysses when he was 

Alciphron'. (Pseud.) Rosina Doyle 
[Wheeler], Lady Lytton. 

Alco&ibas Nasier. The anagrara- 
matic pseudonym of Francois Rabelais, 
the French satirist (i495-iSS3)- 

Alcoran. Another name for the Ko- 
ran, the sacred scriptures of the Mo- 
hammedans, written by Mohammed. 

Alcyone. In classic mythology a 
daughter of /Eolus. When she heard 
of the death of her husband, Ceryx, by 
shipwreck, she cast herself into the 
sea, and was changed by the gods into 
a kingfisher. 

Aid. Alderman. 

Alderman. A cant term in England 
for a half-crown. An alderman, as a 
magistrate, may be termed half a king 
(or crown). A turkey is called an al- 
derman, both from its presence in alder- 
manic feasts and also because of its red 
and purple colors, which malce it a sort 
of poultry alderman. An "alderman in 
chains," by a similar effort of wit, is a 
turkey hung with sausages. 

Alderman Rooney. (Pseud.) D. O. 
C. Townley, an American litUraieur. 

Aldiboronte Phoscophornio. A 
nickname given by Sir Walter Scott to 
his schoolmate, printer, partner, and 
confidential friend, James Ballantyne, 
because of his habitually grave and 
somewhat pompous manner. 

Aldingar, Sir. The steward to Queen 
Eleanor, wife of Henry II. He im- 
peached her fidelity, and submitted to a 
combat to substantiate his charge ; but 
an angel in the shape of a child estab- 
lished the queen's innocence. 

Alecto. In classic myth one of the 
Furies {q.v.). Her head was entwined 
with snakes. 

Ale-draper. A tapster. Ale-drapery 
is the selling of ale, etc. 

No other occupation have I but to be an ale- 
draper. — H. Chettle. 

Aleka. Wife of Pangeo. Idols of 
the Oroungou tribes in Africa, the 
special protectors of kings and gov- 

Alere flammam. (Lat.) "To feed 
the flame." To nourish the love of 



Ale-Silver. A yearly tribute paid to 
the corporation of London as a license 
for selling ale. 

Ale-Stake. The pole set up before 
ale-houses by way of sign. A bush was 
very often fixed to its top. 

A garland had he set upon his head 
As great as It werin for an ale-stake. 


Alethea. (Pseud.) Thomas H. Baird 
in the Pittsburg "Commercial Journal" 
about 1 85 1. 

Ale-Wife. The landlady of an ale- 
house or ale-stand. 

Alex. Alexander. 

Alexander of Persia. Sandjar, one 
of the Seljuke sultans (fl. 1117-1158), 
renowned for his conquests. 

Alexander of the North. The so- 
briquet of Charles XII. of Sweden (fl. 
1682-1718), and which was conferred 
on account of his prowess in military 

Alexander the Coppersmith. A 
nickname applied to Hamilton by those 
who were dissatisfied with the copper 
cents coined in 1793 at his suggestion 
while Secretary of the Treasury. 

Alexander the Corrector. A title 
self-conferred on Alexander Cruden (fl. 
1 701-1770), author of the famous " Con- 
cordance," and who always carried with 
him a moistened sponge with which he 
erased every scurrilous scrawl which 
met his gaze. He petitioned Parlia- 
ment to appoint him " Corrector of the 

Alexandrian School. An academy 
of literature founded by Ptolemy, son 
of Lagos, and especially famous for its 
grammarians and mathematicians. Of 
its grammarians the most noted are 
Aristarch, Harpocration, and Eratos- 
thenes ; and of its mathematicians, Ptol- 
emy and Euclid. 

Alexandrine Age. The epoch 
323-640 A. D., during which Alexan- 
dria in Egypt was the metropolis of 

A I'extremit^. (Fr.) At the end; at 
the point of death ; at the last gasp ; 
without resources. 

Alf Alfred. 

Alfa Pease. The stage-name of Mrs. 
Charles E. Crouse. 

Alfader (Father of all). In Scandi- 
navian mythology the parent of the 
Asen, and the oldest and most revered 
of the Norse deities. 

Alfheim (home of the genii). In 
Norse mythology a celestial city inhab- 
ited by the elves and fairies. 

Alfred. (Pseud.) (i) Dr. Gj^rardin, 
author of some of the essays in Wirt's 
" Old Bachelor," 1812. (2) %6nville A. 
Sackett, a well-known Americ^ poet in 
the periodical press of New York and 
vicinity. (3) Samuel Adams wrote a 
communication to the " Boston Gazette," 
Oct. 2, 1769, over this signature. 

Alfred Ashton. (Pseud.) William 
Henry Forman. 

Alfred Ayres. (Pseud.) Dr. Thomas 
Embly Osmun, author of " The Ortho- 
epist," New York, 1880. 

Alfred Burton. (Pseud.) John Mit- 
ford, R.N. 

Alfred Coudreux. (Pseud.) Honord 
de Balzac in his sketches in " La Cari- 

Alfred Crowquill. (Pseud.) Alfred 
Henry Forrester, an English caricatu- 
rist, 1806-1872. 

Alfred Dubois. (Pseud.) James Stu- 
art Bowes, a London playwright. 

Alfred's Scholars. A number of 
learned men are grouped under this 
name, who flourished in the reign of 
Alfred the Great and were patronized 
by him. ' The chief were Grimbald, a 
Frenchman ; Asser, a Welshman ; Pleg- 
mund, Ethelstan, and Werwulf, three 
Mercian priests ; and Werfrith, bishop 
of Worcester. 

Al fresco. (Ital.) In the open air. 

Algernon Sidney. (Pseud.) Gideon 
Granger, an American lawyer and writer, 
1 767-1822. 

Alguazil. (Span.) A constable. 

Alias. (Lat.) Otherwise. 

Ali Baba. (Pseud.) Alberigh Mac- 
kaye, an Anglo-Indian author, 1849- 

Alibi. (Lat.) Elsewhere, not pres- 

Alice Atherton. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Willie Edouin, formerly Mary 
Alice Hogan. 

Alice Dunning. The stage-name of 
Mrs. William Lingard. 

Alice Eliot. (Pseud.) Sarah Orne 
Jewett, in " Country Byways," 1881. 

Alice Harrison. The stage-name of 
Alice Metz. 

Alice Irving Abbott. (Pseud.) Miss 
H. H. Burdick. 



Alice Ejng. (Pseud.) Mrs. Alice 
King Hamilton, an American miscella- 
neous writer. 

Alice Marriott. The stage-name of 
Mrs. R. Edgar. 

Alice May. The stage-name of Mrs. 
Lewis Raymond. 

Alice Oates. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Tracy Titus. 

Alice Flacide. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Charles E. Emmett. 

Alice Sherwood. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Charles A. Haslam. 

Alice Thorne. The stage-name of 
Mrs. James Craythorne. 

Alice Vane. The stage-name of Mrs. 
John Templeton. 

Alicon. In Mohammedan mythology 
the seventh or highest heaven. 

Alida. (Pseud.) Mrs. Catherine 
Stratton Ladd, in her contributions to 
various periodicals. 

Alieni temporis flores. (Lat.) Flow- 
ers of another or past time. 

Alifanfaron. Don Quixote attacked 
a flock of sheep, which he declared to 
be the army of the giant Alifanfaron. 
Ajax in a fit of madness fell on a flock of 
sheep, which he mistook for Grecians. 

Alilat. The name by which the 
Arabs adore Nature, which they repre- 
sent by a crescent moon. 

A rimproviste. (Fr.) Suddenly; 

Alio sub sole. (Lat.) Under an- 
other sun ; in another climate. 

Aliquid inane. (Lat.) An indescrib- 
able kind of silliness ; silly trifling. 

Alis volat propriis. (Lat.) She flies 
with her own wings. The motto of the 
State of Oregon. 

A ritalienne. (Fr.) In the Italian 

Aliud et idem. (Lat.) One and the 
same thing ; the same thing under dif- 
ferent aspects. 

Aliunde. (Lat.) From some other 
quarter or person. 

Al Kader. A particular night in the 
month Ramadan, when, the Arabs say, 
angels descend to earth, and Gabriel 
reveals to man the decrees of God. 

Alkali Desert. Wide stretches of 
land in Colorado and Nevada, the sur- 
face of the soil being covered with a 
deposit of alkali. 

Alia capella. (Ital.) In churchly 
style. (Mus.) 

Allah. The Mohammedan name for 
the true God. 

Alia militaire. In a military style. 

Allan Field. The stage-name as- 
sumed by Lester Wallack (d. 1888) dur- 
ing his early career in England. 

Allan Grant. (Pseud.) William Wil- 
son, for many years a writer for the 
American press. 

Alia Folacca. (Ital.) In the style 
of a Polish dance. (Mus.) 

Alia Husse. (Ital.) In the style of 
Russian music. (Mus.) 

Alia Scozzese. (Ital.) In the Scotch 
style. (Mus.) 

Alia Siciliana. (Ital.) In the style of 
the Sicilian shepherds' dance. (Mus.) 

Air attava. (Ital.) In the octave. 
An expression often met with in orches- 
tral scores, to indicate that one part is 
to play an octave above or below an- 
other. (Mus.) 

Alia zoppa. (Ital.) In a constrained 
and limping style. (Mus.) 

Allegremente. (Ital.) With quick- 
ness. (Mus.) 

Allegretto. (Ital.) Somewhat cheer- 
ful, but not so quick as allegro. (Mus.) 

Allegretto scherzando. (Ital.) Mod- 
erately playful and vivacious, (Mus.) 

Allegrezza. (Ital.) Joy. Con alle- 
grezza means joyfully, animatedly. 

Allegro. (Ital.) Quick, lively. A 
musical term implying a rapid and viva- 
cious movement, but which is often 
modified by the addition af other words, 
as: — / 

Allegro agitato. Qilick; with anx- 
iety and agitation. 

Allegro assai. Very quick. 

Allegro comodo. With a conve- 
nient degree of quickness. 

Allegro con brio. Quick, with bril- 

Allegro con moto. Quick, with 
more than the usual degree of move- 

Allegro con spirito. Quick, with 

Allegro furioso. Quick, with fury. 

Allegro molto or di molto. Very 

Allegro vivace. With vivacity. 



Allegro vivo. Quick, with unusual 

Allemande. (Fr.) A dance peculiar 
to Germany and Switzerland. 

Allen Grahame. (Pseud). George 
Arnold, comic poet and humorist. 

Allevato nella bambagio. (Ital.) 
Brought up too tenderly, or as an infant. 

Allez-vous en. (Fr.) " Go you away." 
Away with you. 

All-Hallow. A church feast on the 
first day of November, in honor of all 
saints ; also called All Saints' Day {q. v.). 

Air improvista. (Ital.) Extempora- 
neously; without premeditation. (Mus.) 

Air Inglese. In the English style. 

All is lost save Honor. It was 
from the imperial camp near Pavia that 
Francis the First, before leaving for 
Pizzighettone, wrote to his mother the 
memorable letter which, thanks to tra- 
dition, has become altered to the form 
of this sublime laconism : " Madame, 
tout est perdu fors I'honneur." The 
true expression is, " Madame, pour vous 
faire savoir comme se porte le reste 
de mon infortune, de toutes choses ne 
m'est demeur^ que I'honneur et la vie 
qui est sauv^e." — Martin, Histoire de 

AH' Italiana. In the Italian style. 

All Quiet along the Potomac. This 
phrase became proverbial during the 
fall of r86i and the beginning of 1862. 
The weather at that time seemed favor- 
able to a campaign, and McClellan's 
army, of about two hundred thousand 
men, was in excellent condition ; and yet 
no advance was undertaken. McClel- 
lan's policy at that period is sometimes 
referred to as a policy of "masterly 

All Saints' Day. The day following 
"Halloween," in old English All-Hal- 
lows, All-Hallowmas, or simply Hallow- 
mas, originally a festival of the Roman 
Catholic Church, introduced because of 
the impossibility of keeping a separate 
day for every saint. The festival of All 
Saints was first regularly instituted by 
Gregory IV. in 835, and appointed to be 
celebrated on November i. It was ad- 
mitted into England about 870. The 
choice of the day was doubtless deter- 
mined by the fact that November i, or 
rather the eve or night preceding it, was 
one of the four great festivals (Febru- 

ary I, May I, August i, and November 
i) of the heathen nations of the North ; 
for it was the policy of the Church to 
supplant heathen by Christian observ- 
ances. " In the South of Germany the 
old and venerable custom of adorning 
the graves in the burying-grounds on the 
first and second day of November with 
garlands and lamps is still kept up. It 
is an affecting festival, which the survi- 
vors prepare for their deceased relations 
and friends. On those days the whole 
population of the town assemble in the 
churchyard, and gaze with melancholy 
recollection, or joyful confidence in the 
future, on the adorned death-feast, and 
pray, while the priest, using the requi- 
site forms, draws from the holy well the 
sacred flood with which he is to sprinkle 
the graves in order to consecrate them. 
Death, then garlanded with flowers, be- 
comes a friendly teacher ; the lamps and 
tapers are images of the everlasting 
light ; and the passing from the joys of 
summer and autumn to the quiet Advent 
time involves a very peculiar prepara- 
tion. This festival is celebrated nowhere 
so beautifully as at Munich. On the 
morning of All Saints' Day the families 
greet each other over the resting-places 
of those they loved, arranging, adorning, 
and praying in faithful hope, or weeping 
in sad remembrance. There are but 
few signs of mourning to be seen. Light 
and life reign everywhere ; the loveliest 
flowers and plants bloom on the graves ; 
cypresses and weeping-willows wave and 
rustle in the breeze ; and if anything 
reminds us of the chilliness of death or 
the gloom that we dread, it is the life- 
less forms of the hired male and fe- 
male grave-watchers, who stand near the 
mounds to tend the lamps and flowers, 
mechanically repeating their rosary, 
contemplating sullenly and indifferently 
the imposing spectacle around them, 
and longing for the evening, when the 
reward which has been promised them 
is to be paid. In the evening these re- 
pugnant figures leave the garden, but 
they take away with them the flowers 
and lights, and the feast is at an end. 
The variegated lamps are hung up again 
in the rooms, and the flowers and plants 
are taken to the gardeners' hothouses, 
to the milliner's shop-counter, or to the 
boudoir of some lovely maiden." All 
Souls' Day customs on the Continent 
are not merely confined to visiting and 
adorning the graves of friends and rela- 
tives. In Belgium poor children erect 



rude altars before their cottage doors, 
duly decked with figures of the Madonna 
and candles, and stand patiently there 
all the evening begging the passers-by 
to give them money " to buy cakes for 
the poor souls in purgatory." Cakes 
and All Souls' Day are also inseparably 
connected in childish minds throughout 
the Tyrol, where the little ones are 
given sweet biscuits in the shapes of 
horses or hares, called "soul-pieces;" 
while in Bavaria they receive long cakes, 
pointed at each end, called Seelenspiize. 

All Saints' Summer. November i, 
Halloween, — equivalent to the Ameri- 
can "Indian Summer" {q. v.). 

All - the - Talents Administration. 
The cabinet of Lord Grenville, 1806, 
was so nicknamed because of the real 
or fancied ability of its members. It 
contained Lord Henry Petty, Lord Ers- 
kine, Charles James Fox, and Sir Charles 
Grey. Fox's death, Sept. 13, 1806, led 
to numerous changes. 

All we ask is to be let alone. This 
phrase occurred in the message of Jef- 
ferson Davis to the Confederate Con- 
gress in March, 1861. He referred to 
Northern preparations to oppose seces- 

Ally Sloper. (Pseud.) Charles H. 
Ross, an English humorist and author, 
(b. 1836.) 

Alma Calder. (Pseud.) Mrs. A. C. 
Johnston, author of " Miriam's Heri- 
tage " (1878). 

Almack's. A suite of assembly-rooms 
in King Street, London. They were 
built in 1765 by Almack, a tavern- 
keeper, and were hence called Almack's 
Rooms ; they were afterward known as 
Willis's Rooms, from the name of their 
subsequent proprietor. The name of 
Almack's is chiefly associated with the 
balls that were held there under the 
management of a committee of ladies 
of high rank, and has become synony- 
mous with aristocratic exclusiveness. 

Almain. A mediaeval English name 
for Germany. 
I have seen Almain's proud champions prance. 

Old Ballad. 
It is supposed that it was derived from 
Alemattm, the tribal designation of many 
ancient confederated peoples settled in 
the valley of the Main. 

Alma Mater. (Lat.) "A gentle or 
benign mother," — applied by students 
to the university at which they are or 
have been educated. 

Alma Murray. The stage-name of 
Mrs. A. W. Pinero. 

Alma Stuart Stanley. The stage- 
name of Mrs. Charles De Garmo. 

Almaviva. (Pseud.) (i) Clement Scott, 
an English dramatic critic. (2) Harry 
St. Maur, a contributor to the Chicago 
" News-Letter." 

Almighty Dollar. In this phrase, 
coined by Washington Irving, we have 
a personification of the supposed ol> 
ject of American worship. It is in- 
tended as a satire on the mad race for 
wealth that has at different times and 
in divers places characterized the Amer- 
ican people. 

The almighty dollar, that great object of uni- 
versal devotion throughout our land, seems to 
have no genuine devotees in these peculiar vil- 
lages. — The Creole Village. 

Almond-tree. Gray hairs. Ecclesi- 
astes xii. thus describes old age : — 

" In the day when the keepers of the house 
'the hands] shall tremble, and the strong men 
'the legs] shall bow themselves, and the grinders 
'the teeth] cease because they are few, and those 
:hat look out of the windows [the eyes] be darlc- 
ened, . . .land the almond tree shall flourish 
[gray hairs on a bald pate], and the grasshopper 
shall be a burden, and desire shall fail, . . . 
or ever the silver cord [the spinal marrow] be 
loosed, or the golden bowl [intellect] be broken, 
Or the pitcher be broken at the fountain [the 
pulse of the heart stopped]." 

Al Moshtari. The Arabian name of 
the planet Jupiter. 

A. L. O. B. "A Lady of England." 
(Pseud.) Miss Charlotte Tucker, Eng- 
lish writer of Sunday-school fiction 
(b. 1830). 

A I'ordinaire. (Fr.) In the ordi- 
nary manner. 

Alpha and Omega. The names of 
the first and last letters of the Greek 
alphabet. A, Q. These words occur in 
the Revelation of Saint John as a title 
of the Christ. They were also used 
by the early Christians as symbols of 
faith, and were engraved on tombs, or- 
naments, coins, etc. 

Alpheos. In classic myth a river-god 
who became enamoured of the nymph 
Arethusa. She fled from him, and mid- 
way in his pursuit he was changed into 
a river, and she into a fountain. 

Alphonse. The name given by the 
Parisians to those despicable fellows 
who subsist on the earnings of aban- 
doned women. 

Alpin. (Pseud.) William Wilson, for 
many years a writer for the press. 

Al pii. (Ital.) At most. 



Alp of Literature. The Bible has 
been so named. 

Alaatia. A former name of White- 
friars {q. v.), a district of the city of 
London, where, in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, criminals were permitted to find 
sanctuary. This immunity was abol- 
ished in 1696 or 1697. The locality is 
described in Scott's " Fortunes of Ni- 
gel." Shadwell's comedy, "The Squire 
of Alsatia," has for its scene this place. 
As regards the origin of this name, an- 
tiquarians hold that the frontier prov- 
ince of France, on the left bank of the 
Rhine, long a cause of contention, often 
the seat of war, and familiarly known 
to many British soldiers, suggested the 
application of the term "Alsatia" to the 
precinct of Whitefriars. 

Al seg. Ai segno. A musical sign 
signifying that the performer must re- 
turn to a similar sign in the course of 
the movement, and play from that place 
to the -worAJine. 

Al-Sirat. In the Mohammedan sys- 
tem the bridge over Hades, no wider 
than the edge of a sword, over which 
all who essay to enter heaven must pass. 

Alt. Altitude. 

Alter ego. (Lat.) "Another, or sec- 
ond I." A name conferred on Spanish 
viceroys when exercising royal power. 

Alter idem. (Lat.) "Another the 
same ; " another precisely similar. 

Alter ipse amicus. (Lat.) A friend 
is another self. 

Alternativo. (Ital.) Alternating; pro- 
ceeding alternately from one movement 
to another. (Mus.) 

Alternis vicibus. (Lat.) Alternately; 
in turn. 

Alterum tantum. (Lat.) As much 

Althaea's Brand. The Fates told 
Althaea that her son Meleager would 
live just as long as a log of wood then 
on the fire remained unconsumed. Al- 
thsea contrived to keep the log uncon- 
sumed for many years ; but when her 
son killed her two brothers, she threw 
it angrily into the fire, where it was 
quickly consumed, and Meleager ex- 
pired at the same time. 

The fatal brand AlthjEa bumed. 

Shakspeare, 2 Henry VI., act i, sc. i. 

Alton Riot. The disturbance known 
to American history by this name oc- 
curred in Alton, 111., on the night of Nov. 
7, 1837, and grew out of an attempt to 

destroy the printing-office of the " Ob- 
server," an Abolitionist sheet. The ed- 
itor. Rev. E. P. Lovejoy, was shot and 
killed, but the leaders of the mob were 

A. M. Anno tnundi. In the year of 
the world. 

A.M. Ante meridiem. Before noon; 

A M. Artium Magister. Master of 

Amadis of Gaul. The hero of a 
romance in prose, of the same title, 
originally written in Portuguese in four 
books, translated into Spanish by Mon- 
talvo, who added a fifth. Subsequent 
romancers added the exploits and ad- 
ventures of other knights, so as to swell 
the romance to fourteen books. The 
French version is much larger still, — 
one containing twenty-four books, and 
another running through seven volumes. 
The original author was Vasco de Lo- 
beira, of Oporto, who died in 1403. 

Amadis of Greece. A supplemental 
part of the romance called "Amadis of 
Gaul," added by Feliciano de Silva. 

A main arm^e. (Fr.) By force of 

Amalfian Code. An eleventh-century 
compilation of maritime laws collated 
by the merchants of Amalfi. 

Amalgamationists. During the anti- 
slavery struggle in the United States 
the pro-slavery men asserted that the 
Abolitionists and the Republicans were 
in favor of miscegenation between the 
whites and blacks, — a charge utterly 
baseless. . 

Amaltheea, Amalthsea's Horn. In 
classic mythology Amalthaea was the 
name of the goat on whose milk the in- 
fant Jove was fed, and one of whose 
horns he was said to have broken off. 
This horn he endowed with the power 
of becoming filled with whatever its pos- 
sessor might desire ; hence it was called 
the cornucopia, or horn of plenty. See 
Ammonian Horn. 

Amanda. The impersonation of love 
in Thomson's "Spring," the original of 
which was Miss Young, afterwards mar- 
ried to Admiral Campbell. 

Amanda. The pen-name of Miss 
Amanda E. Dennis. See Poet of Wi- 


Amanga. The Indian love-god. 

Amantium irae. (Lat.) The quar- 
rels of lovers. 



Amaryllis. A pastoral sweetheart. 
The name is borrowed from the pas- 
torals of Theocritus and Virgil. 

Am. Ass. Adv. Scl., or Am. Assn. 
Sci. American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. 

Amateur Casual. (Pseud.) James 
Greenwood in the " Pall Mall Gazette," 
London. He made a name in reporto- 
rial literature by passing a night in the 
" casual ward " of a London workhouse, 
among tramps and outcasts, and then 
detailing his experiences in print, signed 
as above. 

A masrimis ad minima. (Lat.) From 
the greatest to the least. 

Amazon. A horsewoman ; a fighting 
or masculine woman. The word means 
"without breasts." According to Gre- 
cian fable, there was a nation of women 
in Africa of a very warlike character. 
There were no men in the nation ; and 
if a boy was born, it was either killed 
or sent to his father, who lived in some 
neighboring state. The girls had their 
right breasts singed off, that they might 
the better draw the bow. 

Amb. Ambassador. 

Ambrose. (Pseud.) Rev. James Am- 
brose Wight, Bay City, Mich., in his let- 
ters to " The Evangelist." 

Ambrosia. In classic myth the food 
of the gods. See Nectar. 

Ame de boue. (Fr.) "A soul of 
mud." A debased creature. 

Amelia. A model of conjugal affec- 
tion in Fielding's novel of the same 
name. It is said that the character is 
intended for a portraiture of his own 

Amelia Somerville. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Frederick Runnels. 

Amen Corner. Before the Reforma- 
tion the clergy walked annually in pro- 
cession to St. Paul's Cathedral on Cor- 
pus Christi Day. They mustered at the 
upper end of Cheapside, and there com- 
menced to chant the Paternoster, which 
they continued through the whole length 
of the street, thence called Paternoster 
Row, pronouncing the Amen at the spot 
now called Amen Corner. Then com- 
mencing the Ave Maria, they turned 
down Ave Maria Lane. After crossing 
Ludgate Hill, they chanted the Credo in 
Creed Lane. Old Stow mentions Creed 
Lane, and adds that Amen Lane " is 
lately added thereto," from which it may 
be inferred that the processional chant- 

ing ended at that spot. Amen Lane no 
longer exists. 

Amende. (Fr.) Compensation. 

Amende honorable. (Fr.) A full 
apology for insult or injury. 

Amendment-Mongers. A name ap- 
plied to the Anti-Federalists. 

A mensa et tboro. (Lat.) "From 
table and bed." From bed and board, 
— a judicial separation of husband and 
wife short of divorce. 

Amer. American. 

Amer. Acad. American Academy. 

American Addison, The. Joseph 
Dennie (1768-1812). 

American Baden-Baden. Sharon 
Springs, a fashionable pleasure and 
health resort of New York, about sixty 
miles west by north of Albany. There 
are four springs, — chalybeate, magne- 
sia, white sulphur, and blue sulphur. 
Twenty miles in a southeasterly direc- 
tion is situated Howe's Cave, after the 
Mammoth Cave of Kentucky one of 
the most remarkable caverns known. 

American Blackstone. Chancellor 
James Kent, LL.D., was so named. 

American Cato. Samuel Adams was 
so named. 

American Christmas. See Thanks- 

American Cicero. See Cicero of 

American Fabius. George Wash- 
ington, whose military policy was sim- 
ilar to that of Fabius, the Roman gen- 
eral, who wearied Hannibal by marches 
and countermarches, and avoided a gen- 
eral action. See French Fabius. 

American Gibraltar. See Gibral- 
tar OF America. 

American Girl Abroad. (Pseud.) 
Miss Trafton, an American littirateur. 

American Party. More generally- 
known as Know-Nothings, which ap- 
peared in 1854. It was based on a 
widely spread secret society, and advo- 
cated twenty-one years' residence as a 
qualification for citizenship, and native- 
born citizens as office-holders. It swept 
the country like a tornado, carrying 
nearly every State. In 1888 another 
party arose bearing this name, and 
nominated General Curtis for the Presi- 

American Prodigy. A sobriquet 
bestowed on Sauvelle Lemoine, gov- 
ernor of Louisiana, 1699-1701, on ac- 
count of his mental attainments. 



American Rhine. The Hudson Riv- 
er, "unrivalled among American riv- 
ers for picturesque and magnificent 
scenery." Though destitute of the nu- 
merous architectural remains of by- 
gone ages that crowd with interest- 
ing reminiscences the banks of its Old 
World namesake, the Hudson is equally 
enriched by Nature, and is not without 
its share of legendary lore. 

American Sappho. Sarah Went- 
worth Appleton, American poet (1759- 
1846), was so named by Robert Treat 
Paine, Jr. 

American System. In the debates 
which re.sulted in the tariff law of 1824 
Henry Clay called his plan of protec- 
tive duties and internal improvements 
the "American System." The term is 
usually restricted, however, to denote 
the policy of protection to home indus- 
tries by means of duties on imports. 

American Titian. See Titian of 

Americans' Paradise. The city of 
Paris. American travellers congregate 
there, and it has been jocularly said 
that the good American hopes to go to 
Paris when he dies. 

Americanus. (Pseud.) Robert Baird, 
D.D., in his European correspondence 
in the New York " Commercial Adver- 

Americus. (Pseud.) Dr. Francis 
Lieber, German-American historian and 
political writer (1800-1872). 

Amicus. (Pseud.) Charles Wildbore 
in "The Ladies' Diary." 

Amicus curiae. (Lat.) A friend of 
the court. 

Amicus Curiae. One of the pen- 
names attributed to Junius {q.v.). 

Amicus humani generis. (Lat.) A 
friend of the human race. 

Ami du peuple. (Fr.) Friend of the 

Amiel. An anagrammatic rendering 
of the name Eliam, "friend of God," 
and conferred on Sir Edward Seymour 
by Dryden in his satire, " Absalom and 
Achitophel." Amiel, or Ammiel, is 
called Eliam in 2 Sam. xi. 3. 

Aminadab. A Quaker. The Scrip- 
ture name has a double m, but in old 
comedies, where the character repre- 
sents a Quaker, the name has gener- 
ally only one. " Obadiah " is used also 
to signify a Quaker, and "Rachel" a 
Quakeress. I 

Amistad Case, The. "In June, 1839, 
the schooner ' V Amistad ' sailed from 
Havana for Principe with a number 
of slaves that had been kidnapped in 
Africa. The slaves overpowered the 
whites, and killed all but two. These 
white men steered the vessel northward 
instead of to Africa as directed, and 
soon the vessel was seized and taken 
into New London, Conn., by Lieuten- 
ant Gedney, of the Uiiited States brig 
'Washington.' The Spanish minister 
requested the delivery of the slaves, to 
be taken to Cuba for trial. President 
Van Buren was desirous of granting 
this request as a matter of comity, but 
the Anti-Slavery Society procured coun- 
sel, and the District Court of the United 
States decided that even by the Span- 
ish laws the slave trade was illegal, and 
the negroes were free men. The Cir- 
cuit Court affirmed this decision, and so, 
in March, 1841, did the Supreme Court, 
where John Quincy Adams devoted him- 
self to the cause of the negroes without 
remuneration. The negroes were sent 
back to Africa in an American vessel." 
— Brown and Strauss. 

A. M. M. Amalgama. Amalgama- 

Ammon. An Ethiopian or Libyan 
god who has been identified with the 
Greek Zeus. 

Ammonian Horn. The cornucopia. 
Ammon, king of Libya, gave to his mis- 
tress, Amalthjea, mother of Bacchus, a 
tract of land resembling a ram's horn in 
shape, and hence called the "Ammo- 
nian horn" from the giver, the " Amal- 
thaean horn" from the receiver, and 
the " Hesperian horn " from its locality. 
Amalthasa also personifies fertility. 

Amnesty, General. In May, 1865, 
a proclamation of pardon to the great 
mass of Southerners recently in arms 
against the United States was issued 
by President Johnson. Later, the pol- 
icy of general amnesty was advocated 
by the best minds in and out of Con- 
gress, and finally prevailed in the vari- 
ous Reconstruction Acts. 

Among the Gods. This expression 
had its origin in the fact that the ceil- 
ing of Drury Lane Theatre was formerly 
painted in imitation of a blue sky and 
fleeting clouds, among which great num- 
bers of Cupids were disporting them- 
selves. As the ceiling extended over 
the gallery, its occupants were said to 
be "among the gods." 



Amoret. A lady brought up by Ve- 
nus in the Court of Love, in Spenser's 
"Faerie Queene." "She is the type of 
female loveliness, — young, handsome, 
gay, witty, and good ; soft as a rose, 
sweet as a violet, chaste as a lily, gen- 
tle as a dove, loving everybody, and by 
all beloved." She becomes the loving, 
tender wife of Sir Scudamore. Timias 
finds her in the arms of Corflambo (sen- 
sual passion), combats the monster un- 
successfully, but wounds the lady. 

Amor nummi. (Lat.) Love of money. 

AmoroBO, Amorevole, or Con 
amore. (Ital.) ASectionately, tenderly. 

Amorous, The. Philippe L of France 
(fl. 1061-1108). So named because he 
put away Berthe, his wife, in order to 
marry Bertrade, who was already wed- 
ded to Foulgues, Comte d'Anjou. 

Amor patriae (Lat.) Love of na- 
tive country. 

Amour-propre. (Fr.) " Self-love.'' 

Amphibious Regiment. The 21st 
Regiment — afterward the 14th — in the 
Revolutionary War, — one of the best 
and bravest in the Continental army, 
composed almost entirely of fishermen ; 
whence its nickname. 

Amphilogist. (Pseud.) Robert C. 
Sands in the New York " Commercial 

Amphiou. In classic mythology a 
son of Jupiter and Antiope, who built 
a wall around Thebes by the music of 
his lyre. It is said that when he played, 
the stones moved of their own accord, 
and fitted themselves together to form 
the rampart. 

Ampbitrite. Wife of Neptune {q. v.), 
goddess of the sea, and mother of Tri- 
ton {g. v.). 

Amptarysian Prophetes3. Another 
name for the Cunicean sibyl. See Sibyl. 
_ Amri. Heneage Finch, Earl of Not- 
tingham and Lord Chancellor, is sat- 
irized under this name in Dryden's 
"Absalom and Achitophel." 

Amrita. " Immortal." In Hindu my- 
thology the elixir of immortality, made 
by churning the milk-sea. Sir William 
Jones speaks of an apple so called be- 
cause it bestows immortality on those 
who partake of it. 

Amsanctna. A fabulous Italian lake, 
said to communicate with the infernal 

Amt. Amount. 

A multo fortiori. (Lat.) On much 
stronger grounds. 

Amyclsean Brothers. A title of Cas- 
tor and Pollux, who first saw the light 
at Amyclae. 

Amyclaean Silence. "The inhab- 
itants of Amyclse were so often alarmed 
by false rumors of the approach of the 
Spartans that they made a decree that 
no one should ever again mention the 
matter. When the Spartans did actu- 
ally come against the town, no one durst 
speak of it, and the place was captured." 
— Brewer. 

Amy Ames. The stage-name of Mrs. 
Augustus Hennessy. 

Amy Iiothrop. (Pseud.) Miss Anna 
B. Warner, an American writer (b. 1825), 
sister of Elizabeth Warner. 

Amy Roselle. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Arthur Dacre. 

Amy Steinberg. The stage-name 
of Mrs. John Douglas. 

An. Anno. In the year. 

An. or Ans. Answer. 

Anabaptists. "Twice baptized." A 
nickname of the Baptists, who are so 
called because, in the first instance, 
they had been baptized in infancy, and 
were again baptized, on a confession 
of faith, in adult age. Of course, now- 
a-days there is no " infant " baptism 
among Baptists. 

An. A.C. Anno ante Christum. In 
the year before Christ. 

Anacharsis, or Anacharsis among 
the Scythians. A wise man among 
fools ; " good out of Nazareth." The 
opposite proverb is " Saul among the 
prophets," i. e., a fool among wise men. 
Anacharsis was a Scythian by birth, 
and the Scythians were proverbial for 
their uncultivated state and great igno- 

Anacharsis Clootz. A self-conferred 
title of Baron Jean-Baptiste Clootz (fl. 
1755-1794)1 an enthusiast who adopted 
and preached the doctrines of the 
French Revolution. He also dubbed him- 
self " The Orator of the Human Race." 

Anacreon Moore. Thomas Moore, 
the poet (fl. 1779-1852), so named be- 
cause his poems resembled those of 
Anacreon, the Greek singer of wine 
and love. 

Anacreon of France. Pontus de 
Thiard (fl. 1521-1605), one of the 
"French Pleiads." 



Anacreon of Painters. Francesco 
Albano (fl. 1 578-1660), a noted painter 
of female loveliness. 

Anacreon of Persia. Mohammed 
Hafiz (fl. in the fourteenth century). 

Anacreon of Sicily. Giovanni Meli 
(fl. 1740-1815). 

Anacreon of the Guillotine. Ber- 
trand Barfere de Vieuzac, the president 
of the National Convention (fl. 1755- 
1841), thus nicknamed on account of 
the florid, jesting tone he adopted to- 
ward the victims of the popular fury. 

Anacreon of the Temple. A sobri- 
quet conferred on Guillaume Amfrye 
(fl. 1 638-1 720), Ahh6 de Chaulieu. He 
was also called the " Tom Moore of 

Anacreon of the Twelfth Century. 
A sobriquet of Walter Mapes (fl. 1150- 
1 196), a famous poet. He was also nick- 
named " The Jovial Toper," because he 
wrote many drinking songs. 

Anagrams. The construction of an- 
agrams is at once the most easy and 
the most entertaining form of word- 
jugglery, and for these reasons per- 
haps has been most widely indulged in, 
rising at times to the dignity of a popu- 
lar craze. The passion for anagramma- 
tizing proper names reached its height 
in the sixteenth and seventeenth centu- 
ries, when it was a fashionable amuse- 
ment of the witty and learned. At court 
it became a mania ; the little persons 
flattered the great ones by inventing 
complimentary anagrams for them. In 
the reign of Louis XIII. we find men- 
tion of Thomas Billon, who enjoyed a 
pension of 1,200 livres as anagrammatist 
to the king. The term " anagram " in its 
proper sense means the letters of one 
or several words written backward, be- 
ing derived from two Greek words, — 
dvi, "backward," and ypdfifia, "letter;" 
but generally it denotes simply a trans- 
position of the letters of a word or sen- 
tence so that a new word or sentence 
is formed, of which the following are 
simple examples 


Democrat! cal 
Gallantries . 
Lawyers . . 
Misanthrope . 
Monarch . . 
Old England . 
Punishment . 
Presbyterian . 
Penitentiary . 
Radical reform 

( Moonstarers. 
( No more stars. 
Comical trade. 
All great sins. 
Sly ware. 
Spare him not. 
March on. 
Golden land. 
Nine thumps. 
Best in prayer. 
Nay, I repent it. 
Rare mad frolic. 

Revolution . 
Telegraph . . 
The calceolaria 
Geranium . . 
Heliotrope . 
The nightingale 
The turtle-dove 
Congregationalist . 
Crocodile . 
Impatient . 

To love ruin. 
Great help. 
Eat coal, Charlie. 
Ear in mug. 
Hit or elope. 
High gale in tent. 
Eve, let truth do. 
Got scant religion. 
Cool'd rice. 
Tim in a pet. 
Queer as mad. 
Into my arm. 
Made moral. 
Mind his map. 
1 hire parson. 
Partial men. 
There we sat. 

Some of the foregoing transpositions 
are very apt. For a perfect anagram no 
new letter should be interpolated and 
no letter dropped ; and some applica- 
bility to the person or subject involved, 
either complimentary or satirical, an al- 
lusion to an event, or a hit at some 
personal trait, is always desirable. The 
letters / and % and 1/ and V, are inter- 
changeable, as was formerly the case in 
writing and printing. Here is a batch 
of more or less clever personal ana- 
grams : — 

Marie Antoinette : Tear it, men ; I atone. 

Selina, Countess of Huntingdon : See, sound 
faith clings to no nun. 

James Watt : Walt, steam. 

Lord Palmerston : So droll, pert man. 

William Ewart Gladstone : A man to wield 
great wills. 

Lfon Gambetta : Able man to get. 

Alfred Tennyson, Poet Laureate : Neat sonnet 
or deep tearful lay. 

Anagrams are of very ancient origin. 
"The Cabalists were professed anagram- 
matists ; they pretended to discover oc- 
cult qualities in proper names, — an Ori- 
ental practice adopted by the Greeks. 
Thus, the Hebrew characters for the 
name " Noah " form bv transposition the 
Hebrew word " grace,'" and in like man- 
ner the name " Messiah " becomes " He 
shall rejoice." Among the Romans two 
kinds of anagrams were in use, — one 
formed as in Roma : amor ; Corfius ; 
forcus; and the other by merely di- 
viding the word selected into several 
parts, the god Terminus becoming ter 
minus, and sustineamus being sus tinea 

Two classic anagrams have come 
down to us from Lycophron, who lived 
B. C. 280, — one on Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
and the other on his queen, Arsinoe : 

XlroXejiioios — &irh fiiXiTos : Of honey. 

'Xpaivbti — "Hpas tov : Juno's violet. 

Another ancient anagram is formed 
of the question put by Pilate to the 



Saviour, out of which was evolved its 
own answer. Pilate asked, Quid est Ve- 
ritas f—'^WhaX is truth?" The ana- 
grammatic reply is, Vir gut adest J 
" The man who stands before you ! " 

Before leaving the subject of personal 
anagrams, we may not omit several on 
Napoleon I. and some of his greatest 
antagonists. Probably the former was 
the subject of more lampoons of this 
sort than any other man of ancient or 
modern times. Here are a few of them, 
— and it should be premised that they 
were mostly of English origin. When he 
ended the French Revolution with the 
consulate, the words Revolution Fran- 
qaise were transposed, forming, Veto ! 
un Corse lafinira. But when the arch- 
conqueror was forced to yield his throne 
to Louis XVIII., the letters were ar- 
ranged to read. La France veut son 
roi. On the return from Elba the fol- 
lowing imperfect but appropriate ana- 
gram was circulated : " Napoleon Bona- 
parte ! — 1^0, 5})p%ar >]St at Eilba ! " as 
also, " Napoleon Bonaparte ! — Bona 
rapta leno pon&: Rascal, yield up your 
stolen possessions ! '/ 

On Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wel- 
lington, the Frenchman's great foe, this 
was made : " Let well-foiled Gaul se- 
cure thy renown." The naval hero, Ho- 
ratio Nelson, has two, — "Lo ! nation's 
hero ; " and Honor est a Nilo : " There 
is honor from the Nile," referring to 
Nelson's celebrated victory over the 
French fleet off Alexandria. 

An anagram on the occasion of the 
death of Princess Charlotte, daughter 
of George IV., is also worthy of record : 
" Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales : 
P. C, her august race is lost ! O fatal 
news ! " In the " Curiosities of Litera- 
ture," compiled by the elder Disraeli, 
there are several most amusing ana- 
grams, and the author had a thorough 
appreciation of the points of a good one. 
It is to be hoped that this trait was 
transmitted to his descendant, the Earl 
of Beaconsfield, so that the ingenuity 
which, after the stinging defeat of 1880, 
converted his title into the phrase, 
" Self-fooled ; can he bear it ? " was 
duly appreciated. 

The virtue attaching to an anagram in 
the sight of the superstitious is well ex- 
emplified in the case of Charles James 
Stuart, the Pretender. The loyal Scotch 
squandered blood and treasure in his 
behalf because of their faith in the pro- 
phetic significance of two anagrams 

on his name, — the first being "Charies 
James Stuart : He asserts a true claim;" 
the second, "James Stuart : A just mas- 
ter." But no more appropriate or beau- 
tiful anagram was ever devised th^n that 
op Flprence. Nightingale : " Flit' on, 
chefi'r'ing'ahfel ! " — worthy, as has been 
said, of being chiselled on her tomb, in 
letters of stone, as her epitaph. 

Auak of Publishers. John Murray 
(i778-i843)was so called by Lord Byron. 

Anal. Analysis. 

Anarchy Poles. A derisive name for 

Anastasius Griin. (Pseud.) Anton 
Alexander von Auersperg, the German 
poet (b. i8odi). 

Anat. Anatomy. 

Anc. Ancient; anciently. 

Anoseus. In classic mythology a 
son of Neptune, who, having set down 
a flagon of wine untasted, that he 
might pursue a wild boar, was slain by 
the beast ; whence arose the proverb, 
"There 's many a slip between the cup 
and the lip." 

Anchor. (Pseud.) J. Watts De Peys- 
ter, American antiquarian author (1821- 

Aucienne noblesse. (Fr.) "The old 
nobility," — that is, before the French 

Ancien regime. (Fr.) An antiquated 
system of government. This phrase, in 
the French Revolution, meant the mo- 
narchical form of government, or the 
system of government, with all its evils, 
which existed prior to that great change. 

Ancient Mariner of the Wabash. 
A name applied to Richard -W. Thomp- 
son, of Indiana, Secretary of the Navy 
in the Hayes cabinet (b. 1809). 

Ancile. The Palladium of Rome. It 
was the sacred buckler which Numa said 
fell from heaven. 

And. Andrew. 

Andalusia, Prying-pan of. See Fry- 
ing-pan OF Andalusia. 

Andante. (Ital.) A musical term im- 
plying a movement somewhat slow and 
sedate, but in a gentle and soothing 
style. This term is often modified, as 
to time and style, by the addition of 
other words, as : — 

Andante affetuoso. Slow, but pa- 

Andante con moto. Slow, but with 



Andante grazioso. Slowly and grace- 

Andante maestoso. Slowly and ma- 

Andante ma non troppo e con tris- 
tezza. Not too slow, but with pathos. 

Andante non troppo. Slowly, but 
not too much so. 

Andante pastorale. Slowly, with pas- 
toral simplicity. 

Andantino. (Ital.) Somewhat slower 
than Andante. (Mus.) 

Andantino sostenute e simplici- 
mento, il canto an poco piii forte. 
(Ital.) In a sustained and simple style, 
with the melody somewhat louder than 
the other notes. (Mus.) 

Andare stretto. (Ital.) " To go in 
a narrow line." To go about anything 
in a miserly manner. 

Andrea Ferrara. Another name for 
a sword or rapier, after a famous maker 
of these weapons. 

Andrew Fhilopater. (Pseud.) Robert 
Parsons, an English Jesuit (1546-1610). 

Andromache. In classic mythology 
the most bewitching female character 
in Homer's Iliad. She was the daugh- 
ter of Eetion and the loving wife of 
Hector, to whom she bore Astyanax. 

Andromeda. In classic mythology 
a daughter of Cepheus, king of Ethiopia, 
and of Cassiopeia. Her mother having 
boasted that her beauty equalled that 
of the Nereids, Andromeda was deliv- 
ered to a sea-monster, but was dis- 
covered by Perseus, who rescued and 
married her. 

Anfriao. (Pseud.) Manuel Maria de 
Navarrete,aMexican author (1768-1809). 

Angel. In theatrical slang "an an- 

tel " is the nickname for an unseen 
nancial backer. 

Ajigel. This was the name of an 
ancient English coin, originally of the 
value of 6s. %d. ; but for a long period 
its value was los. The coin was so 
called from its obverse bearing the fig- 
ure of the Archangel Michael over- 
coming the dragon. An old verse in 
which its name appears is a very con- 
venient " ready reckoner." It runs thus: 
"Compute but the pence 

Of one day's expense ; 

So many pounds, angels, groats, and pence 

Are spent in one whole year's circumference." 

So that if a penny a day be spent, the 
amount at the end of the year will be 
equal to 'one pound, one angel, one groat. 

and one penny; or £1 los. ^d. Two- 
pence a day is equal to two pounds, two 
angels, two groats, and two pennies, or 
;£3 lod.; and so on. 

Angel-Beast. A favorite round-game 
of cards, which enables gentlemen to let 
the ladies win small stakes. Five cards 
are dealt to each player, and three heaps 
formed, — one for the king, one for play, 
and the third for Triolet. The name of 
the game was La BUe (beast), and an 
angel was the stake. 

Angel Gabriel Riots. Disturbances 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., caused by the street 
preaching of a lunatic who called him- 
self the angel Gabriel. They were put 
down by the Fourteenth Regiment, com- 
manded by Gen. Jesse C. Smith. 

Angelical Stone. The speculum of 
Dr. Dee. He asserted that it was given 
him by the angels Raphael and Gabriel. 
It passed into the possession of the Earl 
of Peterborough, thence to Lady Betty 
Germaine, by whom it was given to the 
Duke of Argyle, whose son presented 
it to Horace Walpole. It was sold in 
1842 at the dispersion of the curiosities 
of Strawberry Hill. 

Angelic Doctor. A sobriquet con- 
ferred on Thomas Aquinas, the learned 
Schoolman, because he debated the ques- 
tion, " How many angels can dance on 
the point of a needle ?" 

Angelic Hymn. Another name for 
the canticle otherwise known as the 
Gloria in excelsis, — so called because 
the opening lines were sung by the 
celestial host that visited the shepherds 
on the plains of Bethlehem. 

Angelici. Certain heretics of the sec- 
ond century who advocated the worship 
of angels. 

Angelites. A branch of the Sabel- 
lian heretics ; so called from Angelius, 
in Alexandria, where they used to meet. 

Angel of the Schools. Thomas 
Aquinas, the most famous metaphysi- 
cian of the Middle Ages. 

Angels' Visits. Norris of Bemerton 
(1657-1711) wrote of those joys which 
" Soonest take their flight 
Are the most exquisite and strong, — 
Like angels' visits, short and bright." 
Robert Blair, in 1743, wrote in his poem 
called the " Grave " : — 

" In visits 

Like those of angels, short and far between." 
Campbell, in 1 799, appropriating the sim- 
ile, but without improving it, wrote : — 

" Like angels' visits, few and far between." 



Anglic6. (Lat.) In English. 
Anglo-American. (Pseud.) SirBren- 
ton Halliburton, who contributed some 
articles on the War of 1812 to the Hal- 
ifax "Recorder." 

Anglomania. Generally applied to 
a French or German imitation of the 
manners, customs, etc., of the English. 
It prevailed in France some time be- 
fore the First Revolution, and was often 
extremely ridiculous. 

Angry, The. Christian II., king of 
Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, was so 
named because of his fiery temper (b. 
1 513, d. I5S9). 
Ang.-Sax. Anglo-Saxon. 
Anguillam Cauda tenes. (Lat.) "You 
hold an eel by the tail." You have to 
deal with an active and slippery antag- 

Anguia in herba. (Lat.) " A snake 
in the grass." A lurking danger. 

Anguvradel. In Scandinavian myth- 
ology the sword of Frithiof, engraved 
with runes which blazed in war-time, 
but only gleamed with a pale light in 
time of peace. 

Aniles fabul». (Lat.) Old wives' 

Animal implume bipes. (Lat.) A 
two-legged animal without feathers, — 
Plato's definition of man. 

Animals, Symbolism of. The ant, 
frugality and prevision ; ape, unclean- 
ness ; ass, stupidity ; bantam cock, 
pluckiness, priggishness ; bat, blindness ; 
bear, ill-temper, uncouthness : bee, in- 
dustry ; beetle, blindness ; bull, straight- 
forwardness ; bulldog, pertinacity ; but- 
terfly, sportiveness, living in pleasure ; 
cat, slyness, deceit; calf, lumpishness; 
cicada, gift of poetry; cock, vigilance, 
overbearing insolence ; crow, longevity ; 
crocodile, hypocrisy ; cuckoo, cuckol- 
dom; dog, fidehty, dirty habits; dove, 
innocence, harmlessness ; duck, canard ; 
eagle, majesty, inspiration ; elephant, 
sagacity, ponderosity; fly, feebleness, 
insignificance ; fox, cunning, artifice ; 
■ frog and toad, inspiration ; goat, lasciv- 
iousness; goose, conceit, folly; gull, 
gullibility ; grasshopper, old age ; hare, 
timidity; hawk, penetration; nen, ma- 
ternal care ; horse, speed, grace ; jack- 
daw, vain assumption, empty conceit ; 
jay, senseless clatter; kitten, playful- 
ness; lamb, innocence, sacrifice; lark, 
cheerfulness ; lion, noble courage ; lynx, 
suspicious vigilance ; magpie, garrulity ; 

mole.obtuseness; monkey, trrcks; mule, 
obstinacy; nightingale, forlornness ; os- 
trich, stupidity; ox, patience, strength; 
owl, wisdom; parrot, mocking verbosity; 
peacock, pride ; pigeon, cowardice ; pig, 
obstinacy, dirtiness ; puppjr, empty- 
headed conceit ; rabbit, timidity ; raven, 
ill luck; robin redbreast, confiding 
trust ; serpent, wisdom ; sheep, silliness, 
timidity ; sparrow, litigiousness ; spider, 
wiliness ; stag, cuckoTdom ; swallow, a 
sunshine friend; swan, grace; swine, 
filthiness, greed; tiger, ferocity; tor- 
toise, chastity; turkey cock, ofiicial 
insolence ; turtle-dove, conjugal fidelity ; 
vulture, rapine ; wolf, cruelty. 

Animia opibusque paratL (Lat.) 
Ever ready with our lives and fortunes. 
Animo et fide. (Lat.) With courage 
and faith. 

Animo facto. (Lat.) Really and 

Animo non astutia. (Lat.) By cour- 
age, not by craft. 

Animus furandi, (Lat.) Felonious 

Anita Alameda. The stage-name of 
Annie E. Gleason. 
Ann. Annates. Annals. 
Annabel, in Dryden's satire of " Ab- 
salom and Achitophel," is designed for 
the Duchess of Monmouth. Her mai- 
den name and title were Anne Scott, 
Countess of Buccleuch, — the richest 
heiress in Europe. The duke was faith- 
less to her, and after his death the widow, 
still handsome, married again. 

Anna Holyoke. (Pseud.) Mrs. A. 
H. C. Howard in "The Household," 
published at Brattleboro, Vt. 

Anna Katherine Green. (Pseud.) 
Mrs. Rohlfs, an American writer of 
fiction (b. 1846). 

Anna Matilda. (Pseud.) Mrs. Hes- 
ter Lynch (Salusbury) Piozzi, an English 
novelist (i 740-1 821). 

Anne Frances Sandall. (Pseud.) 
Mrs. Mary Robinson, an English poet 
and actress (1758-1800). 

Anne Hathaway. (Pseud.) Mrs. 
W. A. Ingham, in the Cleveland " Her- 

Annie Boudinot. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Joseph Sendelbach. 

Annie Boyd. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Harry Morris. 

Annie Carroll. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Edward Snow. 



Aunie Edmonstone. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Frederick Warde. 

Annie Helen Blancke. The stage- 
name of Mrs. James Neill. 

Annie Mack. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Berlein. 

Annie Melvin. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Samuel Lucas. 

Annie Myrtle, 
nie M. Chester. 

(Pseud.) Miss An- 

Annie Pixley. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Robert Fulford. 

Annie Russell. The stage-name of 
Mrs. G. W. Presbrey. 

Annie Shindle. The stage-name of 
Mrs. L. W. Tupper. 

Annie Suits. The stage-name of Mrs. 
Henry Maddock. 

Annie Sutherland. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Richard M. Carroll, Jr. 

Annie Ward Tiffany. The stage- 
name of Mrs. Charles H. Green. 

Annie West. (Pseud.) Mrs. Annie 
[Adams] Fields. 

Anniversary Day, or May Walk. 
An annual festival of the Sunday- 
schools of Brooklyn and New York, 
consisting of singmg, feasting, and • a 
street parade. 

Ann Jane. (Pseud.) Mrs. Ann 
Jane Morgan. ' 

Anno setatis suae. (Lat.) In the 
year of his or her age. 

Anno Domini (Lat.) In the year 
of our Lord. 

Anno lucis. (Lat.) In the year of 

Anno mundi. (Lat.) In the year of 
the world. 

Annot Lyle. (Pseud.) Mrs. A. L. 
Saxon, in the Philadelphia " Courier." 

Anno urbis conditse. (Lat.) In the 
year of founding the city, namely, 
Rome, B.C. 753. 

Annnit coeptis novus ordo sse- 
culorum. (Lat.) "The new order of 
the ages smiles on our undertakings," — 
the motto on the U. S. mail-cars. 

Annunciation Day. The 25th of 
March (also called Lady Day), on which 
the angel announced to Maty that she 
was to become the mother of the Mes- 

Annus mlrabilis. (Lat.) "A won- 
derful year." A year of wonders. See 
Year of Wonders. 

Anobium Fertinaz. (Pseud.) Wil- 
liam Hand Browne, in " The Nation," 
New York, 1883. 

Anomceans. A fourth-century sect 
who held that the nature of the Son is 
wholly unlike that of the Father. The 
word means literally " Unlikists." 

Anon. Anonymous. 

Anonyma. A lady of the demi- 
monde. See Incognita. 

Another County heard from. Dur- 
ing the excitement incident to the Pres- 
idential campaign of 1876 this phrase 
gained currency. The returns were very 
slowly received from some of the doubt- 
ful States, especially in Florida, and 
each addition to the uncompleted vote 
was hailed as above. 

Ans. Answer. 

Ansarian. The Moslems of Medina 
were called Ansarians (Auxiliaries) by 
Mahomet, because they received him 
and took his part when he was driven 
from house and home by the Koreish- 

Anselmus. (Pseud.) Samuel Wil- 
loughby Duffield, American clergyman 
(1843-1887), in " The Evangelist." 

Ansted Hope. (Pseud.) Miss Bur- 
dett in the " Family Herald," London. 

Ant. or Antiq. Antiquities. 

Antaeus. In classic mythology the 
son of Neptune and of Terra. He 
was a giant of fabulous powers, whose 
strength remained unimpaired so long 
as he maintained contact with his mother 
(Earth). Hercules discovered the se- 
cret or his strength, raised him from the 
ground, and crushed him in mid-air. 

Ante barbam doces senes. (Lat.) 
You teach old persons before you have 
a beard. 

Ante bellum. (Lat.) Before the 

Ante luoem. (Lat.) Before light. 

Ante meridiem. (Lat.) Before noon. 

Anteros. In classic mythology the 
deity or power who opposes Eros, or. 
Love, and represented as perpetually 
warring against him. 

Anth. Anthony. 

Anthony Absolute, Sir. A warm- 
hearted, testy, overbearing country 
squire in Sheridan's play of the 
" Rivals." 

Anthony Grey. (Pseud.) Henry Carl 
Schiller, an English writer (b. 1815). 



Anthony Harmer. (Pseud.) Rev. 
Henry Wharton, an English antiquary 

Anthony Pig. A pet pig ; the small- 
est of a litter. Saint Anthony was origi- 
nally a swineherd, and became the pa- 
tron saint of that class. 

Anthony Poplar. The pen-name 
used by the editors of the " Dublin Uni- 
versity Magazine." 

Anthony's Fire, St. Another name 
for erysipelas, — so called because of the 
tradition that those who invoked the 
aid of Saint Anthony during the pestilen- 
tial erysipelas which prevailed in 1089 
invariably recovered. 

Anthony's Nose, (i) A popular name 
for the extremity of a hill called the 
Klips (i. e., rock, or cliii), on the right 
bank of the Mohawk, in Montgomery 
County, N. Y. It resembles a nose, 
and is three or four hundred feet long. 
(2) A bold promontory on the east bank 
of the Hudson River, projecting from 
the south side of Breakneck Hill, at the 
northerly entrance to the Highlands, 
fifty-seven miles from New York city. 

Anthroposophus. The nickname of 
Dr. Vaughan, rector of St. Bride's, in 
Bedfordshire, — so called from his " An- 
throposophia Teomagica," to show the 
condition of man after death. 

Anti-Belial. One of the pen-names 
attributed to Junius {q. v.). 

Antichrist, or the Man of Sin, ex- 
pected by some to precede the second 
coming of Christ. Saint John so calls 
every one who denies the incarnation 
of the Son of God. 

Anti-Erastian Party. Those who 
wish the church to have the power of 
punishing ecclesiastical offenders. 

Anti-Federalist Party. This party 
arose in the United States during the 
discussion of the ratification of the Con- 
stitution. Its principles were based on 
opposition to the centralization of power 
in the general Government. It was also 
known as the Republican party ; and 
this name Mr. Jefferson, its greatest 
leader, was anxious to retain. But its 
members became known as Democrats, 
and the other titles were dropped. Its 
first success was the election of Thomas 
Jefferson in 1801. Mr. Jefferson trans- 
ferred at once the chief offices to mem- 
bers of the party; internal revenues 
were abolished ; and the Alien and Se- 
dition laws were repealed. He was 

elected a second time in 1805; and on 
the expiration of his term, the sympathy 
of the Democrats with France and their 
enmity toward England, whose conduct 
on the seas had rendered her obnoxious, 
caused the election of James Madison 
to the presidency in 1809, who was 
again chosen in 1813. The successful 
issue of the War of 1812 continued the 
power of the party, and James Monroe 
became President in 181 7, followed by 
a second term in 1821. In the election 
of 1824 there were four candidates for 
President, namely, John Q. Adams, An- 
drew Jackson, Henry Clay, and W. H. 
Crawford, all of whom claimed to be 
Democrats. None having a majority, 
the election was thrown into the House 
of Representatives, when Mr. Adams 
was chosen President, John C. Calhoun 
being Vice-President by the votes of 
the electoral college. In 1828 Andrew 
Jackson was elected President after a 
struggle with the advocates of Adams, 
no principle being at stake ; and he was 
again chosen in 1832. The acts of Gen- 
eral Jackson caused strong opposition, 
and it was during his administration 
that the Whig party was formed. And 
as the lines were drawn and men ranged 
themselves on either side, the Demo- 
crats took the name of the Democratic 
party, and claimed to be the successors 
of the old Jeffersonian party. 

Anti-Federal Junto. " When it was 
proposed in the Pennsylvania Legisla- 
ture to issue a call for a convention to 
ratify the United States Constitution, 
nineteen of the members withdrew, 
leaving the House without a quorum,. 
Enough of these were, however, dragged 
to the House to allow business to be 
transacted. In September, 1787, sixteen, 
of these same members signed an ad- 
dress against the Constitution ; this ad- 
dress contained so many misstatements 
that it soon became an object of ridicule. 
To the signers and their followers the 
name of Anti-Federal Junto was given." 
— Brown and Strauss. 

Anti-Fox. One of the pen-names 
attributed to Junius {q. v.). 

Antigone. In classic mythology the 
daughter of CEdipus by his mother, Jo- 
casta. She was famed for her filial 

Antigone, The Modern. See Mod- 
ern Antigone. 

Antilles, Queen of the. See Queen 
of the Antilles. 



Anti-Masonic Party. In 1826 W. 
Morgan, who was preparing a revelation 
of the secrets of freemasonry, suddenly 
disappeared. It was rumored that he 
had been foully dealt with by members 
of the order, and intense excitement 
was the result, followed by the establish- 
ment of a political party based on oppo- 
sition to the order. It cast in New 
York, in 1828, 30,000 votes ; in 1829, 
70,000; and about 128,000 in 1832. In 
1832 it nominated William Wirt for 
President, but carried only one State, 
— Vermont. The excitement graduajly 
died out, and the party disappeared. See 
Good-enough Morgan. 

Anti-Monopoly Party. " The Anti- 
Monopoly Organization of the United 
States met at Chicago, May 14, 1884, 
and nominated Benjamin F. Butler, of 
Massachusetts, for the Presidency. It 
adopted a platform demanding eco- 
nomical government and the enactment 
and enforcement of equitable laws, in- 
cluding an Interstate Commerce Law 
(one has since been enacted), establish- 
ing Labor Bureaus, providing Industrial 
Arbitration, a direct vote for Senators, 
a graduated income tax, payment of the 
national debt as it matures, and 'fos- 
tering care ' for agriculture ; while it 
denounced the tariff and the grant of 
land to corporations. Its nominee was 
also selected by the Greenback Labor 
party, the joint ticket being known as 
the People's party. It polled 130,000 
votes." — Brown and Strauss. 

Anti-Nebraska Men. A name ap- 
plied to the Northern Whigs that op- 
posed the Kansas-Nebraska Bill in 
1854. These were joined by Democrats 
of similar views, and together they con- 
trolled the House in the Thirty-fourth 
Congress. The Republican party sprang 
from them. 

Antinomians. A sect who, it is 
alleged, denied an obligation under the 
Gospel to obey the moral law of the Old 

Antiope. In classic mythology the 
favorite of Jupiter, by whom she be- 
came the mother 01 Amphion and 

Antiquarius. (Pseud.) John Love- 
day, D.C.L., in his contributions to the 
" Gentleman's Magazine." 

Anti-Rent Movement. The ex- 
planation and history of the anti-rent 
movement in New York State, given 
concisely, is as follows : Large portions 

of Columbia, Rensselaer, Greene, Dela- 
ware, and Albany counties in the State 
belonged to manors, the original grants 
of which were made to "patroons" by 
the Dutch Company, and renewed by 
James II., the principal being Rensse- 
laerswyck and Livingston manor. The 
tenants had deeds for their farms, but 
paid annual rental in kind instead of a 
principal sum. This arrangement caused 
growing dissatisfaction among the ten- 
ants after 1790. When Stephen Van 
Rensselaer, who had allowed much of 
the rent to remain in arrears, died in 
1839, the tenants, who longed to become 
real landowners, made common cause 
against his successor, refused to pay 
rent, disguised themselves as " Injuns," 
and began a reign of terror which for 
ten years practically suspended the 
operations of the law and the payment 
of rent throughout the district. An 
attempt to serve process by militia aid, 
known as the " Helderberg War," was 
unsuccessful. In 1847 and 1849 the anti- 
renters " adopted " a part of each party 
State ticket, and thus showed a voting 
strength of about five thousand. This 
was not to be disregarded in a closely 
divided State, and in iSjo the Legis- 
lature directed the Attorney-General to 
bring suit against Harmon Livingston 
to try title. The suit was decided in 
Livingston's favor in November, 1850; 
but both parties were then ready to 
compromise, the owners by selling the 
farms at fair rates, and the tenants by 
paying for them. Most of Rensse- 
laerswyck was sold ; and of the Living- 
ston manor, which at one time contained 
162,000 acres of choice farming land, 
very little now remains in the possession 
of the family. Another anti-rent move- 
ment arose in Ireland in 1884 and suc- 
ceeding years. 

Anti-Rent Riots, Anti-Renters. See 

Anti-Slavery Men. The terms 
" Anti-Slavery " and " Abolitionist " are 
frequently confounded. In reality there 
was a wide difference ; for many of the 
anti-slavery party repeatedly disclaimed 
being in favor of abolition. See Abo- 

Antistbenes. Founder of the Cynic 
School in Athens. He wore a ragged 
cloak, and carried a wallet and staff 
like a beggar. Socrates wittily said he 
could " see rank pride peering through 
the holes of Antisthenes' rags." 



Anti-Stuart. One of the pen-names 
attributed to Junius (g. v.). 

Antonio Aguaverde. (Pseud.) Al- 
fred Trumble, a contributor to the New 
York " Boys' and Girls' Weekly." 

Anton Strelezki. The professional 
name of Arthur Burbank, a native of 
Detroit, Mich., a well-known pianist 
and composer. 

Antrustions. The vassals of the 
Frankish kings, who held land in trust. 
These lands were subsequently here- 

Anubis. In Egyptian mythology a 
divinity, the son of Osiris {q. v.), who 
accompanied the spirits of the dead to 
the nether world. He is usually wor- 
shipped in the shape of a dog,/ or as a 
human being with a dog's head. 

Aor. Aorist. 

A. O. S. S. Americana Orientalis 
Societatis Socius. Member of the Amer- 
ican Oriental Society. 

A outrance. (Fr.) Combat to the 

Ap. Apostle; Appius. 

Ap. Apud, in the writings of; as 
quoted by. 

A pas de g^ant. (Fr.) With a 
giant's stride ; rapidly. 

Ape. The signature of Carlo Pelle- 
grini, the celebrated English carica- 
turist. He adopted his well-known 
signature because he " apes " the pecu- 
liarities of his subjects when quizzing 
them with his pencil. 

Aper9u. (Fr.) A brief sketch of 
any subject. 

A perte de vue. (Fr.) Beyond one's 

A. P. G. or Ast. P. G. Professor of 
Astronomy in Gresham College. 

Aphrodite. In classic mythology 
the Greek name of Venus {g. v.). 

Aphrodite's Girdle. The ancients 
believed that whoever wore the magic 
girdle of Aphrodite became the object 
of love. 

A piacere, A piacemento. (Ital.) 
At the pleasure of the performer. (Mus.) 

A pied. (Fr.) On foot. 

Apis. The chief deity of the ancient 
Egyptians, worshipped in the guise of 
a bull. 

A plomb. (Fr.) "To the lead." 

Apo. Apogee. 

Apocalypse. One of the names ap- 
plied to the last book (Revelation) in 
the Christian Bible. It means "dis- 
covery," "disclosure."' 

Apocalyptic Number. The mystic 
number 666. See Rev. xiii. i8. See 
Number of the Beast. 

Apocr. Apocrypha. Certain books in 
the Christian Bible whose divine inspi- 
ration is considered doubtful. 

A point. (Fr.) "To a point." At 
the right moment ; exactly right 

Apollinariaus. An ancient sect 
founded in the middle of the fourth 
century by ApoUinaris, bishop of Lao- 
dicea. They denied that Christ had a 
human soul, and asserted that the Logos 
supplied the place of the reasonable 
soul. The Athanasian Creed con- 
demned this heresy. 

Apollo. In classic mythology son of 
Jupiter and of Latona, and brotlier of 
Diana. He was the god of song, music, 
prophecy, and archery. 

Apollo of Portugal. The poet Luis 
Camoens (fl. IJ27-1579), author of the 
" Lusiad." 

ApoUyon: The Greek form of the 
Hebrew Abaddon, an evil spirit, de- 
scribed in Rev. ix. 11 as "the angel of 
the bottomless pit." 

A posse ad esse. (Lat.) From pos- 
sibility to reality. 

Apostate, The. Julian, Emperor of 
Rome (fl. 331-363), was so named be- 
cause he abjured the Christian faith and 
returned to paganism. 

A posteriori. (Lat.) From the effect 
to the cause. 

Apostle of Ethiopia. Saint Frumen- 
tius. See Apostle of the Abys- 


Apostle of Free Trade. Richard 
Cobden (fl. 1 804-1 865). 

Apostle of Germany.. Saint Boni- 
face (fl. 680-755). 

Apostle of Hungary. Saint Anasta- 
tius (fl. 954-1044). 

Apostle of Infidelity. Voltaire (fl. 

Apostle of Molasses and Moon- 
shine. A nickname conferred on Mat- 
thew Arnold, the English man of letters 
(d. 1888). 

Apostle of Ireland. Saint Patrick. 

Apostle of Silence. Thomas Car- 
lyle has been so nicknamed, satirically. 



Apostle of Spain. Saint James the 
Greater, who died 44. 

Apostle of Sweetness and Iiight. 
So Matthew Arnold, the English poet 
and critic, was named (d. 1888). See 
■ supra. 

Apostle of Temperance. Father 
Mathew (fl. 1790-1856). 

Apostle of the Abyssinians. Saint 
Frumentius, who flourished in the fourth 
century of our era. 

Apostle of the Alps. Felix Ne£f 
(fl. 1 798-1 829). 

Apostle of the Ardennes. Saint 
Hubert (fl. 656-730). 

Apostle of the Armenians. Gregory 
of Armenia (fl. 256-331). 

Apostle of the English, (i) Saint 
Augustine, who died 607. (2) Saint 
George has been so named. 

Apostle of the French. Saint Denis, 
who lived in the third century. 

Apostle of the Frisians. Saint Wili- 
brod (fl. 657-738). 

Apostle of the Gauls, (i) Saint Ire- 
naeus (fl. 130-200). (2) Saint Martin (fl. 

Apostleof the Gentiles. Saint Paul. 

Apostle of the Highlanders. Saint 
Columba (fl. 521-597). 

Apostle of the Indians, (i) Bar- 
tolome de las Casas (fl. 1474-1 500). (2) 
Rev. John Eliot (fl. 1603-1690). 

Apostle of the Indies. Francis 
Xavier(fl. 1506-1552). 

Apostle of the Netherlands. Saint 
Armam, bishop of Maestricht (fl. 589- 

Apostle of the North, (i) Saint Ans- 

r(fl. 801-864). (2) Bernard Gilpin 
1 517-1583). 

Apostle of the Peak. William Bag- 
shaw (fl. 1628-1702), an English Non- 
conformist divine, the scene of whose 
labors was around the Peak of Derby- 

Apostle of the Picta. Saint Ninian. 

Apostle of the Scottish Reformers. 
John Knox (fl. 1505-1572). 

Apostle of the Slavs. Saint Cyril, 
who died 868. 

Apostle of the Sword. Mohammed 
(fl. 570-632) was so named because he 
enforced his creed by means of the 

Apostle of tTnitarianism. William 
EUery Channing (fl. 1 780-1842). 

Apostle of Wales. Saint David (fl. 

Apostle of Yorkshire. See Pisosiix. 
OF THE Peak. 

Apostle Spoons. Spoons presented 
to an infant at its christening, — so named 
because the figure of one of the Apostles 
was engraved on the handle. Some- 
times twelve spoons were thus pre- 
sented ; at others only four, when the 
four Evangelists were depicted. 

Apostle to the Blind. Abbd Valen- 
tine Hawy (fl. 1 745-1822), who invented 
the art of printing with raised letters. 

Apostolic Fathers. The five great 
Christian teachers who were contem- 
porary with the Apostles, — Clement, 
Barnabas, Hermas, Ignatius, and Poly- 

Appeal of Battle. By the ancient 
law of England a man might fight with 
his 'accuser, thereby to make proof of 
his guilt or innocence according as he 
became victor or vanquished. The law 
was not repealed till 1819. 

Appiades. In classic terminology a 
grouping of five deities, whose temple 
graced the vicinity of the fountain of 
Appius, in Rome. They were : Vesta, 
Venus, Concord, Pallas, and Peace. 
They were represented by five eques- 
trian statues. 

Apple of Discord. The story of the 
Apple of Discord forms the theme of 
one of the most charming legends of 
classic mythology. It is related that at 
the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, the 
Goddess of Discord, not being invited to 
the entertainment, showed her displea- 
sure by throwing among the gods, at 
the celebration of the nuptials, a golden 
apple, on which were written the words, 
" To be given to the fairest." All the 
goddesses claimed it as their own; but 
only- Juno, Venus, and Minerva were 
allowed to dispute the right to the 
apple. The gods appointed Paris to 
adjudge the prize of beauty. The god- 
desses appeared before him without any 
ornament, but each tried to influence 
his judgment. Juno promised him a 
kingdom ; Minerva, military glory ; and 
Venus, the fairest woman in the world 
for his wife. Paris at length adjudged 
the prize to Venus. This decision drew 
upon him and his family the resentment 
of the two other goddesses. Paris then 
equipped a fleet, with the pretended 
motive of rescuing Hesione, whom Her- 
cules had carried away and obliged to 



marry Telamon. He recollected that 
he was to have Helen, the fairest 
woman of the age, whom Venus had 
promised him. On these grounds he 
visited Sparta, the residence of Helen, 
who had married Menelaus, and was 
received kindly ; but he abused the 
hospitality of Menelaus, and while the 
king was absent in Crete, carried off 
Helen to Troy, where Priam received 
her in his palace. Upon this all Greece 
took up arms. Agamemnon was chosen 
general of the combined forces, and a 
regular war was begun. Paris armed 
himself, with bis brothers, to oppose 
the enemy, but is said to have fought 
with little courage, and at the sight of 
Menelaus he retired from the front of 
the army. In a combat with Menelaus 
he would have perished, had not Venus 
protected him from the resentment of 
his adversary. He nevertheless wounded 
in another battle Machaon, Euriphilus, 
and Diomedes, and according to some 
killed the great Achilles. Others of the 
poets relate that he fell by one of the 
arrows of Philoctetes, which had for- 
merly belonged to Hercules, and was 
tended in his last moments by his wife, 
the nymph CEnone. 

Apple of Perpetual Youth. In 
Scandinavian mythology-tlie apple of 
Idun, wife of Bragi. By tasting this 
apple the gods preserve their perpetual 

Apple of the Eye. Probably a cor- 
ruption of "pupil." 

Apple-pie Bed. A name for a bed 
so made that a person cannot lie in it 
at full length, the sheets being folded 
like an apple turnover. But a more 
probable derivation is from the French 
hplis, folded in plaits. 

Apple-pie Order. Perfect order; 
probably a corruption of caf> d. pied, — 
said of a knight when completely armed 
from head to foot. Another not im- 
probable derivation is from the French 
A plis, folded in plaits. 

Apples of Istkahar are " all sweet- 
ness on one side, and all bitterness on 
the other." 

Apples of Paradise, according to 
tradition, had a bite on one side, to 
commemorate the gripe given by Eve. 

Apples of Pyban, says Sir John 
Mandeville, fed the pygmies with their 
odor only. 

Apples of Sodom (called by Witman 
" oranges ") are the yellow fruit of the 

osher or ashey tree. Tacitus (History, 
v 7) and Josephus both refer to these 
apples. Thevenot says, "The fruit is 
lovely [externally], but within is full of 

The fruit of the osher or ashey tree, called 
"apples or oranges of Sodom," resembles a 
smooth apple or orange, hangs in clusters of 
three or four on a branch, and is of a yellow color 
when ripe. Upon being struck or pressed, it 
explodes with a puff, and is reduced to the rind 
and a few fibres, being chiefly filled with air. — 
Gallery of Geography, 

Like to the apples on the Dead Sea shore, 

All ashes to uie taste. 

BvRON, Childe Harold. 

Appogiatura. (Ital.) A note of em- 
bellishment, written in a smaller charac- 
ter than other notes. (Mus). 

Apr. April. 

April Pool's Day. The custom of 
sending one upon a bootless errand on 
the first day of April is perhaps a trav- 
esty of the sending hither and thither 
of the Saviour from Annas to Caiaphas, 
and from Pilate to Herod; because 
during the Middle Ages this scene in 
Christ's life was made the subject of a 
Miracle Play at Easter, which occurs 
near the ist of April. It is possible, 
however, that it may be a relic of some 
old heathen festival. The custom, what- 
ever be its origin, of playing off little 
tricks on this day, whereby ridicule may 
be fixed upon unguarded individuals, 
appears to be universal throughout Eu- 
rope, In France one thus imposed 
upon is called un poisson cfAvril (an 
April fish). In England and the United 
States such a person is called an April 
fool; in Scotland a "gowk." The fa- 
vorite jest is to send one upon an errand 
for something grossly nonsensical, or to 
make appointments which are not to be 
kept, or to call to a passer-by that his 
latchet is unloosed, or that there is a 
spot of mud upon his face. It is curious 
that the Hindus practise precisely simi- 
lar tricks on the 31st of March, when 
they .hold what is called the Hull Festi- 
val. There is a tradition among the 
Jews that the custom of making fools 
on the first of April arose from the 
fact that Noah sent out the dove on the 
first of the month corresponding to our 
April, before the water had abated. To 
perpetuate the memory of the great 
deliverance of Noah and his family, it 
was customary on this anniversary to 
punish persons who had forgotten the 
remarkable circumstance connected with 
the date, by sending them on some 
bootless errand similar to that on which 



the patriarch sent the luckless bird from 
the windows of the ark. 

A priori. (Lat.) From the cause to 
the effect. 

A propos. (Fr.) "To the point." 
Pertinently ; seasonably. 

A propos de bottes. (Fr.) "Sea- 
sonably of boots ; with respect to boots." 
Not to the purpose; without reason; 
d propos of nothing. 

Aq. {aqua). Water. 

A. Q. M. Assistant Quartermaster. 

A. Q. M. G. Assistant Quartermas- 

Aquariat. (Pseud.) Nicholas Jeffery 
Andrew in the New York " Courant." 

A quatre mains. (Fr.) For four 
hands ; a pianoforte duet. (Mus.) 

Aquavitae. (Lat.) » Water of life." 
Brandy or other spirits. 

Aquilo. In classic mythology a per- 
sonification of the north wind; the same 
as Boreas {q. v.). 

Aquinian Sage. Juvenal was so 
named. He lived at Aquinium, a Vol- 
scian town. 

A. R. Anna Regina. Queen Anne. 

A. R. Anno regni. Year of the reign. 

Ar. Argentum, Silver. 

A. R. A. Associate of the Royal 

Ara. Arabic. 

Arabic! A sect, originating in Ara- 
bia about 207, maintaining that the soul 
dies with the body and will rise again 
with it. 

Arabs, or Street Arabs. Children of 
the street in our great cities ; so named 
because, like the Arabs, they lead a 
nomadic life with no settled home. 

Araby. A poetical diminutive for 

Farewell, farewell to thee, Araby's daughter. 
Moore, The Fire Worshiffers. 

Arachne. A Lydian maiden who 
was so vain of her skill in weaving that 
she challenged Minerva to a competition. 
She was successful in the contest, but 
being slighted by the goddess, she hung 
herself in despair, and was turned into 
a spider. 

Aracbne's Labors. Spinning and 
weaving. See supra. 

Araf, Al (lit. "the partition"). Ac- 
cording to the Koran, a middle kingdom 
or region, situate between Gehenna and 
Paradise, and reserved for those neither 

good nor evil in a moral sense, such as 
babes, lunatics, or idiots. The inmates 
of this realm will be allowed to hold 
intercourse with both the lost and the 
blessed : to the former their abode will 
appear a heaven; while to the latter it 
will seem a hell. 

Aranearum telas tezere. (Lat.) "To 
weave spiders' webs." To indulge in 
sophistry or quibbling. 

Arbiter elegantiae. C. Petronius 
was appointed dictator-in-chief of the 
imperial pleasures at the court of Nero, 
and nothing was considered comme il 
faut till it had received the sanction of 
this Roman Beau Brummel. 

Behold the new Petronius of the day, 
The arbiter of pleasure and of play. 
Byron, English Bards and Scotch Reviewers. 

Arbiter elegantiarum. (Lat.) A 
judge in matters of taste. 

Arbor Day. Throughout the United 
States this has come to be more or less 
observed, not as a public holiday, but 
as an occasion for the planting of trees 
and for beautifying the streets and 
open squares of cities. It is a mov- 
able festival, according to climate, but 
usually falls in April or May. In 1889 
thirty-four States and two Territories 
observed it. For the purpose of en- 
couraging arboriculture in sparsely tim- 
bered regions, many of the States offer 
bounties for a certain number of shade- 
trees planted, whether by the roadside 
or in plantation. In some of the tree- 
less regions of the great West, Arbor 
Day has come to occupy a leading 
place among the red-letter days of the 

Arcades ambo. Both fools alike ; 
both " sweet innocents ; " both alike ec- 
centric. There is nothing in the char- 
acter of Corydon and Thyrsis (Virgil's 
Eclogues, vii. 4) to justify this dispar- 
aging application of the phrase. All 
Virgil says is, they were both "in the 
flower of their youth, and both Arca- 
dians, both equal in setting a theme for 
song or capping it epigrammatically ; " 
but as Arcadia was the least intellectual 
part of Greece, an " Arcadian " came to 
signify a dunce, and hence Arcades ambo 
received its present acceptation. 

Arcady. Another form of Arcadia, 
— the middle and highest part of the 
Peloponnesus, derived from Areas, the 
son of Callisto. 

Arcana coelestia, (Lat.) Heavenly 



Arcana imperil. (Lat.) The secrets 
or mysteries of government. 
Arcanum. A secret. 
Arc-en-ciel. (Fr.) "The arch in 
the sky." The rainbow. 

Arch, (i) Archibald. (2) Architect ; 

Archcarnifez. Thomas Norton, the 
persecutor (i 532-1 584). 
Archd. Archdeacon. 
Arches, The. Sailor men have nick- 
names for nearly every port or haven 
in the navigable globe. They always 
speak of archipelagoes as " the arches." 
The story goes that an officer of the 
deck on board a United States man-of- 
war saw a knot of sailors listening in- 
tently one night to the yarns spun by 
a grizzled old tar about his adventures 
in " going through the arches." A young 
sailor after a while said, with a puzzled 
and sheepish air, " The arches of what ? " 
To which the old salt responded, with a 
look of withering contempt, " The arches 
of Pelago, of course, you lubber ! " 

Archeus. (Pseud.) John Sterling, 
in " Hymns of a Hermit," in " Black- 
wood's Magazine." 

Archilochian Bitterness. Ill-natured 
satire ; so named from Archilochus, the 
Grecian satirist (fl. 714-676 b. c). 

Archimage. The name given by 
Thomson to the demon Indolence. 

Arch-Monarch of the World. Na- 
poleon III. of France. 

Arctic Sahara. In 1883 Baron Nor- 
denskjold explored the interior of Green- 
land, and found it to be a gigantic 
ice-field, destitute of vegetation and de- 
void of life. He named it the " Arctic 

Arcturus. (Pseud.) Mrs. Catherine 
Stratton Ladd (b. 1809), in her contribu- 
tions to various periodicals. 

Ardentia verba. (Lat.) Glowing 

Ares. In classic mythology the god 
of war; the same as Mars (y. v.). 

Arethusa. In classic mythology one 
of the Nereids, and an attendant on 

Arg. Argumento. (Lat.) By an argu- 
ment drawn from such a law. 

Argan. A miserly hypochondriac. 
He reduced himself to this dilemma : 
If his apothecary would not charge less, 
he could not afford to be sick; but if 
he swallowed fewer drugs, he would 
suffer in health. 

Argent comptant. (Fr.) Ready 

Argo. In classic mythology the name 
of the fifty-oared ship in which Jason 
and his heroes made their voyage to 
Colchis in search of the Golden Fleece. 
See Argonauts. 

Argonauts, (i) Legendary Greek he- 
roes of antiquity who undertook a voy- 
age to unknown seas in a vessel called 
the Argo, under the command of Jason. 
After four months of peril and adven- 
ture they returned to lolchus, and Jason 
dedicated the Argo to Neptune at the 
Isthmus of Corinth. The common in- 
terpretation of the legend is, that Jason's 
expedition was simply a voyage of dis- 
.covery. The reputed search for the 
Golden Fleece {q. v.) is probably a later 
appendage to the tale. (2) The name 
Argonauts has become proverbial, and 
is often applied to those early pioneers 
who emigrated to California about the 
year 1849, during the gold fever. 

Argo NaviB (the Ship Argo). A con- 
stellation of the southern hemisphere 
containing sixty-four stars, two of which 
(Canopus and Miaplacidus) are of the 
first magnitude. This constellation 
commemorates the mythological story of 
Jason's expedition to Colchis to recover 
the Golden Fleece. 

Argosy. A merchant's freight, — so 
called from the ship Argo, which went to 
Colchis to fetch away the GoldenFleece. 

Argot. (Fr.) Slang or flash language. 

Argumentum ab inoonvenienti. 
(Lat.) An argument to prove that a 
proposition will not meet the intended 
purpose, and is therefore fruitless. 

Argumentum ad absurdum. (Lat.) 
An argument to prove the absurdity of 
a thing. 

Argumentum ad crumenam. (Lat.) 
An argument directed to the purse or 

Argumentum ad fidem. (Lat.) An 
appeal to faith. 

Argumentum ad hominem. (Lat.) 
" An argument to the man." An argu- 
ment deriving its force from its direct 
personal application. 

Argumentum ad ignorantiam. (Lat.) 
"An argument to ignorance." An ar- 
gument founded on the ignorance of 
facts shown by an opponent. 

Argumentum ad invidiam. (Lat.) 
" An argument to envy." An appeal to 
low passions. 



Argumentum ad judicium. (Lat.) 
An appeal to the common-sense of 

Argumentum ad populum. (Lat.) 
An appeal to the people. 

Argumentum ad verecundiam. 

(Lat.) An appeal to modesty. 

Argumentum baculinum. (Lat.) 
Club law. 

Argus. In classic mythology a crea- 
ture endowed with a hundred eyes, and 
of enormous strength. Juno sent him 
to guard lo (?. w.); but Mercury killed 
him, and transferred his eyes to the tail 
of the peacock. 

Argus. (Pseud.) Irwin Willes, a 
sporting writer on the staff of the Lon- 
don " Morning Post " (d. 1871). 

Argtis-eyed. Jealously watchful. Ac- 
cording to Grecian fable, Argus had a 
hundred eyes, and Juno set him to watch 
lo, of whom she was jealous. 

Argus the lixile. (Pseud.) An- 
other signature of Irwin WiUes; see 

Ari. Arizona. 

Aria buffa. (Ital.) A comic song. 

Aria d' abilita. (Ital.) A song of 
difficult execution. (Mus.) 

Aria di cantabile. (Ital.) An air 
to be sung in a graceful and flowing 
style. (Mus.) 

Arian Controversy, The, raged from 
the fourth to the seventeenth century 
with more or less virulence. The Arians 
denied the divinity of Christ. Tliey were 
condemned by the Council of Nice (325 
A. D.) ; but their doctrine long prevailed, 
and so late as 1614 Leggatt, an Arian, 
was burned at Smithfield. See Adopt- 
lAN Controversy. 

Ariel. (Pseud.) Rev. Stephen Fiske, 
1828-1864, in his contributions to the 
New York " Leader." 

Arion. In classical mythology an 
ancient Greek bard and musician. 

Arioso. (Ital.) In the manner of an 
air; vocal, melodious. (Mus.) 

Aristaeus. In classic mythology an 
ancient Greek divinity, the protector of 
vines and olive gardens and of hunters 
and herdsmen. 

Aristeas. In classical mythology a 
fabulous creature, known as " the Wan- 
dering Jew of Ancient Greece," who 

figures in widely separated ages and 
places and in very difierent characters. 
Herodotus says he was a magician 
whose spirit could leave his body and 
return at will. 

Aristophanes of Caricature. Henri 
Daumier (b. 1810), the French carica- 
turist, was so named by critics. 

Aristotelian Unities. Aristotle, the 
Greek philosopher, laid it down as a 
rule that every tragedy, properly con- 
structed, should contain but one catas- 
trophe ; should be limited to only one 
scene ; and be circumscribed to the ac- 
tion of one single day. These are called 
the Aristotelian unities. 

Aristotle of China. Tschuhe, who 
died A. D. 1200, called the "Prince of 

Aristotle of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury. George Cuvier, the great natu- 
ralist (1769-1832). 

Arith. Arithmetic. 

Arizona. This is an Indian word, 
meaning "blessed sun." 

Ark. Arkansas. So much uncertainty 
exists as to the proper pronunciation 
of the name of Arkansas (Indian, kan- 
sas, " smoky water," and the French 
prefix arc, "a bow") that it may not 
be out of place to give a brief account 
of the origin of the name and define 
the correct usage. The proper pronun- 
ciation is " Ar'kahnsah'," accented on 
the first and last syllables. This was 
the old Indian pronunciation, which the 
early French traders expressed in let- 
ters as "Arkansas." The French a is 
always broad, and the final s is silent ; 
so "Arkansas" to the French was pro- 
nounced "Ar'kahnsah'." Congress, in 
the Act organizing the Territory, spelled 
the name "Arkansaw," and for some 
years the name continued to be so 
spelled. Finally, as every one knew the 
pronunciation, the original spelling was 
brought again into use. Then, however, 
came a generation who knew not the his- 
tory or the pronunciation of the word, 
who called it "Arkan'zass," with the 
accent on the second syllable ; and this 
mispronunciation throve, and was ac- 
cepted by many. In 1880 the State His- 
torical and the Eclectic Societies jointly 
investigated the name and its pronun- 
ciation, and on their report, the sub- 
stance of which is given above, the 
Legislature of the State decided that 
the legal pronunciation was "Ar'kahn- 



Arkansas Toothpick. A bowie-knife 
of a peculiar kind, the blade of which 
shuts up into the handle. 

Straightway leaped the valiant Slingsby 

Into armor of Seville, 
With a strong Arkansas toothpick 

Screwed in every joint of steel. 

Bon Gaultier, American Ballads. 

Arm. Armenian. 

Armed Neutrality. The compact 
iormed by Russia, Sweden, and Den- 
mark against England in 1780, and 
which fell to pieces in 1781. It was 
renewed in 1800. The British Cabinet 
remonstrated, war ensued, and Nelson 
and Parker destroyed the Danish fleet 
before Copenhagen, April 2, 1801. 

Armed Soldier of Democracy. Na- 
poleon I. was so named. 

Armes blanches. (Fr.) Steel weap- 
ons ; cold steel. 

Armiger. One bearing arms ; an es- 

Arm-in-arm Convention. A name 
given to a convention of Republicans 
that supported President Johnson's pol- 
icy on reconstruction. It met in Phila- 
delphia in August, 1866. Its name arose 
from the fact that the members from 
Massachusetts and from South Caro- 
lina entered the convention together at 
the head of the delegates. 

Armor. Armoric. 

Arnoldists. The partisans of Arnold 
of Brescia, who raised his voice against 
the abuses and vices of the papacy in 
the twelfth century. He was burned alive 
by Pope Adrian IV. 

Arod. Designed for Sir William Wal- 
ler, in the satire of " Absalom and Achi- 
tophel," by Dryden and Tate. 

Aroostook War. See Northeast 

Arouet. (Pseud.) Joseph Brown Ladd, 
American poet (i 764-1 786), who wrote 
a volume of poetry to "Amanda " signed 

Around. This word is used in Amer- 
ica in the sense of " near." An Ameri- 
can " Police Gazette " quotes a witness 
as saying, " I was standing around when 
the fight took place ; " and Bartlett, in 
his " Dictionary of Americanisms," says, 
"A friend assures me that he has heard 
a clergyman in his sermon say of one 
of the disciples that " he stood around 
the cross." 

Arpeggio. (Ital.) Those passages 
which are formed of the notes of regu- 
lar chords played in rapid succession, 
after the manner of a harp. (Mus.) 

A. R. R. Anno regni regis. In the 
year of the reign of the king. 

Arr. Arrive ; arrival. 

Arria. (Pseud.) Mrs. Eliza Lofton 
(Phillips) Pugh (b. 1841), in various daily 
papers of New York City. 

Arri&re-garde. (Fr.) The rear-guard. 

Arriere-pensee. (Fr.) Mental reser- 
vation ; a thought kept to one's self. 

Arrov7 Festival. Instituted by Zoro- 
aster to commemorate the flight of the 
arrow shot from the top of the Peak of 
Demavend, in Persia, with such mirac- 
ulous prowess as to reach the banks of 
the Oxus, causing the whole intervening 
country to be ceded to Persia. 

Arrow of Acestes. In a trial of 
skill, according to the Roman fable, 
Acestes the Sicilian discharged his 
arrow with such force that it took 

Like Acestes' shaft of old, 

The swift thought kindles as it flies. 


A. R. S. A. Associate of the Royal 
Scottish Academy. 

Ars est celare artem. (Lat.) "Art 
is to conceal art." The perfection of 
art is to conceal art. 

Ars longa, vita brevis. (Lat.) Art 
is long, life is short. 

A. R. S. S. Antiguariorum Regice 
Societatis Socius. Fellow of the Royal 
Society of Antiquaries. 

Art. Article. 

Art and Part. A Scotch law phrase, 
— an accessory before and after the fact. 
A man is said to be art and part of a 
crime when he contrives the manner of 
the deed and concurs with and encour- 
ages those who commit the crime, al- 
though he does not put his own hand to 
the actual execution of it. 

Artemis. The same as Diana {q. v.). 

Artemisia. Lady Mary Wortley Mon- 
tagu was satirized under this name by 

Artemus Ward. (Pseud.) Charles 
F. Browne, American humorist and lec- 
turer (1834-1867). 

Arthur Bitter. (Pseud.) Samuel 
Haberstitch, German author. 

Arthur Dudley. (Pseud.) Charlotte 
Campbell, Countess of Bury (i 775-1861). 



Arthur Sketchley. (Pseud.) George 
Rose, English humorous writer (1830- 

Arthur Venner. (Pseud.) William 
McCrillis Griswold, in the magazines of 
the United States. 

ArtU. Artillery. 

Artotyrites. Certain heretics from 
among the Montanists, — so called be- 
cause they offered bread and cheese to 
the priesdiood. 

^rt preservative of all Arts. Print- 
ing is so named. The phrase is from 
the inscription upon the fagade of the 
house at Haarlem formerly occupied 
by Laurent Koster, or Coster, who is 
credited, among others, with the inven- 
tion of printing. Mention is first made 
of this inscription about 1628 : — 







Arts d'agrement. (Fr.) Accomplish- 
ments (in ladies' schools) ; music and 

. Arturi, Mademoiselle. The profes- 
sional name of Miss Ada Arthur. 

Aruna. The phaeton of Indian my- 

Arvakur. One of the horses of the 
sun, in Scandinavian mythology. 

A. S. Anglo-Saxon. 

A. S., or Assist. Sec. Assistant Sec- 

As. Arsenicum. 

A. S. A. American Statistical Asso- 

Asa-Loki. The same as Loki 

(!■ ■"■)■ 

Asa-Thor. In Scandinavian mythol- 
ogy the first-born of mortals. 

Asa Trenchard. (Pseud.) Henry 
Watterson, American journalist (b. 

Ascalapbus. In classical mythology 
a son of Acheron who was transformed 
into an owl by Ceres for mischief- 

Ascension Day. The fortieth day 
after Easter Sunday. See Holy Thurs- 
day and Maundy Thursday. 

Ascraean Sage. Hesiod (eighth cen- 
tury B. c.) is so named by Vir|;il in his 
Sixth Eclogue. He was born in Ascra, 
in Boeotia. 

Asgard. In Scandinavian mythology 
the Norse celestial abode of the gods, 
situated in the centre of the universe, 
and reached only by the bridge Bifrost 
(the rainbow). 

Ashtaroth. The Biblical name of 
Astarte (y. v.). 

Ash Wednesday. This is the first 
day of Lent in the modern Christian 
calendar. In ancient times Lent be- 
gan on the Sunday now called the first 
Sunday in Lent. Pope Felix II. in 487 
added the four days preceding the old 
Lent Sunday, in order to raise the num- 
ber of fasting days to forty. Gregory 
the Great, about 590, introduced the 
sprinkling of ashes, on the first of the 
four additional days ; hence the names 
of Dies Cinerum, or Ash Wednesday. 
At the Reformation this practice was 
abolished, " as being a mere shadow of 
vain show." It is said that the ashes 
were obtained from the burning of the 
Christmas greens which had adorned 
the churches since Christmastide, and 
which in turn formed a relic of an old 
Pagan custom. 

Asinum tondes. (Lat.) "You are 
shearing an ass." There is a great cry, 
but little wool. 

Asir. In Scandinavian mythology 
the twelve gods and twelve goddesses, 
— Odin, Thor, Baldur, Niord, Frey, Tyr, 
Bragi, Heimdall, Vidar, Vali, UUur, and 

Ask and Embla. The Adam and 
Eve made by Odin, — one from ash- 
wood, and the other from elm. 

Aslo. One of the horses of the sun, 
in Scandinavian mythology. 

Asmodeus. In Hebrew mythology 
the evil spirit of Vanity, called in the 
Talmud " King of the devils." In mod- 
ern literature he is often pithily referred 
to as the destroying angel of marital 

Asmodeus of Domestic Peace. As- 
modeus falls in love virith Sara, daugh- 
ter of Raguel, and causes the succes- 
sive death of seven husbands, each on 
his bridal night. After her marriage to 
Tobit he was driven into Egypt Dy a 
charm made by Tobias of the heart 
and liver of a fish burned on perfumed 
ashes, and being pursued, was taken 
prisoner and bound. 

Asopus. In classical mythology a 
son of Oceanus who was changed mto 
a river for revolting against Jupiter. 



Aspasia. A courtesan. She was the 
most notorious of the Greek Hetera, 
to whom Pericles attached himself; after 
the death of the latter she lived with 
Lysicles, a cattle-merchant. 

Asp for the Breast of the Poor. 
The sewing-needle has been so named. 

Asphaltic Lake. The Dead Sea, 
where asphalt abounds both on the sur- 
face of the water and on the banks. 
Asphalt is bitumen, from the Greek 

Asraiil. The angel who will sound 
the resurrection trumpet, according to 
the Koran. 

Ass., or Assn. Association. 

Assai. (Ital.) Very; extremely, A 
word appended to some other musical 
term, as Adagio assai, very slow; Alle- 
gro assai, very quick. (Mus.) 

Assassination Plot. The name by 
which a conspiracy to assassinate Wil- 
liam III. is known in English history. 
The Earl of Aylesbury and others 
planned to take his life near Richmond 
as he returned from hunting; but the 
plot was discovered Feb. 15, 1696, the 
day before that fixed for its consum- 

Assaye Regiment. The Seventy- 
fourth English foot, — so named because 
they first distinguished themselves in 
the battle of Assaye, India, in 1803. 

Assiento Treaties. Contracts en- 
tered into by Spain with Portugal, 
France, and England, to supply her 
South American colonies with negro 
slaves. England joined in 1713, after 
the peace of Utrecht. 

Assinego. (Port.) A young ass ; a 

Associated Youth. A name given 
in 1 798 to associations of young Feder- 
alists, who drew up addresses in favor 
of the Federalist party and its princi- 
ples, and in other ways supported and 
aided it. They were largely instrumental 
in spreading the custom of wearing black 

A. S. S. XT. American Sunday-School 

Assumpsit. It is assumed, or taken 
for granted. 

Assumption Day. AugustlJ, — so 
named in honor of the Blessed Vir- 
gin, who, according to the Greek and 
Roman Churches, was received into 
heaven without dying, in the seventy- 
fifth year of her age. 

Assunta Howard. (Pseud.) Miss 
Edith A. Salter. 

Astarte. The Punic form of the 
name of the Syrian deity known in the 
Bible under the name of Ashtaroth. 

Astor Place Riots. Incited by Ed- 
win Forrest's friends to hinder Mac- 
ready's acting at the Astor Place Opera 
House in New York, May 10, 1849. 

Astra castra, numen lumen. (Lat.) 
The stars my camp, the Deity my light. 

Astrsea. In classical mythology the 
goddess of justice, daughter of Jupiter 
and of Themis. During the Golden Age 
this goddess dwelt on earth ; but when 
sin began to prevail, she reluctantly left 
it, and was metamorphosed into the con- 
stellation Virgo. 

Astraea. (Pseud.) Mrs. Aphra Behn, 
English authoress (1640-1689). 

Astral Spirits. The spirits of the 
stars. According to the mythology of 
the Persians, Greeks, Jews, etc., each 
star had its special spirit, which may 
be termed its soul, or vital principle. 
Paracelsus maintained that every man 
had his attendant star, which received 
him at death, and took charge of him 
till the great resurrection. 

Astrol. Astrology. 

Astron. Astronomy. 

Astrophel. " Star-lover." A name 
by which Sir Philip Sidney refers to 
himself. " Phil. Sid." he took as being 
at once a contraction of his name and 
of the haXm philos sidus; and the Latin 
sidus being exchanged for the Greek 
Strrpov, he obtained " astronphilos," — 
hence "Astrophel." The "star" he 
adored was Penelope Devereux, whom 
he named " Stella," and to whom he 
was affianced. 

Astyanaz. In classical mythology 
the only son of Hector and Andromache. 
To prevent the fulfilment of an oracle 
that he should restore the kingdom of 
Troy, the Greeks hurled hira from the 
walls of the city. 

Asylum of the Oppressed of every 
Nation. This phrase is used in the Dem- 
ocratic National Platform of 1856, refer- 
ring to the United States. 

A. T. Arch-treasurer. 

Atalanta. In classical mythology a 
princess of Sayros, or of Arcadia, famed 
for her beauty. She agreed to marry 
that one of her suitors who should out- 
run her, those whom she outstripped to 
suffer death. In this manner many 



perished ; but Hippomenes, by dropping 
at intervals three golden apples, which 
Atalanta stopped to pick up, arrived 
first at the goal, and claimed her hand. 

Ate. In classical mythology a daugh- 
ter of Jupiter and goddess of discord. 

A tempo, or A tern. (Ital.) In time. 
Used to indicate that after an ad libitum 
passage, or a variation in the regular 
time of a piece, the performer must 
return to the regular time. (Mus.) 

A tempo giusto. (Ital.) In strict 
and equal time. (Mus.) 

A tergo. (Lat.) " From behind." 
At one's back. 

Athena. The ancient name of Athens 
(Gr. 'A^caOi by which it is often referred 
to in modern literature. Minerva (in 
Greek, Athene) was regarded as the 
tutelary goddess of the city. 

Age shakes Athena's tower, but spares gray 

Byron, Childe Harold, canto ii. 

Athei^e. In classical mythology one 
of the chief female deities of the Greeks, 
corresponding to Minerva among the 

Athenian Aberdeen. George Ham- 
ilton Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen (b. 1784), 
was thus named by Byron. He made a 
tour through Greecej which was com- 
memorated in the following line : — 

" The travelled thane, Athenian Aberdeen." 

Athenian Bee. Plato the philosopher 
was so named because of the honeyed 
sweetness of his words. 

Athena. See Modern Athens; 
Northern Athens. 

Athens of America. Boston, Mass. ; 
celebrated as a centre of polite litera- 

Athens of Ireland, (i) The city of 
Cork, the domicile or the birthplace of 
many erudite and eminent Irishmen. 
(2) The city of Belfast has also been so 

Athena of the East The city of 
Sheraz, capital of the province of Fars, 
in Persia. It has numerous colleges, 
and anciently was the home of poetry 
and the arts. It gave birth to more 
distinguished Persian poets than any 
other Persian city. 

If Mohammed had tasted the pleasures of 
Sheraz, he would have begged of Allah to make 
him immortal there. — Persian Saying. 

Athens of the "West, (i) A medise- 
val name of Cordova, in Spain ; under 
its Mohammedan rulers it attained great 
eminence in the domain of letters. 

(2) Jacksonville, 111. It has numerous 
colleges, schools, and academies. 

Atherton Gag. This was a resolu- 
tion seeking to have all petitions and 
papers relating to slavery " laid on the 
table without being printed, debated, or 
referred," introduced by C. G. Atherton, 
of New Hampshire, and passed by the 
United States House of Representatives 
Dec. II, 1838. It was repealed in 1845. 

Athor, in Egyptian mythology, an- 
swers to the Venus of classic myth. 

Atlantean Shoulders. Shoulders 
broad and strong, like those of Atlas, 
which support the world. 

Sage he [Beelzebub] stood, 
With Atlantean shoulders, fit to bear 
The weight of mightiest monarchies. 

Milton, Paradise Lost. 
Atlantis. Nine thousand years before 
Plato lived and wrote, there existed, he 
tells us in his Timaeus, in the ocean 
that separates the Old World from 
the New, an island larger than Asia 
Minor and Northern Africa combined, 
densely peopled by a powerful race. He 
locates it in what is now a watery waste, 
midway between the westward projec- 
tion of the desert coast of Africa and 
the corresponding indentation by the 
Gulf of Mexico of the " paradise of 
America." On its western shores were 
other and smaller islands, by way of 
which access might be had to a vast 
continent beyond. Its civilization was 
as advanced as that of ancient Egypt. 
Its people were descended from Nep- 
tune and mortal women, and by force 
of arms their warriors penetrated into 
Africa as far eastward as Egypt, and 
into Europe as far as the shores of the 
Tyrrhenian Sea (the western coast of 
Italy). Their conquests were checked 
by the Greeks after the Atlantean sea- 
kings had attempted to subjugate Eu- 
rope, Africa, and Asia, and the deed was 
accounted one of the glories of Athens. 
At length, however, the people became 
so desperately wicked that the island 
with all its inhabitants was swept away 
by a deluge. In a day and a night At- 
lantis disappeared beneath the waves. 
Another account, slightly varied, says 
that after the defeat of the islanders a 
terrific earthquake, attended by inunda- 
tions of the sea, caused the island to 
sink, and for a long time thereafter the 
ocean was impass^le by reason of the 
muddy shoals. Such is the substance 
of a legend, first communicated to So- 
lon by an Egyptian priest, and perhaps 



founded on fact, that has existed from a 
very early date. On old Venetian maps 
Atlantis was placed to the westward of 
the Canaries and the Azores. To the 
ancients the unknown was always gigan- 
tic or terrible ; so they represented At- 
lantis as being larger than either Europe 
or Africa, though the great extent as- 
signed to the island may have only sig- 
nified one very large in proportion to the 
smaller isles of the Mediterranean, — 
the only islands with which the ancients 
were familiar. Diodorus Siculus tells 
us that " over against Africa lies a very 
great island in the vast ocean, many 
days' sail from Libya westward. The 
soil there is very fruitful, a great part 
whereof is mountainous, but much like- 
wise champaign, which is the most 
sweet and pleasant part, for it is watered 
by several navigable streams, and beau- 
tiful with many gardens of pleasure, 
planted by divers sorts of trees and an 
abundance of orchards. The towns are 
adorned with stately buildings and ban- 
queting-houses, pleasantly situated in 
their gardens and orchards." The in- 
habitants of Venezuela and of Guiana re- 
tained traditions of a convulsion " which 
swallowed up a vast country in the 
region now covered by the Atlantic 
ocean." The Toltecs, the ancient in- 
habitants of Central America, have a 
tradition of the "cataclysm of the An- 
tilles ; " among the Indians of North 
America there is a similar legend. The 
tribes located farther southward have a 
circumstantial narrative to the efEect 
that the waves of the ocean were seen 
rolling in like mountains from the east, 
and that of the millions of people who 
fled toward the hills for refuge, only 
one man (seven in other accounts) was 
saved, from whom descended the pres- 
ent Indian races. A religious festival 
was instituted to commemorate the dread 
event, aftd to beseech the Almighty not 
to revisit the earth with such terrors. 
In this catastrophe it is claimed that an 
area greater in extent than France was 
engulfed, embracing the peninsulas of 
Yucatan, Honduras, Guatemala, and the 
Lesser Antilles, together with the mag- 
nificent cities of Palenque and Uxmal, 
with most of their inhabitants ; and it is 
supposed that "the continent has since 
risen sufiiciently to restore many of 
these ancient sites." The Greeks, the 
Egyptians, the Gauls, and the Romans 
possessed traditions on this subject, 
and all the accounts substantially agree 

with each other. These traditions were 
collected by Timagenes, the Roman 
historian, who flourished in the century 
preceding the birth of Christ. He re- 
presents Gaul as having been invaded 
from a distant island to the westward, 
by which many understand Atlantis to 
be meant. Another writer, Marcellus, 
mentions that the inhabitants of seven 
islands lying in the Atlantic Ocean near 
the coast of Europe (probably the Cana- 
ries) kept alive the memory of a much 
greater island, named Atlantis, which 
terrorized over the smaller ones. At 
the date of the existence of Atlantis, 
according to Humboldt, what is now the 
Strait of Gibraltar was probably bridged 
by a solid isthmus at least as wide as 
that of Suez, thus dosing the Mediter- 
ranean and making of it an inland sea. 
The same convulsion of Nature which 
engulfed the island also established 
communication between the Atlantic 
and the Mediterranean. Charles Fr^ 
ddric Martins, the French botanist, says 
that " hydrography, geology, and botany 
agree in teaching us that the Azores, 
the Canaries, and Madeira are the re- 
mains of a great continent which for- 
merly united Europe to North America." 
The ancient writers found this a most 
captivating subject upon which to ex- 
pand their conjectures, as is proved by 
the many comments upon Plato's narra- 
tive which have descended to us mod- 
erns. Nor have there been wanting 
scientists in our own day to view with 
favorable eyes the possibility of the 
existence, at a time now remote, of a 
mid- Atlantic island. Although Hum- 
boldt, Unger, and Goeppert, the Ahh6 
Brasseur, Winchell, Foster, Wild, Heer, 
and others equally eminent found noth- 
ing startling or improbable in the idea, 
the story is now considered to be myth- 

Atlas. In classical mythology one 
of the Titans, son of lapetus and Cly- 
mene, who for punishment was con- 
demned by Jupiter to bear on his head 
and hands the world he had attempted 
to destroy. 

Atonement, Day of. The Jewish 
day of national expiation for sin, kept 
on the tenth day of the month Tisri, 
corresponding to our October, five days 
before the Feast of Tabernacles. Its 
origin and commemorative signification 
are generally thought to date from and 
refer to the remembrance of the day 



when Moses came down from the mount 
with the second tables of the law, and 
proclaimed to the people the divine 
forgiveness of their sin in worshipping 
the golden calf. 

A tort et h droit. (Fr.) Right or 

A tort et k travers. (Fr.) At ran- 
dom ; without discretion. 

Atossa. A nickname conferred on 
Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, by 
Pope, because she was the friend of 
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, whom 
he likewise christened Sappho. 

A toutes jambes. (Fr.) As fast as 
one's legs can carry. 

A tout propos. (Fr.) At every 
turn ; ever and anon. 

AtropoB. In classical mythology 
one of the three Fates, — she who cut 
the thread of life. 

A. T. S. American Tract Society. 

AtB. At suit of. 

At spes non fracta. (Lat.) But hope 
is not broken. 

Attaooa, Attacca subito. (Ital.) Im- 
plies that the following movement is to be 
immediately begun or attacked. (Mus.) 

Attic Bee. Sophocles, the Athenian 
poet ; so named from the sweetness and 
melody of his compositions. 

Attic Bird. Another name for the 

Attic Hercules. Theseus, who went 
about, hke Hercules, his great contem- 
porary, destroying robbers and achiev- 
ing wondrous exploits. 

Attic Homer. Sophocles was so 
named by the ancients. 

Attic Muse. Xenophon, the histo- 
rian, was so named. He was a native 
of Athens, and his style was a model oi 

Attic Salt. Elegant and delicate 
wit. Salt, among the Greeks and Ro- 
mans, signified wit or sparkling thought 
cleverly expressed. Scipio omnes sale 
sitperaiat (Sdpio surpassed all in wit). 
The Athenians were noted for their 
wit; hence Attic salt means wit deli- 
cately expressed, as by those of Athens, 
the capital of Attica. 

Atticus. See the prefixes Christian, 
English, Irish, etc. 

Atticus. (Pseud.) (i) William Mac- 
call, English author (b. 1812). (2) One 
of the pseudonyms commonly attributed 
to Junius (j'. v.). 

Attila of the Piano. Thalberg was 
so named. 

Attiugians. Heretics of the eighth 
century, who solemnized baptism with 
the words, " I am the living water." 

Attorney-General to the Lantern. 
A title adopted by Camille Desmoulins 
(fl. 1 762-1 794), one of the earliest pro- 
moters of the French Revolution and of 
the excesses which culminated in the 
hanging of inoffensive persons to the 
lamp-ropes which crossed the streets of 

Atty. Attorney. 

Atty.-Gen. Attorney-General. 

A. U. A. American Unitarian Asso- 

Au bout de son Latin. (Fr.) " At 
the end of his Latin." Having ex- 
hausted his knowledge. 

Aub. Theol. Sem. Auburn Theo- 
logical Seminary. 

A. XJ. C. Anno urbis condita, or Ab 
urbe condita. In the year from the 
building of the city (Rome). 

Au contraire. (Fr.) On the con- 

Au courant. A French phrase which 
means " well acquainted with." In Eng- 
lish composition it is used in such 
sentences as, " He kept himself au cou- 
rant of all that was passing around 

Auctor pretiosa facit. (Lat.) The 
giver makes the gift more precious. 

Audaces fortuna juvat. (Lat.) For- 
tune favors the bold. 

Au d^sespoir. (Fr.) In a state of 

Audhumla ("the nourishing power"). 
In Scandinavian mythology the cow 
created by Surt to nourish Ymir. " She 
supplied him with four rivers of milk, 
and was herself sustained by licking the 

Audi alteram partem. (Lat.) "Hear 
the other side." Hear both sides, and 
then judge. 

Au fait. (Fr.) Acquainted with ; 
having a thorough knowledge of. 

Au fond. (Fr.) To the bottom, or 
main point. 

Aug. August. 

Augean Stables. A phrase borrowed 
from antiquity, and signifying an accu- 
mulation of corruption almost beyond 
the power of man to remove. Augeas, 
king of Elis, kept a herd of three thou- 



sand oxen in his stables, which had not 
been cleansed in thirty years. Hercules 
performed the task of renovating these 
in one day by turning into them the riv- 
ers Alpheus and Peneius. See Twelve 
Labors of Hercules. 

In classical mythology king 
of Elis, and one of the Argonauts. The 
cleansing of the filthy stables of this 
king formed the fifth of the twelve la- 
bors of Hercules (y. w.). See Augean 

Augur. (Pseud.) (i) Another of the 

pseudonyms attributed to Junius {q. v.). 

, (2) Henry Mort Feist, a sporting writer 

and racing "prophet" in the London 

" Life." 

Augusta Dargon. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Dr. Piercy. 

Augusta J. Evans. (Pseud.) Mrs. 
Augusta J. Evans Wilson, author of 
" Beulah." 

Augusta Haymond. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Edward E. Kidder. 

Augustan Age. The best, most 
prolific period. The term "Augus- 
tan " is from Augustus, emperor of 
Rome in the palmy days of Latin 

Augustan Age of England. The 

Elizabethan period. That of Anne is 
called the " Silver Age." 

Augustan Age of France. That of 
Louis XIV. (1610-1740). 
Augustan Age of Germany. The 

nineteenth century. 

Augustan Age of Portugal. The 
reign of Don Alphonso Henrique. In 
this reign Brazil was occupied; the Af- 
rican coast explored ; the sea-route to 
India was traversed; and Camoens 

Augustinians. Divines who main- 
tained, on the authority of Saint Augus- 
tine, that grace is effectual absolutely, 
quite independent of the person who 
receives it. 

Augustus. A surname conferred on 
(i) Philip II. of France {R. 1 165-1223), 
because he was born in the month of 
August; (2) Sigismund II. of Poland 
(fl. 1 520-1 572). 

Augustus Dunshunner. (Pseud.) 
William E. Aytoun, British critic and 
poet (1813-1865). 

Au jour le jour. (Fr.) Day by day; 
day in, day out. 

Auld Ane, or Old Clootie, or Auld 
Hangie. Colloquial names among the 
Scotch for the devil. See Auld Hornie. 

Auld Brig and New Brig, of Robert 
Burns, refer to the bridges over the 
river Ayr in Scotland. 

Auld Hornie. The heathen deities 
were degraded by the Christian Church 
into fallen angels; and Pan, with his 
horns, crooked nose, goat's beard, 
pointed ears, and goat's feet, was trans- 
formed to his Satanic majesty, and called 
Old (Scotch, "Auld") Hornie. 

Auld Reekie. The city of Edin- 
burgh ; so named on account either of 
(i) its filthy and ill-smelling thorough- 
fares, or (2) the canopy of cloud or 
smoke that seems to overhang the city 
when viewed from a distance. 

Au natural. (Fr.) To the life; in 
its natural state ; simply cooked. 

Aunt, Aunty, Uncle. The peculiar 
American use of these personal terms 
is really of Old England origin, though 
now obsolete in the mother-country. 
In 1793 some one gave a list of local 
expressions as belonging to Cornwall, 
and in regard to " aunt " writes : " It is 
common in Cornwall to call an elderly 
person ' aunt ' or ' uncle ' prefixed to their 
names. The same custom is said to 
prevail in the island of Nantucket, in 
North America." " Aunt " and " uncle " 
as familiar terms, it may be remembered, 
are as common among colored people as 
in Cornwall. 

Aunt Abby. (Pseud.) Abby Skin- 
ner, an American author. 

Aunt Adna. (Pseud.) Mrs. J. M. 
Dana, American author of juvenile tales. 

Aunt Carrie. (Pseud.) Mrs. Caro- 
line L. Smith, an American writer. 

Aunt Carry. (Pseud.) Mrs. C. E. S. 
Norton, author of sundry poems for chil- 
dren, 1847. 

Aunt Charity. (Pseud.) Mrs. Sarah 
C. [Smith] Yeiser, a well-known South- 
ern writer. See Azel^e. 

Aunt EfBe. (Pseud.) Mrs. Harkshaw. 
Aunt Fanny. (Pseud.) Mrs. F. D. B. 
Gage, a charming writer for children. 

Aunt Friendly. (Pseud.) Mrs. Sarah 
S. Tuthill Baker. 

Aunt Hattie. (Pseud.) Mrs. H.W.W. 

Aunt Kitty. (Pseud.) Maria J. Mac- 
intosh, an American writer (b. 1803). 



Aunt Lucy. (Pseud.) Mrs. L. E. B. 

Aunt Maggie. (Pseud.) Mrs. Ray- 
mond Blaythwait. 

Aunt Maguire. (Pseud.) Mrs. Fran- 
ces Miriam Berry, in " Godey's Lady's 

Aunt Margaret. (Pseud.) Miss Mar- 
garet Buchan, in " St. Nicholas." 

Aunt Mary. (Pseud.) Miss Mary A. 
Lathbury, American author and artist. 

Aunt Sophronia. (Pseud.) Mrs. Julia 
McNair Wright, author of temperance 
literature for the young. 

Au pied de la lettre. (Fr.) Liter- 

Au pis aller. (Fr.) At the worst. 

Aur. Aurum. (Lat.) Gold. 

Aura popularis. (Lat.) The gale of 
popular favor. 

Aurea mediocritas. (Lat.) The gold- 
en mean, or middle way. 

Au re3te. (Fr.) " To the remainder." 
In addition to this ; besides. 

Au revoir. (Fr.) Good-by ; farewell. 

Au rez-de-ohauasee. (Fr.) On the 

Auri sacra fames. (Lat.) The ac- 
cursed thirst for gold. 

Aurora. Early morning. According 
to Grecian mythology the goddess Au- 
rora, called by Homer "rosy-fingered," 
sets out before the sun, and is the pio- 
neer of his rising. 

Aurora's Tears. The morning dew. 
These tears are shed for the death of 
her son Memnon, who was slain by 
Achilles at the siege of Troy. 

Au3. Austria; Austrian. 

Ausonia. The ancient classic name 
for Italy, derived from Auson, son of 
Ulysses, and father of the Ausones. 
Romantic Spain, 

Gay-lilied fields of France, or, more refined, 

Tlie soft Ausonia's monumental reign. 

Campbell, Gertrude of Wyoming. 

Auster. A wind pernicious to flowers 
and health. In Italy one of the south 
winds was so called ; its modern name is 
the " Sirocco." 

Austin Stannus. (Pseud.) Clotilda 
Greaves, an American writer for the 

Austrian Hyena. An epithet given 
to Julius Jakob von Haynau (fl. 1786- 
1853), an Austrian general, execrated for 
his cruelty to the political prisoners 
who were unfortunately committed to 

his charge during the risings under Kos- 
suth and Gorgei. 

Austrian Iiip. The thick under-lip 
characteristic of the members of the 
house of Hapsburg, said to have been 
derived from Cymburgis, niece of a for- 
mer king of Poland. 

Austrian Succession. Charles VI. 
died Oct. 20, 1740. His daughter, 
Maria Theresa, succeeded him. The 
succession was, however, disputed by 
Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria, and 
August III. of Poland and Saxony. 
Spain claimed a part of the Austrian 
dominions, and Frederick the Great de- 
manded the cession of Silesia, his inva- 
sions of which began what is known to 
history as the " War of the Austrian Suc- 

Aut Ccesar aut nuUua. (Lat.) Either 
Cassar or nobody. ^ 

Authentic Doctor. Gregory of Rim- 
ini (d. I3S7). 

Author of "The Task." Cowper (fl. 
1 731-1800) is so named from the title 
of his principal poem. 

Auth. Ver., or A.V. Authorized Ver- 
sion (of the Bible). 

Auto da F6. (Port., literally " an act 
of faith ; " from the Latin actus, act, and 
fides, faith.) A day set apart by the In- 
quisition for examining heretics, who, if 
not acquitted, were burned. The Inquis- 
itors burned their victims, being forbid- 
den to shed blood; the Roman Church 
holding Ecclesia non novit sanguinem 
(The Church is untainted with blood). 

Autolyous. In classic mythology one 
of the Argonauts. He was a very daring 
and successful robber, and possessed 
the power to metamorphose both his 
plunder and himself. 

Automedon. Another name for a 
coachman. He was charioteer to Achilles. 

Au troisieme. (Fr.) On the third 

Aut vincere aut mori. (Lat.) Either 
to conquer or die. 

Aux armes. (Fr.) To arms. 

AuxUium ab alto. (Lat.) Help from 
on high. 

Av. Average ; avenue. 

Avant-coureur. (Fr.) A forerunner ; 
one sent before to announce the ap- 
proach of another. 

Avant-garde. (Fr.) The vanguard. 

Avant-propos. (Fr.) The prelimi- 
nary mattery the preface. 



Avatar. The incarnation of deity in 
Hindu mythology, or the appearance of 
a god in a visible form. It properly 
means " out of the boat," and the allu- 
sion is to the wide-spread tradition of 
Noah coming out of the ark. 

Avdp., or Avoir. Avoirdupois. 

Avec nautissement. (Fr.) With se- 

Avec permisaion. (Fr.) With per- 

Ave Maria. A Roman Catholic form 
of prayer to the Virgin Mary. The name 
is derived from the first two words in 
Latin, which signify " Hail, Mary ! " The 
word Ave is of two syllables, and is pro- 
nounced "A-ve." 

Avenger of Blood. The man who 
had the birthright, according to the Jew- 
ish polity, of taking vengeance on him 
who had killed one of his relatives. 
The Christless code, 
That must have life for a blow. 

Tennyson, Maud. 

A verbis ad verbera. (Lat.) From 
words to blows. 

Avernus. (Gr., "without birds.") A 
lake in Campania, so called from the 
belief that its sulphurous and mephitic 
vapors killed any bird that happened to 
inhale them. Poets call it the entrance 
to the infernal regions. 

Avertin, Saint. The patron saint of 
the insane. From this comes the French 
cant-word avertineux, lunatics. 

Avesta. The sacred scriptures of the 
Magians, composed by Zoroaster. 

A vinculo matrimonii. (Lat.) From 
the bonds of matrimony. 

Avolonte. (Fr.) "At will." At pleas- 

A votre sante. (Fr.) To your health. 

Axe. An Americanism. The dismis- 
sal of Government employees is figura- 
tively spoken of as being guillotined, or 
beheaded. See Blue Envelope. 

Azenus. See Inhospitable Sea. 

A. Y. M. Ancient York Masons. 

Ayrshire Poet. Robert Burns, who 
was born near the town of Ayr. 

Azamat Batuk. (Pseud.) Napoleon 
L. Thieblin, a miscellaneous writer and 
correspondent (d. i888). See Rigolo. 

Azazel. The scapegoat. So called 
by the Jews because the high-priest 
cast lots on two goats. One lot was 
for the Lord, and the other lot for 
Azazel, or Satan ; and the goat on 
which the latter lot fell was the scape- 

Azaziel. In Lord Byron's " Heaven 
and Earth,'' a seraph who fell in love 
with Anah, a granddaughter of Cain. 
When the Flood came, he carried her 
under his wing to some other planet. 

Azazil. In Paradise Lost, Azazil is 
the standard-bearer of the infernal host. 
According to the Koran, when God com- 
manded the angels to worship Adam, 
Azazil replied, " Why should the son of 
fire fall down before a son of clay?" 
and God cast him out of heaven. His 
name was then changed to Eblis, which 
means "despair." 

Azelee. (Pseud.) Mrs. Sarah C. 
[Smith] Yeiser in her contributions to 
the New Orleans " Crescent." 

Azor's Mirror. Zemira is the name 
of the lady, and Azor that of the bear, 
in Marmontel's tale of " Beauty and the 
Beast." Zemira entreats the kind mon- 
ster to let her see her father, if only 
for a few moments ; so, drawing aside a 
curtain, he shows him to her in a magic 
mirror. This mirror was a sort of teles- 
cope, which rendered objects otherwise 
too far ofi distinctly visible. 

Azrael. In Hebrew and Mohamme- 
dan mythology the angel who watches 
by the dying and separates the soul 
from the body. 



B. Born; Boron. 

B. A. Bachelor of Arts. 

Ba. Barium. 

Baal. A name applied by the He- 
brews to the gods of the heathen na- 
tions by whom they were surrounded, 
but used with more particular reference 
to the chief male deity of the Phoeni- 
cians, the sun-god. 

Baalbeo of Ireland. Kilmallock, in 
Limerick, noted for its ruins. 

Bab, Lady. A waiting-maid on a lady 
so called, who assumes the airs with 
the name and address of her mistress. 
Her fellow-servants and other servants 
address her as " Lady Bab," or " Your 

Babylon. See Modern Babylon 
and Mystical Babylon. 

Babble Brook. (Pseud.) John H. 
McNaughton, of Caledonia, N.Y., author 
of the famous poem " Belle Mahone." 

Babbler. (Pseud.) (i) Alfred Trum- 
ble, in his articles in the New York 
"Sunday News." (2) Hugh Kelley, in 
the "Weekly Chronicle," etc. 

Babes of the Wood. Bands of out- 
laws who infested the hills of County 
Wicklow, Ireland, at the end of the 
eighteenth century, and who were 
charged with acts of great iniquity. 

Babeuf s Conspiracy. " Gracchus " 
Babeuf was editor of the " Tribune du 
Peuple"in Paris. In 1796 he plotted 
against the Directory with a view to 
obtaining a division of property. _ He 
was condemned to death, and killed 
himself May 27, 1797. 

Babington's Conspiracy. A plot to 
assassinate Queen Elizabeth and make 
Mary Queen of Scots queen in her 
stead. It was approved by a number of 
the Catholic gentry of the realm, among 
whom was Babington, who believed that 
Mary out of gratitude would marry him, 
should the scheme prove successful. 
But the plot was discovered, and four- 
teen of the conspirators were executed 
Sept. 20, 21, 1586. 

Baboon. Arbuthnot, in his " History 
of John Bull," satirized Louis XIV. of 
France under the name " Lewis Baboon," 
and Philip, Duke of Anjou, grandson of 
that monarch, under the name "Philip 

Baby Charles. A nickname con- 
ferred by James I. on his son Charles, 
afterward Charles I. 

Bacchanalia. Festivals in honor of 
Bacchus, characterized by their licen- 
tiousness and debauchery. Plato says 
he has seen the whole population of 
Athens drunk at these festivals. 

Bacchant. A person given to habits 
of drinking, — so called from the " bac- 
chants," or men admitted to the feasts 
of Bacchus. 

Bacchante. A female winebibber, 
— so called from the "Bacchantes," or 
priestesses of Bacchus. 

Bacchus. In classic mythology the 
god of wine, son of Jupiter and Semele ; 
usually described as a beautiful but del- 
icate youth. 

Bachelor Bluff. (Pseud.) Oliver Bell 
Bunce, an American author. 

Bachelor President, James Bu- 
chanan was the only unmarried Presi- 
dent of the United. States, and was 
consequently called as above. President 
Cleveland was at the time of his inaugu- 
ration unmarried, but he married during 
his term of office, June 2, 1886. 

Backbone of the Continent. The 
Cordilleras, forming the Andes in South 
America, and the Rocky Mountains in 
North America. 

Back-stair Influence. Intriguing or 
manoeuvring. The palaces or mansions 
of the great were usually built with a 
staircase for those state visitors who 
came publicly, and with another for per- 
sons desiring to see the great man pri- 
vately. Hence it was often desirable to 
be in favor with the guardians of the 
back stairs, who could admit or exclude 
at pleasure. 

Backwoodsman. (Pseud.) Thomas 
D'Arcy McGee, Canadian author and 

Bacon of Theology. Bishop Butler 
(fl. 1 692-1 752), author of the " Analogy." 

Bacon's Rebellion. Nathaniel Bacon, 
"The Virginia Rebel," in 1676, raised a 
force to chastise the Indians, for which 
Governor Berkeley proclaimed him a 
rebel, and sent a force against him. 
He was captured, tried, acquitted, and 
restored to all his honors and rights. 



Bactrian Sage. Zoroaster, the founder 
of the Magian religion. He was a na- 
tive of Bactria, the modern Balkh. 

Bad, The. Charles II. of Navarre 
(fl. 1332-1387). 

Baddeley Cake. The annual cutting 
of the Baddeley Cake forms a curious 
custom at Drury Lane Theatre, London, 
on Twelfth Night, January 6. William 
Baddeley, the last actor to wear the uni- 
form of " His Majesty's servants," left 
^100 in bank stock, the income from 
which was to purchase a Twelfth Cake, 
with wine and punch, which the ladies 
and gentlemen of the company were re- 
quested "to partake of every Twelfth 
Night in the great green-room." 

Baden-Baden, The American. See 
American Baden-Baden. 

Badge-men. Paupers or inhabitants 
of almshouses, because they frequently 
wore a badge or an emblem of some 
sort. See Blue-gowns. 

Badger. This word, applied to a 
trader, is common in old plays and 
books. In the " State Papers, Domestic 
Series," 1 547-1 580, is the following: 
"Dec. 17, 1565. Note of certain per- 
sons upon Humber side, who buy up 
great quantities of corn, two of whom 
are authorized badgers." By 5 Eliz. c. 
12, badgers are to be licensed annually 
under penalty of £^. The word means 
" corn-dealer." 

Badger State. Wisconsin, — a repre- 
sentation of which animal appears on its 

Badinage. (Fr.) Light or playful talk. 

Badinguet. A nickname given to 
Napoleon III. It was the name of the 
man whom he shot in the Boulogne af- 
fair, and was conferred by his enemies 
in memory of that event. 

Bad Lands. " In the arid region of 
the western portion of the United 
States there are certain tracts of coun- 
try which have received the name of 
mauvaises terres, or bad lands. These 
are dreary wastes, naked hills with 
rounded or conical forms, composed of 
sand, sandy clays, and fine fragments 
of shaly rocks, with steep slopes, and, 
yielding to the pressure of the foot, 
they are climbed only by the greatest 
toil, and it is a labor of no inconsidera- 
ble magnitude to penetrate or cross 
such a district of country." — Powell, 
Exploration of the Colorado of the 

Bad Old Man. Gen. Jubal Early 
was thus nicknamed by the Confederate 
soldiery under his command. 

Bsetica, or Bsetio Vale. Granada 
and Andalusia, or Spain in general. So 
called from the river Bsetis, or Guadal- 

While o'er the Bsetic vale. 
Or through the towers of Memphis [Egypt], or 

the palms 
By sacred Ganges watered, I conduct 
The English merchant. 

Akenside, Hymn to the Naiads. 

BagateUe. (Fr.) A trifle. 

Baggage-car, or IiUggage-van. These 
are the synonymous terms in vogue re- 
spectively on American and English 
railroads. Similarly what we call " bag- 
gage" the English term "luggage." See 

Bagman. A commercial traveller, 
who carries a bag with specimens to 
show to those whose custom he solicits. 
In former times commercial travellers 
used to ride a horse with saddle-bags 
sometimes so large as almost to conceal 
the rider. 

Bairam. The name given to two 
movable Moslem feasts. The first, 
which begins on the first day of Lent 
and lasts three days, is a kind of Pas- 
chal feast. The second occurs seventy 
days later, and is not unlike the Jewish 
Feast of Tabernacles. 

Baker Poet. Jean Reboul, French 
versifier, who published a volume of 
Poisies in 1836. 

Baker's Boy of Anduze. Jean Cava- 
lier (1679-1740), a brilliant and success- 
ful French Protestant leader in the 
religious wars of the seventeenth 

Baker's Dozen. Strictly, thirteen 
for twelve ; but often used colloquially 
to denote good measure, running over. 
The phrase arose out of the custom of 
English bakers, when a penalty was in- 
flicted for short weight, giving an extra 
loaf, so as to be on the safe side. The 
thirteenth loaf was named the " vantage 
loaf." ® 

Baker's Light Bobs. The Tenth 
Dragoon Guards in the English army 
are thus nicknamed after their former 
colonel. Baker Pasha. 

Bal. Balance. 

Bal abound. (Fr.) A subscription 



Balak, in the second part of "Absa- 
lom and Achitophel," a satire by Dryden 
and Tate, is meant for Dr. Burnet, 
author of " Burnet's Own Time." 

Balance of Power. An ideal con- 
dition of affairs aimed at by the states- 
men of Europe, whereby no one nation 
attains such preponderance of strength 
as to endanger the existence of the 

Balance of Trade. The money- 
value difference between the exports 
and imports of a nation. 

Baland of Spain. A man of herculean 
strength, who called himself Fierabras. 

Bal ohamp6tro. (Fr.) A ball held 
in the open air, or out of doors. 

Bald, The. Charles I, of France, son 
of Louis le D^bonnaire (fl. 823-877). 

Bald Eagle of Westchester. James 
William Husted, a legislator of the 
State of New York (b. 1833), and a 
power in the politics of the Empire 

Baldur. In Scandinavian mythology 
the second son of Odin and Fngga, the 
god of the summer sun. His untimely 
death typifies the disappearance of the 
sun below the horizon during the winter 

Baldwin, in Tasso's " Jerusalem De- 
livered," is the restless and ambitious 
dulce of Bologna, leader of twelve 
hundred horse in the allied Christian 
army. He was Godfrey's brother. 

Baldy Smith. The army sobriquet 
of Gen. William Farrar Smith (b. 1824), 
who performed gallant service in the 
Army of the Cumberland. 

Balham Mystery, or Bravo Case. 
On April 18, 1876, IVIr. Charles D. T. 
Bravo, an English barrister, died under 
suspicious circumstances at Balham, in 
Surrey. Suicide was at first suspected, 
but later developments pointed to poi- 
soning. Verdict rendered, " Wilful mur- 
der by administration of tartar emetic; " 
but the guilty parties were never dis- 

Balios. One of the horses given by 
Neptune to Peleus on his wedding-day. 
It afterward belonged to Achilles. 

Balitsama. The realm of Bali, the 
Indian Pluto. 

Ballet. (Fr.) A theatrical represen- 
tation of a story or fable by means of 
dancing and music. In England the 
ballet is the closing piece of an even- 
ing's performance. 

Balloon TyUer. James Tytler, a Scot- 
tish scholar, who emigrated to America 
in 1796; he gained his sobriquet be- 
cause he was the first in Scotland to 
ascend in a fire-balloon on the Mon- 
golfian principle. He died in Salem, 
Mass., 1805. 

Balmung. The sword of Siegfried, 
forged by Wieland, the Vulcan of the 
Scandinavians. Wieland, in a trial of 
merit, clove Amilias, a brother smith, 
through steel helmet and armor down 
to the waist; but the cut was so fine 
that Amilias was not even aware that 
he was wounded till he attempted to 
move, when he fell into two pieces. 

Bait., Balto. Baltimore. 

Baltic Question. A controversy of 
long standing between the Baltic Prov- 
inces and the Russian Government 
concerning the rights and privileges 
confirmed to their mhabitants by Alex- 
ander II., February, 1856. 

Bambocciades. Grotesque scenes in 
low life, such as country wakes, penny 
weddings, and so on. They are so called 
from the Italian word bamboccio (a crip- 
ple), the nickname given to Pieter van 
Laer, the first Dutch painter of such 
scenes, distinguished in Rome. 

Bamboozle. (Ital. bamboccio, an old 
dotard, or a babyish gull.) To cheat by 
cunning, or daze with tricks. It is a 
gypsy word, meaning to dress a man in 
bamboos to teach him swimming. Like 
the bladders used for the same purpose 
by little wanton boys, the apparatus is 
dangerous and deceitful. 

Bampton Lectures. These lectures 
are named in honor of their founder, the 
Rev. John Bampton, canon of Salisbury, 
who left estates originally worth £110 
(= $600) per annum to the University 
of Oxford for the endowment of eight 
divinity lectures to be delivered at Great 
St. iVIary's yearly, and to be published at 
the expense of the estate within two 
months of their being preached. " The 
preacher is to lecture on one of the fol- 
lowing subjects : The Confirmation of 
the Christian Faith, and the Confutation 
of all Heretics and Schismatics; The 
Divine Authority of the Scriptures ; The 
Authority of the Primitive Fathers in 
Matters of Christian Faith and Practice ; 
The Divinity of Christ ; The Divinity of 
the Holy Ghost ; The Apostles' and Ni- 
cene Creeds. No person is qualified to 
preach these lectures who has not taken 
the degree of M.A. either at Oxford or 



Cambridge, and the same person shall 
never preach them twice." The first 
course was delivered in 1780. 

Banbury Cakes are of great antiquity. 
In "A Treatise of Melancholy, by T. 
Bright, Doctor of Physic, 1586," is the 
following paragraph : " Sodden wheate 
is a grosse and melancholicke nourish- 
mente, and bread, especiallie of the fine 
flower unleavened : of this sorte are 
bagge puddings, or panne puddings 
made with flower, frittars, pancakes, 
such as we calle Banberrie Cakes, and 
those greate ones confected with butere, 
egges, etc., used at weddings ; and how- 
soever it be prepared, rye and bread 
made thereof carrieth with itte plentie 
of melancholie." 
Bandanna. See Red Bandanna. 
Banded Peak. Another name for 
Mount Hesperus, a peak of the San 
Juan Mountains in Southern Colorado. 
It is composed mainly of volcanic rocks, 
trachyte, and shale, and at a distance 
its sides appear banded, or streaked. 

Bande Noire. A name conferred on 
the capitalists who bought up the church 
property during the French Revolution. 
The term means " Black Band." They 
pulled down many shrines and destroyed 
many sacred relics. 

Bangorian Controversy. This fa- 
mous theological dispute was occa- 
sioned by Dr. Benjamin Hoadly, bishop 
of Bangor, preaching a sermon be- 
fore George I., March 31, 1 71 7, upon 
the text, " My kingdom is not of this 
world " (John xviii. 36), in which he 
demonstrated the spiritual nature of 
Christ's kingdom. He drew upon him- 
self the general indignation of the 
clergy, who published hundreds of pam- 
phlets in refutation. 

Banian Days. Days when no meat 
is served to a ship's crew. The term 
is derived from the Banians, a class 
of Hindu merchants who carried on a 
most extensive trade with the interior 
of Asia, but being a caste of the Vaisya, 
abstained from the use of meat. 

Banker Poet Samuel Rogers, au- 
thor of " The Pleasures of Memory." 
See Bard of Memory. 

Bankers' Ceise, or Case of the 
Bankers. The petition of Hornblee 
and others to the Barons of the Ex- 
chequer, in 1691 (14 How. St. Tr. i), 
for the payment of certain annuities 
granted by Charles II. to repay money 
originally loaned to him on the security 

of the revenues. On appeal, the House 
of Lords decided that the grant was 
binding upon his successor, and con- 
tinued a charge upon the revenue. 

Bank Holidays. England and Ire- 
land : Easter Monday, Monday in Whit- 
sun week, first Monday in August, and 
December 26 (if a week-day). Scot- 
land : New Year's Day, Christmas Day 
(if either falls on Sunday, the following 
Monday to be a bank holiday). Good 
Friday, and first Monday in May and 
August. United States : Christmas and 
New Year's Day, February 22, May 30, 
July 4, and all other legal holidays of 
the States in which banks do busmess. 
See Saint Lubbock. 

Banks's Horse. A learned horse, 
called Marocco, belonging to one Banks, 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. It is 
said that one of his exploits was the 
ascent of St. Paul's steeple, London. 

Bannatyne Club. A literary club 
which took its name from George Ban- 
natyne, to whose industry we owe the 
preservation of very much of the early 
Scotch poetry. It was instituted in 1823 
by Sir Walter Scott, and had for its ob- 
ject the publication of rare works illus- 
trative of Scotch history, poetry, and 
general literature. The club was dis- 
solved in 1859. 

Banshee. In Irish folk-lore a spe- 
cies of female evil genius called "the 
wife of the fairies," who is believed to 
herald an approaching death by utter- 
ing unearthly shrieks and wailings. 

Baptiste. "Jean Baptiste" is a col- 
lective nickname for French Canadians, 
on account of its commonness among 
them as a Christian name. 
Bar. Barometer; Baruch. 
Barataria. Sancho Panza's island- 
city, over which he was appointed gov- 
ernor. His table was presided over by 
Dr. Pedro Rezio de Augero, who caused 
every dish set upon the board to be re- 
moved without being tasted, — some be- 
cause they heated the blood, and others 
because they chilled it ; some for one 
ill effect, and some for another ; so that 
Sancho was allowed to eat nothing. 
The word is from barato, cheap. 

The meat was put on the table and whisked 
away like Sancho's inauguration feast at Bara- 
taria. — Thackeray. 

Barbadoes Leg. A disease character- 
ized by hypertrophy of the skin and of 
the subcutaneous areolar tissue, which 
seems to be identical with the elephan- 



tiasis of the Arabs. Notwithstanding 
its name, it may affect the arm, female 
breast, etc. It begins with acute fe- 
brile symptoms, and inflammation of 
the superficial lymphatic vessels. The 
part swells, and becomes uneasy from 
tension, the glands being especially 
large and hard. The skin varies in ap- 
pearance, being sometimes white and 
shining, and in other cases of a dark 
color, and studded with projecting veins. 
The swelling is sometimes very great 
and quite hard. In some parts of the 
body, skin which would naturally weigh 
less than a couple of ounces is thus 
converted into a tumor weighing from 
one hundred to one hundred and fifty 
pounds. The disease is endemic in 
the tropics ; and in the cases which we 
see in this country, it always appears 
that the disease commenced in a hot 

BaTban9ons. Troops of adventurers 
and free-lances in the twelfth century, 
who made war a trade, and lent them- 
selves for money to any one who would 
pay them. So called from Brabant, 
whence many of them came. See 

Barbarossa. See Red Beard. 

Barbary Pirates. "The countries on 
the Mediterranean coast of Africa from 
Egypt to the Atlantic, namely, Morocco, 
A%eria, Tunis, and Tripoli (which are 
known collectively as the Barbary Pow- 
ers), had been in the habit of preying 
on the commerce of nations that re- 
fused to pay a tribute to them. Shortly 
after the Revolution these pirates di- 
rected their operations against Ameri- 
can commerce, to protect which, treaties 
were negotiated with the Barbary States, 
— in 1786-87 with Morocco, in 1795 with 
Algiers, in 1796 with Tripoli, and in 1799 
with Tunis. By these treaties the United 
States purchased immunity for its com- 
merce by gross sums or yearly tributes. 
This shameful course was made neces- 
sary by our lack of an effective navy. 
But the Government was now forced to 
organize a small navy, which was found 
useful against Tripoli. That country, 
becoming dissatisfied with the tribute, 
declared war in 1801. In 1803 some 
half a dozen American vessels were de- 
spatched to the Mediterranean. In Oc- 
tober the frigate ' Philadelphia ' ran 
aground in the harbor of Tripoli and 
was captured. Decatur in the follow- 
ing February sailed into the harbor at 

night, boarded the 'Philadelphia' un- 
der the guns of the enemy, killed or 
forced overboard every one of her de- 
fenders, set fire to the vessel, and es- 
caped without losing a man and with 
only four wounded. A land expedition 
conducted by General Eaton, the Ameri- 
can consul at Tunis, terminated the war 
and forced Tripoli to make peace in 
June, 1805. In 1812 Algiers declared 
war against the United States. As soon 
as the war then commencing against 
England had been brought to an end, 
our Government turned its attention to 
Algiers. In the spring of 181 5 Commo- 
dore Decatur was sent with nine or ten 
vessels to chastise the pirates. In June 
he captured the largest of their frigates, 
and soon after took another vessel. He 
then dictated a treaty to the Dey of Al- 
giers, which was signed June 30, 1815, 
relinquishing all claims to tribute in the 
future. Tunis and Tripoli were next 
forced to pay an indemnity for permit- 
ting British men-of-war to seize Ameri- 
can vessels in their ports during the War 
of 1812. Thenceforth there was no more 
tribute paid to the Barbary States, and 
their depredations on American com- 
merce ceased. The troubles with these 
countries had forced the formation of a 
navy on the country, despite the wishes 
of the Republicans, and thus prepared 
the United States for the war with Eng- 
land. They also led to a slight increase 
in customs duties in 1804 and following 
yearsfor the purpose of forming the Med- 
iterranean Fund, as it was called, to pro- 
tect American commerce." — Brown 
AND Strauss. 

Barbecue. (Span., barbacda.) A term 
used in the Southern States and in the 
West Indies for dressing a hog whole, 
which, being split to the backbone and 
laid flat upon a large gridiron, is roasted 
over a charcoal fire. A writer in the 
"Westminster Review" supposes the 
word to be a corruption of the French 
word barbe d queue, i. e., from snout to 
tail. In former times, especially in the 
presidential campaign of 1840, immense 
open-air meetings were held for polit- 
ical discussion and speech-making, at 
which roasting an ox whole and other 
rude diversions were indulged in. 

Barber Poet. Jacques Jasmin (1798- 
1864), the " last of the troubadours." He 
was a barber of Gascony. 

Barber, Tbe. A severe storm, accom- 
panied by intense cold, peculiar to the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. Sometimes with 



a high wind the air becomes much colder 
than the open water. The latter, being 
relatively hot, begins to smoke, and the 
vapor freezes into peculiarly sharp spi- 
cules. The poudre snow-crystals of the 
Northwest are usually small, dry, and 
six-sided, and though penetrating as 
sand, they are soft, and when driven by 
a gale, nearly cut the skin of the face ; 
hence the name " barber " is applied to 
this phenomenon. The name is also ap- 
plied to a phase of cold along the coasts 
of Nova Scotia arid New England. When 
a vessel is caught by a gale of wind in 
a cold Arctic current, the spray freezes 
the moment it touches the deck or rig- 
ging. Every block is turned into a lump 
of ice, men become coated with it like an 
icicle, and sometimes such a weight of 
ice forms on the bow that the stern is 
lifted out of the water, and the ship be- 
comes unmanageable for want of steer- 
ing power. , 

Barber's Pole. Anciently barbers 
performed minor operations in surgery, 
and in particular when bleeding was 
customary, it was to the barber that the 
patients applied to be bled. " To assist 
this operation, it being necessary for the 
patient to grasp a staA, a stick or pole 
was always kept by the barber-surgeon, 
together with the fillet or bandaging he 
used for tying the patient's arm. When 
the pole was not in use, tlie tape was 
tied to it, so that they might be both to- 
gether when wanted, and in this state 
pole and tape were hung at the door as 
a sign. At length, instead of hanging 
out the identical pole used in the oper- 
ation, a pole was painted with stripes 
round it in imitation of the real pole 
and bandage, and thus came the sign." 
Lord Thurfow, in a speech in the House 
of Lords, July 1 7, 1 797, said that " by a 
statute still in force barbers and sur- 
geons were each to use a pole [as a 
sign]. The barbers were to have theirs 
blue and white, striped, with no other 
appendage; but the surgeons' — which 
was the same in other respects — was 
likewise to have a galley-pot and a red 
rag, to denote the particular nature of 
their vocation." The last barber-sur- 
geon in London was a man named Mid- 
dleditch, of Great Suffolk Street, in the 
Borough. He died there in 1821. Mr. 
Timbs, in his "Autobiography," says, 
" I have a vivid recollection of his den- 

Barcarolle. (Ital.) A song sung by 
the gondoliers of Venice. 

Bardesanists. Followers of Barde- 
sanes, of Mesopotamia, who denied the 
resurrection, incarnation, etc., of our 
Lord (about 175 A. D.). 

Bard of all Time. William Shak- 
speare. See Bard of Avon. 

Bard of Arthurian Romance. Al- 
fred Tennyson, the poet-laureate of 

Bard of Avon. William Shakspeare, 
who was born and buried at Stratford- 

Bard of Ayrshire. Robert Burns, 
who was a native of Ayrshire. 

Bard of Hope. Thomas Campbell 
(i 777-1 844), author of "The Pleasures 
of Hope." 

Bard of Memory. Samuel Rogers, 
author of "The Pleasures of Memory." 
See Banker Poet. 

Bard of Olney. Cowper, who re- 
sided at Olney, in Bucks, for many years. 

Bard of Prose. Boccaccio. 

Bard of Rydal Mount. William 
Wordsworth, whose home was Rydal 
Mount, in the English Lake Country. 
See Poet of the Excursion. 

Bard of the Imagination. Mark 
Akenside, author of " The Pleasures of 
the Imagination." 

Bard of Twickenham. Alexander 
Pope, who resided at Twickenham, on 
the banks of the Thames. 

Bards of Epworth. (Pseud.) Samuel 
Wesley, Sr., Samuel Wesley, Jr., Charles 
Wesley, and Maria Wesley. There was 
published in London in 1856 a work en- 
titled " Gems from the Wesley Cabinet," 
by the Bards of Epworth. 

Barebone's Parliament. The " Lit- 
tle Parliament," summoned by Oliver 
Cromwell, which met July 4, 1653, was 
so called from Praise-God Barebone, a 
leather-merchant, and one of its mem- 
bers. It consisted of about one hun- 
dred and forty men of good position 
and of well-approved life and ■ religion, 
but most of them of very destructive 
social principles. They proceeded to 
abolish the Court of Chancery, and 
were also about to abolish tithes, to 
the alarm of Cromwell himself and the 
more moderate men, when the Parlia- 
ment dissolved itself, December 12 of 
the same year. 

Barguest. A fairy hobgoblin, armed 
with teeth and claws, and much dreaded 
by the superstitious in the North of Eng- 



Barker. A vociferous touter employed 
at the entrance to a cheap theatre, a dime 
museum, or a mock auction, to apprise 
passers-by of the entertainment or pro- 
ceedings going on within. 

Barking up the Wrong Tree. See 

Bark of Peter The Roman Catho- 
lic Church has been so named, in allu- 
sion to the claim of its priesthood that 
the Apostle Peter was its founder. 

Bark-peelers. Woodsmen of Sulli- 
van County, N. Y., who strip hemlock 
bark for tanning. 

Bar'l. A slangy abbreviation for the 
word "barrel," used in politics to denote 
that which the "barrel" is supposed to 
contain ; namely, money. Any rich poli- 
tician who opens his coffers for the ben- 
efit of his party is said to " tap his bar'l." 
Barlamm and Josaphat. One of the 
most widely current religious romances 
of the Middle Ages, " relating to the 
conversion of the Indian prince Josa- 
phat by the hermit Barlamm, and there- 
by illustrating the power of Christianity 
to overcome temptation, and proving its 
superiority over all other creeds. The 
story has been discovered to be a Chris- 
tianized version of the legendary history 
of Buddha, agreeing with it in all essen- 
tials and many details." 

Barmecide, Barmecide's Feast. The 
word " Barmecide " is used to express 
the uncertainty of things on which we 
set our heart. As the beggar looked for- 
ward to a feast, but found only empty 
dishes, so many a joy is found to be mere 
illusion when we come to partake of it. 
The story of Barmecide's Feast is told 
as follows in the " Arabian Nights " : 
"A prince of the illustrious family of 
the name, which flourished at Bag- 
dad contemporaneously with the Caliph 
Haroun-Al-Raschid, ordered rich viands 
for a famished beggar named Shaca- 
bac, and, before they could be brought, 
called upon him to help himself to the 
different dishes, naming them one after 
another. The beggar humored the joke, 
pretending to eat, and praising the enter- 
tainment, and even protesting that he 
could eat no more. In the end, the ec- 
centric host, pleased with the patient 
complaisance of his guest, ordered a real 
and sumptuous entertainment for him, 
in place of that of which he had pre- 
viously partaken only in imagination." 

It is, to be sure, something like the feast 
which the Barmecide served up to Alnaschar 

[Shacabac] ; and we cannot expect to get fat 
upon such diet. — Sir W. Scott. 

The Barmecide's dinner to Shacabac was only 
one degree removed from these solemn ban- 
quets'. — Thackeray. 

Barnabas Day. June ii. Saint Bar- 
nabas was a fellow-laborer of Saint 

Barnabites. An order of monks so 
called because the church of Saint Bar- 
nabas in Milan was given to them to 
preach in. They are also called " Can- 
ons of Saint Paul," because the original 
society made a point of reading Saint 
Paul's Epistles. 

Barnacle. (Pseud.) A. C. Barnes, 
American litterateur. 

Barnacles, (i) Chronic office-holders. 
Dickens has held the Barnacle family 
up to everlasting ridicule. (2) This word 
is often used by old people to signify 
"spectacles." It may have been for- 
merly the common name for them. 
(3) The word " barnacles " is used by 
farriers as the name of an instrument 
by which they hold a horse by the nose. 
As spectacles are supported by the nose, 
there is some analogy. 

Barnburners, (i) Lawless individuals 
who secretly set fire to the barns of the 
great landed proprietors in the State of 
New York in the first half of the nine- 
teenth century. (2) A nickname formerly 
given to the more radical and progres- 
sive section of the Democratic party 
in the United States, who aimed at re- 
moving the abuses connected with banks 
and corporations, — in allusion to the 
story of an old Dutchman who relieved 
himself of rats by burning his barns, 
which they infested. 

Barney Maglone. (Pseud.) Robert 
A. Wilson, in the Boston " Republic." 

Barney Williams. The stage-name 
of Barney O'Flaherty. 

Barnwell. (Pseud.) Robert Barnwell 
Roosevelt in his " Game Fish of North 
America," 1862. 

Barons' War. See War of the Bar- 

Barrel Mirabeau. (Fr., Mirabeau- 
Tonnenu.) A nickname given to Boni- 
face Riquetti, Viscount Mirabeau (1754- 
1792), brother to the great tribune, on 
account of his girth and the amount of 
liquor he could consume. 

Barrel-of-Butter Island. A fanciful 
name given to a skerry or islet off the 
south coast of Pomona, one of the Ork- 
neys. The tenant pays the proprietor a 



barrel of butter annually for the privi- 
lege of killing the seals on it. 

Barrels Blues. The English Fourth 
Regiment of the Line is so nicknamed. 

Barrens. Wild land bearing neither 
timber nor grass. 

Barrier Treaty. That by which the 
Low Countries were ceded to the Em- 
peror Charles VI. It was signed by 
the English, Imperial, and Dutch gov- 
ernments, Nov. 5, 1715. 

Barry Cornwall. (Pseud.) Bryan 
Waller Procter, English poet (1787- 

Barry Gray. (Pseud.) Robert S. 
CoflSn, American printer and poet (1797- 

Bart., or Bt. Baronet. 

Bartender, Barmaid. Whereas in 
England attendants at bars and re- 
freshment counters are women, termed 
"barmaids," in the United States the 
same place is invariably filled by a man, 
who is called a " bartender." 

Bartholomew Bouverie. According 
to a book about Eton, by the Rev. A. E. 
L'Estrange, it appears that in 1827 Mr. 
Gladstone (then presumably in the sixth 
form) edited the "Eton Miscellany," 
under the assumed name of " Bartholo- 
mew Bouverie." 

Bartholomew Pig. A coarse nick- 
name for a very fat person. One of the 
chief attractions at Bartholomew's Fair, 
London, was a prize pig roasted whole. 

Bartholomew, Saint, the Hibernian. 
See Hibernian Saint Bartholomew. 

Barton Gray. (Pseud.) George H. 
Sass in " The Independent," New York. 

Barzillai. In Dryden's " Absalom 
and Achitophel," the Duke of Ormond, 
the faithful friend of Charles II., is por- 
trayed under this name. The allusion 
is to 2 Sam. xvii. 27-29. 

Bas Bleu. (Fr.) A blue-stocking ; a 
literary lady. See Blue-stocking. 

Basha-w. An arrogant, domineering 
man ; so called from the Turkish vice- 
roys and provincial governors, each of 
whom bears the title of basch, pacha. 

Bashibazouk. (Pseud.) William 
Harding, a sporting writer on " The 
Clipper," New York. 

Basin States. A recent name for 
those States and Territories lying in the 
great depression or basin of the United 
States west of the Rocky Mountains. 
They are Utah, Idaho, Nevada, and 

Basis virtutum constantia, (Lat.) 
Constancy is the foundation of all 

Basochians. French lawyers. When 
the French Parliament ceased to be the 
council of the king, and confined itself 
to the administration of justice, a dis- 
tinction of name became imperative ; so 
the nobles, or court party, called them- 
selves " courtiers," and the lawyers took 
the name of "basochians," or king's 

Bastard of Orleans. Jean Dunois 
(fl. 1403-1468), a natural son of Louis, 
Duke of Orleans, brother of Charles VI. 
"He was one of the most brilliant sol- 
diers France ever produced." 

Batavia, formerly the name of Hol- 
land, is often used in modem times as a 
poetical designation of that country. It 
is derived from the Batavi, a Celtic 
tribe who dwelt there. 

Flat Batavia's willowy groves. 


Bateau. A long light boat. 

Bates's Case. An English prosecu- 
tion (i6o6) of a merchant, in which the 
claim of James I. to impose duties as 
a personal prerogative was sustained, 
— a question afterward settled the other 
way under Cromwell. Also called the 
" Case of the Impositions." 

Bath-Kol. " Daughter of the Voice." 
A sort of divination common among the 
ancient Jews after the gift of prophecy 
had ceased. When an appeal was made 
to Bath-Kol, the first words uttered after 
the appeal were considered oracular. 

Bathsheba. In " Absalom and Achi- 
tophel " the Duchess of Portsmouth, a 
favorite court lady of Charles II. The 
allusion is to the wife of Uriah the 
Hittite, criminally beloved by David. 
The Duke of Monmouth says: — 
" My father, whom with reverence I name. 

Charmed into ease, is careless of his fame ; 

And, bribed with petty sums of foreign gold, 

Is grown in Bathsheba's embraces old." 

Batracbomyomachia. A storm in a 
puddle ; much ado about nothing. The 
word is the name of a mock-heroic poem 
in Greek, supposed to be by Pigres of 
Caria, meaning "The Battle of the 
Frogs and Mice." 

Battle of Spurs, (i) The name 
given to a fight between the French 
and English in 1 5 13 at Guinegate, in 
which the former were defeated. It 
was so named because the French, 
running away, used their spurs more 



than their swords. (2) At the battle of 
Courtrai, Belgium, in 1302, Robert of 
Artois was vtmquished by the Flemings. 
This conflict received its name from the 
number of gilt spurs assembled. 

Battle of the Barriers. A desperate 
struggle under the walls of Paris, 
March 30, 1814, between the forces 
under Napoleon and the allies. The 
latter were victorious, and the capitula- 
tion of Paris and the abdication of 
Napoleon followed. 

Battle of the Books. A satirical 
pamphlet by Dean Swift, called "The 
Battle between the Ancient and Modern 
Books in St. James's Library," and 
alluding to a bitter controversy among 
the literary lights of his time as to the 
respective merits of ancient and modern 

Battle of the Frogs and Mice. The 
theme of a mock-heroic poem designed 
to travesty the Iliad and the Odyssey. 
See Batrachomyomachia. 

Battle of the Gauges. A famous 
controversy in the early days of rail- 
roads in England (1833). Brunei, Ste- 
phenson, and Locke, all famous engi- 
neers, favored different widths of track, 
and much discussion ensued. 

Battle of the Giants. A fight at 
Marignano (now Malignano), North 
Italy, in which Francis I. of France 
defeated the Duke of Milan and the 
Swiss, Sept. 13, 14, 1515. 

Battle of the Herrings, fought Feb. 
12, 1429, when the English were be- 
sieging Orleans, obtained its name from 
the attempt of the Due de Bourbon to 
intercept a convoy of salt fish on the 
road to the English camp. He was 

Battle of the Kegs. The title and 
theme of a mock-heroic poem by Francis 
Hopkinson (i 738-1 791), based upon a 
real incident. During the Revolutionary 
War the patriots set afloat a number of 
explosive machines shaped like kegs, 
in the hope of destroying the British 
fleet at Philadelphia. The danger being 
discovered, the troops of the latter^ as- 
sembled on the wharves and shipping, 
and fired at every floating object during 
the ebb-tide. 

Battle of the Moat. A famous en- 
gagement between Mohammed and Abu 
Sofian before Medina. Most of the 
fighting took place in a ditch or moat 
dug by Mohammed before the city to 
keep off the enemy. 

Battle of the Nations. The battle 
of Leipsic, Oct. 16, 18, 19, 1813, be- 
tween the French army and its nu- 
merous allies (160,000 strong) and the 
Russians, Prussians, and Austrians 
(240,000 strong). The French were 
defeated, owing, in part, to the flight 
of their Saxon allies in the heat of the 

Battle of the Poets. The title and 
theme of a poem by the Duke of Buck- 
ingham (1725), in which he arrays all 
the rhymesters of the time against one 

Battle of the Standard, fought 
between the English and Scotch at 
Northallerton, Yorkshire, Aug. 22, 11 38, 
was so named because the English 
bore a high crucifix on a wagon as their 
ensign. The Scots were defeated. 

Battle of the Thirty. One of the 
most renowned conflicts in the days of 
chivalry. It took place March 27, 1351, 
half-way between the castles of Josselin 
and Ploermel, in France, between thirty 
English and thirty French knights, 
headed respectively by Bemborough 
and Beaumanoir, who had agreed to 
decide certain differences in this way. 
At first the English were successful, 
but, Bemborough being killed, the 
French were ultimately victorious. 

Battle of the Three Bmperora. 
Austerlitz, Dec. 2, 1805. So called be- 
cause the Emperor Napoleon, the Em- 
peror of Russia, and the Emperor of 
Austria were all present. Napoleon 
won the fight. 

Battles, Fifteen Decisive. Under 
this name Professor Creasy enumerates 
the following fifteen great conflicts as 
a^ecting the destiny of mankind : — 



Bauds. In classic mythology an 
aged woman of Phrygia, who, with her 
husband Philemon, entertained Jupiter 
and Mercury after every one else had 
refused to receive them. The enraged 

fods sent upon the country a flood that 
estroyed the inhabitants save this 
couple and their house, which latter 
was changed into a beautiful temple, 
of which they were made priest and 
priestess. Having asked that they 
might die together, they were by Ju- 
piter metamorphosed into two trees in 
front of their temple. 


A. D. 


• 490 

Teutoburg . 



Syracuse - 

• 413 

ChaioDS . . 


Fultowa . 

Arbela . 

. 33" 

Tours . . 




. 207 

Hastings . 


Valmy . 

Orleans , . 



Sp. Armada 




Bavarian Succession. In 1 778-1 779 
Austria attempted to enforce her claim 
to a portion of the Bavarian dominions, 
in which she was opposed by Prussia. 
This is what is known to history as the 
" War of the Bavarian Succession." 

Bayard of the Revolution. John 
Laurens, an American soldier (i7S6- 
1782), who, on account of his daring, 
was thus named by his comrades in 

Bayardo. The famous steed of Ri- 
naldo, which once belonged to Amadis 
of Gaul. 

Bayardo's Leap. A locality near 
Sleaford, England. Bayardo was the 
famous steed of Rinaldo. The legend 
has it that rider and horse were once 
passing near Sleaford when the foul 
spirit of the spot sprang behind Rinaldo. 
The horse, in terror, took three tre- leaps, which unhorsed the 
fiend. These strides are marked by 
three great stones, about thirty yards 

Bayou. A name derived from the 
early French settlers, and applied to 
those inland lagoons so frequent on 
the shores and margins of rivers of the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

Bayou State. Mississippi, whose 
southern coast abounds in swamps, 
bayous, and creeks. 

Bbl. Barrel. 

B. C. Before Christ. 

B. C. L. Bachelor of Civil Law. 

B. D. Baccalaureus Divinitatis. 
Bachelor of Divinity. 

Bdls. Bundles. 

Bds. or bds. Boards (bound in). 

Bds. Bonds. 

Beacon Hill. A famous locality in 
Boston, Mass. " The old beacon, shown 
in all the early plans of the town, and 
which gave the name to Beacon Hill, 
was erected in 1634-1635 to alarm the 
country in case of invasion. It stood 
near the present State House, the ex- 
act spot being the southeast corner 
of the reservoir formerly standing on 
Temple Street. It was a tall mast, 
standing on cross timbers placed upon 
a stone foundation, supported by braces, 
and was ascended by treenails driven 
into it; and, sixty-five feet from the 
base, projected a crane of iron, from 
which an iron skeleton frame was sus- 
pended, to receive a barrel of tar or 
other combustibles. When fired, this 

could be seen for a great distance in- 
land. It was newly erected in 1 768, hav- 
ing fallen from some cause unknown ; 
and in 1789 it was blown down. The 
next year a monument of brick, sixty 
feet high and four in diameter, was 
erected on its site to the memory of 
those who fell at Bunker Hill ; and in 
181 1 this was taken down, the mound 
being levelled." — King. 

Beak. A slang term for a magis- 
trate, supposed to be a corruption of 
the Saxon beag, the gold collar worn 
formerly by magistrates. Mr. W. H. 
Black, in a note to his " Ballad of 
Squire Tempest," says this term was 
derived from a Mr. Beke, who was for- 
merly a resident magistrate for the 
Tower Hamlets. See Hookey Walker. 

Bean Feast. Much the same as 
" Wayz-goose " (q. v.), a feast given by 
an employer to those he employs. 

Bean in the Cake. A phrase sig- 
nifying " to meet with some unexpected 
good fortune." It refers to the custom 
of the Romans, in their Saturnalia, of 
placing a bean in a cake, the finding of 
which, when cut and distributed, con- 
stituted the fortunate one king of the 
festivities. The custom was perpetuated 
in more modern days on Twelfth Night 
and at weddings, when a ring or a jewel 
was often substituted for the bean. 

Bean King A king elected by ballot. 
The Greeks used beans in voting by 

Bean King's Festival. Twelfth Day, 
when he who secures the bean in the 
cake is kmg for the night. 

Beans are in Flower ("les ihves 
fleurissent "), and this will account for 
your being so silly. Our forefathers 
imagined mat the perfume of the flow- 
ering bean was bad for the head, and 
made men silly or light-headed. 

Bear, The. Albert, Margrave of 
Brandenburg (fl. 1 106-1 1 70). See Fair, 

Bearded, The. (l) Constantine IV., 
Emperor of Rome. (2) Geoifroy the 
Crusader. (See Handsome Beard.) 
(3) Johann Mayo, the German artist. 
His beard swept the floor when he 
stood erect. 

Bearded Master. So Persius styled 
Socrates, under the notion that the 
beard is the symbol of wisdom. 

Bear Flag Republic. In the summer 
of 1846 a number of California settlers 



from the United States set up a move- 
ment for independence, and tried to 
establish a government, which was 
known as " The Bear Flag Republic." 
Bear-garden. A noisy, quarrelsome 
assembly. Formerly bear-gardens were 
maintained in many cities, where the 
unfortunate creatures were baited for 
the delectation of the populace. 

Bearing the Bell. A phrase which 
signifies " to take the lead or first place 
in any event, or to carry off the prize." 
The idea arose from the custom of 
placing a bell around the neck of the 
oldest wether in a flock of sheep, called 
the bell-wether, and who always marched 
in front of the flock. 

Bear-leader. One who undertakes 
the charge of a young man of rank on 
his travels. It was once customary to 
lead muzzled bears about the streets, 
and to make them show off in order to 
attract notice and gain money. 

Under favor, young gentleman, I am the 
bear-leader, being appointed your tutor. — 
G. COLMAN, Heir-ai-Law. 

Bearnais, Le. Henry IV. of France. 
His native province was Le Beam. 

Bears and Bulla. Words often used 
in connection with the purchase and 
sale of stocks. The " bears " are those 
who seek to depress the value of stocks 
and securities, while the " bulls " are 
those whose interests prompt them to 
act in the other direction. 

Bear State. Arkansas has been so 
dubbed, from the fact that bears for- 
merly roamed in great numbers through 
its thinly settled timber-lands. 

Beastly Drunk. The ancients be- 
lieved that men in their cups exhibited 
the vicious qualities of beasts. Seven 
kinds of drunkards were enumerated : 
(l) The ape-drunk, who is jovial and 
musical ; (2) The lion-drunk, who is 
quarrelsome ; (3) The swine-drunk, who 
is sleepy and stupid ; (4) The sheep- 
drunk, conceited but mute ; (5) The 
martin-drunk, who drinks until sober 
again ; (6) The goat-drunk, wanton ; (7) 
The fox-drunk, crafty in his cups. 

Beating the Bounds. Once a year 
in certain London parishes a queer cus- 
tom is observed. This is known as 
"beating the bounds." The boys of 
the parish " Union," or workhouse, clad 
in their corduroy trousers, blue jackets 
with brass buttons, and a very broad 
expanse of white collar, their faces glis- 

tening and radiant from a vigorous ap- 
plication of yellow soap and hard towel, 
march in double file around the boundary 
of the. parish. They are headed by a 
pompous beadle of the genus Bumble, 
and each boy carries in his right hand 
a long peeled willow wand. In old 
London the parish lines were plainly 
marked by streets or lanes or alleys ; 
but the march of modern improvement 
has frequently obliterated these, and 
not seldom some great palace of trade 
or line of industry stands half in one 
parish and half in the next. But Bumble 
and the boys laugh at such obstacles. 
The " bounds " must be traversed ; so 
away they go, the beadle in front, the 
boys shrilly singing school songs, and 
with their wands smiting the walls they 
pass. First on one side of the street, 
then on the other, crossing the roadway 
diagonally, disappearing for a moment 
under a gloomy archway, winding around 
two sides of a mouldering churchyard, 
deflecting from a straight path to skirt 
a pump, a milestone, or some other 
ancient landmark, and even invading a 
business office, a bank, a shop whose 
walls happen to stand upon the dividing 
line. The ceremony over, the youngsters 
troop back to the " Union," where the 
London boy's regulation " treat," con- 
sisting of buns and milk, is dispensed. 
The origin of this old observance dates 
back many hundreds of years, to the 
day when the 'prentice lads of the city 
were a formidable body, who played an 
active part in the petty disturbances of 
the time. Although these youths might 
be relied on to act as a unit in defence 
of their common liberties or privileges, 
conflicts between the apprentices of 
adjoining parishes were frequent, and 
quarter-staff and single-stick were often 
wielded with fatal effect. Hence the 
lads of each parish were interested in- 
keeping its boundary lines well defined ; 
and they, it is said, inaugurated this 
quaint ceremony, which in modern 
days has been left to the workhouse 

Beatrice Gold. The stage-name of 
Belle Dunnigan. 

Beatrix Phipps. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Maurice F. Kemp. 

Beau. & Fl. or B. & Fl. Beaumont 
and Fletcher. 

Bean Brummel. George Bryan 
(fl. 1 778-1840), a noted man about town 
in London. 



Beauclerc . (lit. "good scholar"). 
Heury I. of England (fl. 1068-1 13s), who 
possessed scholarly attainments ex- 
tremely rare in the age in which he 

Beau desordre. (Fr.) Beautiful 

Beau D'Oraay, Le. The father of 
the Count D'Orsay. Byron nicknamed 
him Jeune Cupidon, " Young Cupid." 

Beau Fielding. Fielding the novel- 
ist. King Charles II. dubbed him 
" Handsome Fielding." 

Beau ideal. (Fr.) " Beautiful ideal." 
An imaginary standard of absolute per- 
fection ; the true realization. 

Beau monde. (Fr.) The fashionable 
world; 'people who make up the co- 
terie of fashion. 

Beau Nash. See King of Bath. 

Beau Neill. The army sobriquet of 
Thomas Hewson Neill, an American 
soldier (l 826-1 885), on account of his 
handsome person and dashing manners. 

Beau Sabreur, Le (" the handsome 
swordsman "). The name given to 
Joachim Murat (fl. 1 767-181 5) by his 
comrades in arms. 

Beau Tibbs, noted for his finery, 
vanity, and poverty, is a famous char- 
acter in Goldsmith's " Citizen of the 
World," and a skit on Beau Nash {q. v.). 

Beautiful, The. In the days of the 
Italian republics the chiefs of the sis- 
terhoods of cities were known by some 
special epithet, supposed to be descrip- 
tive of their peculiar charms or of the 
idiosyncrasies of their inhabitants. Thus 
we have Naples, the Beautiful ; Rome, 
the Eternal City; Genoa, the Superb; 
Lucca, the Industrious ; Padua, the 
Learned ; Bologna, the Fat ; and Flor- 
ence, the Gentle. 

Beautiful Corisande. Diane d'An- 
douins (fl. 1 554-1620), Countess of 
Guiche and Grammont, and widow of 
Philip de Grammont. 

Beautiful Daughter of Rome. Flo- 
rence was so named by the early writers. 

Beautiful Gardener. A nickname 
given to a famous mistress of Henry IV. 
of France. 

Beautiful Parricide. Beatrice Cenci 
(d. 1599). She conspired to kill her fa- 
ther in revenge for his violation of her 

Beautiful Ropemaker. A sobriquet 
bestowed on Louise Labd (fl. 1526-1566), 
a French poetess. She married a rich 

ropemaker named Perrin. She was 
noted for her bravery at the siege of 

Beau Trap. A loose or rocking pav- 
ing-stone from beneath which mud or 
water squirts upward when trodden on, 
to the ruin of the clothing of the smartly 

Beauty of Buttermere. Mary Rob- 
inson, a lovely English maiden, married 
to a villanous impostor named John 
Hatfield, who was executed for forgery 
at Carlisle in 1803. 

Beauty only Skin deep. The first- 
known, if not the original, use of this 
phrase occurs in Ralph Venning's " Or- 
thodoxe Paradoxes," third edition, Lon- 
don, 1650, p. 41 : " All the beauty of the 
world tis but skin-deep, a sunne-blast 
defaceth it." 

Beaux esprits. (Fr.) Gay spirits ; 
men of wit. 

Beauz yeux. (Fr.) " Beautiful 
eyes." Handsome eyes ; attractive 

Bedchamber of New York. The 
city of Brooklyn. 

Bedfordshire. A punning allusion to 
the land of sleep, akin to " the land of 

Bed of Justice. Literally, the seat 
or throne occupied by the French mon- 
arch when he was present at the delib- 
erations of Parliament. Historically, a 
Bed of Justice signified a solemn ses- 
sion, in which the king was present, to 
overrule the decisions of Parliament, 
and to enforce the acceptance of edicts 
or ordinances which it had previously 
rejected. The theory of the old French 
constitution was that the authority of 
Parliament was derived solely from the 
crown; consequently, when the king, 
the source of authority, was present, 
that which was delegated ceased. Ac- 
knowledging such a principle, the Par- 
liament was logically incapable of 
resisting any "demand that the king in a 
Bed of Justice might make, and decrees 
promulgated during a sitting of this 
kind were held to be of more authority 
than ordinary decisions of Parliament. 
Monarchs were not slow to take advan- 
tage of this power to overawe any 
Parliament that exhibited signs of in- 
dependence. The last Bed of Justice 
was held by Louis XVI. at Versailles 
in September, 1787, on the brink of that 
Revolution which abolished the despot- 
ism of the old French monarchy. 



Bed of Ware, or Great Bed of Ware. 

The ^eat bed at Ware, in Hertford- 
shire, is one of the curiosities of Eng- 
land, referred to in the " Twelfth Night " 
of Shakspeare : " Although the sheet 
were big enough for the Bed of Ware 
in England." This famous bed, still 
seen in one of the inns at Ware, meas- 
ures twelve feet square, and is said to 
be capable of holding a dozen persons. 

BedouinB of London. The London 
"Times" so named the ragged and 
homeless street-boys of the great me- 
tropolis. See Arabs. 

Beds. Bedfordshire. 

Bee. The significance borne by this 
word in the United States constitutes a 
pure Americanism. The new settler 

fenerally built his log-cabin without 
elp ; but when he proposed to erect a 
house he had a "raising," as the setting 
up of the timbers was called. All the 
neighbors gave their aid, calling it a 
" building-bee," or a " raising-bee. In 
like manner we find the phrases " chop- 
ping-bee," " husking-bee," " quilting- 
bee," and even "spelling-bee." 

Beefeaters. Another name for the 
Yeomen of the Guard in the English 
service. In former times they used to 
watch the buffet, and were in conse- 
quence named buffetiers or boufitiers, — 
i. e. " waiters at the side-board," — 
which became corrupted into " beef- 

Beefheads. A nickname applied to 
the people of Texas, in allusion to the 
cattle raised there. 

Bee-line. The American bee-hunter 
has enriched our every-day English with 
the phrase " to strike a bee-line." An 
energetic pursuit, or rapid direct course 
toward a certain goal, is called " making 
a bee-line " for that point. The English 
"as the crow flies "conveys the same 

Beelzebub. In Hebrew mythology 
the chief of the evil spirits. 

Been. Referring to the difference in 
the pronunciation of this word in Eng- 
land and America, one writer says: 
"But to me the most interesting con- 
nection between Lincolnshire and New 
England pronunciation is the little word 
'been.' It has long been a wonder to 
me how and why that word should be 
pronounced, not only in New England, 
but throughout the United States, so 
differently from what it is in England 
and in all her many colonies. In Eng- 

land, Scotland, Ireland, Canada, Aus- 
tralia, Nova Scotia, South Africa, it is 
made to rhyme with 'seen' and 'be- 
tween,' whereas in our country it is 
made to rhyme with ' sin ' and ' din.' 
It was all explained when I came to 
Lincolnshire and found that the old 
local usage there was to call it ' bin ; ' 
and that is not yet entirely driven out to 
this day." 

Bee of Athens. Sophocles, the tragic 
poet (fl. 495-405 B. c). 

Beetle-crusher. A slang name for 
a large flat foot. The term was coined 
by " Punch." London is largely infested 
with black beetles, — a species of cock- 

Befana. " The good fairy of Italian 
children, who is supposed to fill their 
stockings with toys when they go to 
bed on Twelfth Night. Some one en- 
ters the children's bedroom for the pur- 
pose, and the wakeful youngsters cry 
out, 'Ecco la Befana.' According to 
legend, Befana was too busy with house 
affairs to look after the Magi when they 
went to offer their gifts, and said she 
would wait to see them on their return ; 
but they went another way, and Befana 
every Twelfth Night watches to see 
them. The name is a corruption of 
Epiphania." — Brewer. 

Begging the Question. A term fre- 
quently used in debate or controversy, 
and meaning " to assume without proof." 

Beginning of the End. Foumier 
asserts, on the written authority of Tal- 
leyrand's brother, that the only breviary 
used by the ex-bishop was " L'lmprovi- 
sateur Frangais," a compilation of an- 
ecdotes and bon-mots, in twenty-one 
duodecimo volumes. Whenever a good 
thing was wandering in search of a 
parent, he adopted it ; among others, 
" C'est le commencement de la fin." 
To show our simple skill. 
That is the true beginning of our end. 
Shakspeare, Midsummer-Nigkfs Dream, 

Beheaded. See Axe. 

Behesth. The Elysian fields of Per- 
sian mythology. 

BehmenistB. A sect of visionary re- 
ligionists, so called from Jacob Behmen, 
their founder (i 575-1 625). 

Behram. The most holy kind of fire, 
according to Parseeism. 

Bejan. A freshman, or greenhorn. 
This term is employed in the French 
and Scottish universities, and is evi- 
dently a corruption of becjai4ne{^^yt\km 



•beak"), a French expression to desig- 
nate a nestling or unfledged bird. In 
the University of Vienna the freshman 
is termed beanus. 
Bel. The same as Baal (y. v.). 
Belcher. Slang for a pocket-handker^ 
chief — one having a blue ground and 
virhite spots — much affected by London 
roughs. So named from Jim Belcher, 
the pugilist, whose colors it was. 

Bel esprit. (Fr.) A vivacious wit; 
a man or woman of quick and lively 
parts, ready at repartee. 

Belfast Kidney. A cobble-stone, — 
a formidable missile in the street riots 
which have too often disgraced the city 
of Belfast. 
Belg. Belgic; Belgian; Belgium. 
Belgravia. An embodiment of the 
ultra-fashionable district, including Bel- 
grave Square and the adjacent streets 
in London. It adjoins Mayfair (jj. v.). 

Belial. A Hebrew word meaning 
" worthlessness," but in the Scriptures 
used as an appellative of Satan, the em- 
bodiment of all evil. 

Bella donna. (Ital.) A fair lady. The 
name was given to the deadly nightshade 
from a practice once common among 
ladies of touching their eyes with it to 
make the pupils large and lustrous. 

Bella femina che ride, ruol dir, 
borsa che piange. (Ital.) When a 
handsome woman laughs you may be 
sure her purse cries. 

BeUa! horridabella! (Lat.) Wars! 
horrid wars ! 

Bella matribus detestata. (Lat.) 
Wars by mothers detested. 

Bell Battle. The casus belli-vias this : 
Have the local magistrates power to al- 
low parish bells to be rung at their dis- 
cretion, or is the right vested in the 
parish clergyman ? This squabble was 
carried on with great animosity in the 
parish of Paisley in 1832. The clergy- 
man, John Macnaughton, brought the 
question before the local council, which 
gave it in favor of the magistrates ; but 
the court of sessions gave it the other 
way ; and when the magistrates granted 
a permit for the bells to be rung, the 
court issued an interdict against them. 

For nearly two years the Paisley bell battle 
was fought with the fiercest zeal. It was the 
subject of every political meeting, the theme of 
every board, the gossip at tea-tables and dinner- 
parties, and children delighted in chalking on the 
walls, " Please to ring the bell " (May 14, 1832, to 
Sept. 10, 1834). — Newspapef faragrafh. 

Bell, Book, and Candle. A cere- 
mony of excommunication belonging to 
the Church of Rome. The above name 
is taken from certain peculiar phrases 
or gestures which occur in the rite: 
" Cursed be they from the crown of the 
head to the sole of the foot. Out be 
they taken of the book of life. [Shuts 
the book.] And as this candle is cast 
from the sight of men, so be their souls 
cast from the sight of God into the 
deepest pit of hell. [Casts the candle 
on the ground.] Amen." The rubric 
adds: "And then the candle being 
dashed on the ground and quenched, 
let the bell be rung," the bell being 
tolled as for one dead. 
Bell City. Racine, Wis. 
Belle Archer. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Herbert Archer, tide McKenzie. 
Belle Boyd. (Pseud.) Mrs. Belle 
Boyd Hardinge. 

Belle Brittan. (Pseud.) Hiram 

Belle ^tage. (Fr.) The second floor 
of a house. 

Belle France, La. A popular poet- 
ical designation of France, similar to 
the nickname " Merry England." 

BeUe Gabrielle, La. The daughter 
of Antoine d'Estrdes, Grand-Master of 
Artillery and Governor of the lie de 
France. Henry IV. fell in love with 

Bellerophon. In classical mythology 
a son of Glaucus, who, aided by the 
winged horse Pegasus, killed the Chi- 
msera. He was subsequently thrown 
from his steed, and became lame and 
blind, so that he roamed alone and for- 
saken of men up and down the Ale'ian 

Bellenia. A famous Cornish giant. 
Belles lettres. Polite literature. 
Bellona. In classic mythology the 
goddess of war among the Romans. 
She was described by the poets as "the 
companion, sister, wife, or daughter of 
Mars; she was also represented as 
armed with a bloody scourge, and as 
inspiring her votaries with a resistless 
enthusiasm in battle. In the temple of 
Bellona the senate gave audience to em- 
bassies from foreign powers, and also 
to consuls who had claims to a triumph 
which would have been nullified by en- 
trance into the city. The priests of 
the goddess were styled Bellonarii, and 
practised sanguinary rites." 



Bellona'a Day. March 24. On this 
day the votaries of the Roman war-god- 
dess gashed themselves and quaffed the 
blood as an act of homage to the deity. 
Called in Latin Dies Sanguinis. 

Bellona's Handmaids. Blood, Fire, 
and Famine. 

The goddesse of warre, called Bellona, had 
these thre handmaids ever attendynge on her : 
Blood, Fire, and Famine, which thre damo- 
sels be of that force and strength that every one 
of them alone is able and sufficient to torment 
and afflict a proud prince ; and they all joyned 
together are of puissance to destroy the most 
populous country and most richest region of the 
world. — Hall, Chronicle (1530). 

Bell Smith. (Pseud.) Mrs. Louise 
Kirby Piatt, an American writer (1812- 

Bell-the-Cat. A nickname bestowed 
on Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus. 
James III. capriciously chose several 
men of low birth as favorites; one of 
them, a mason, he elevated to be Earl 
of Mar. The enraged nobles held a 
council for the purpose of devising 
means to put down the upstarts. " But 
who will bell the cat?" inquired Lord 
Gray. " That will I," answered Doug- 
las ; and he courageously slew, in the 
presence of the king, the hated indi- 

Bellum internecinum. A war of ex- 

Bellum lethale. A deadly war. 

Bell-wether of the Flock. A jocose 
term applied to the leader of a party. 
Of course, the allusion is to the wether 
or sheep which leads the flock with a 
bell fastened to its neck. 

Beloved Disciple. Saint John. See 
John xiii. 23. 

Beloved Merchant. A title given 
by Edward III. of England to Michael 
de la Pole, an eminent London merchant, 
who in the next reign became Lord Chan- 
cellor and Earl of Suffolk. 

Beloved Physician. Saint Luke the 
Evangelist. See Col. iv. 14. 

BeZ paese. (Ital.) A beautiful land 
or country. 

Belphegor. A Moabitish deity, whose 
rites were celebrated on Mount Phegor, 
and were noted for their obscenity. 

Belted Will. Lord William Howard 
(fi. 1563-1640), Warden of the Western 

Beltein (from Bel, the name of the 
chief Gaelic deity in pagan times). An 

ancient votive festival still observed in 
the remote Highlands of Scotland. " On 
the day of the festival the inhabitants of 
several hamlets resort to a certain hill- 
top provided with provisions and victuals 
of all sorts. The younger among them, 
with spades, remove square patches of 
turf, with which they construct a sort of 
altar; they cover it with a thick layer 
of peat, to which they set fire. As soon 
as it is thoroughly alight, they place on 
this blazing hearth a large open kettle, 
in which the bystanders throw all the 
butter, eggs, and honey they have 
brought with them. When the mix- 
ture has boiled a sufficient length of 
time, each of those present fills his 
glass and empties the contents in a cir- 
cle around him with a loud adjuration 
to the invisible spirits of the universe. 
At the conclusion of these libations, 
which are only the preliminary part of 
the ceremonies, the pilgrims take from 
their satchels votive cakes, kneaded out 
of oatmeal and shaped to form nine 
knots ; standing with their backs to the 
blazing altar, they break off one knot 
after another, andthrow them in succes- 
sion over their left shoulder into the 
fire, accompanying each gesture with 
special thanks to the guardian spirits : 
' To thee, for preserving my horse ! ' 
' To thee, for preserving my oxen ! ' 
and so on, till the whole cake is dis- 
posed of. When the first litany is ex- 
hausted, fresh cakes are produced, and 
the ceremony is repeated in exactly the 
same manner, but the invocations are 
made this time to the evil spirits, to 
mollify them or turn aside their wrath. 
It is only then, when the fire is burnt 
out, that the votaries gather together 
and amicably consume the remainder of 
the provisions." 

Belus. The same as Baal or Bel. 
See Baal. 

Ben. (Ital.) Well ; as, Ben marcato, 
well marked. The phrase denotes that 
the passage or air must be delivered in 
a clear, distinct, and firmly accented 
manner. (Mus.) 

Benaiah, in "Absalom and Achito- 
phel," is meant for Gen. George Edward 
Sackville. As Benaiah, captain of Da- 
vid's guard, adhered to Solomon against 
Adonijah, so General Sackville adhered 
to the Duke of York against the Prince 
of Orange (1590-1652). 

Nor can Benaiah's worth forgotten lie, 

Of steady soul when public storms were high. 
Dryden and Tate. 



Benauly. (Pseud.) A sort of triple- 
headed literary partnership is contained 
herein: Benjzmm, Austin, and Zyman 

Bender. In New York, to "go on 
a bender " is to go on a spree. In this 
case a man comes under spiritual influ- 
ences so potent that, not being able to 
stand straight under them, he must bend. 
I met her at the Chinese room ; 

She wore a wreath of roses, 
She walked in beauty like the night, 
Her breath was like sweet posies. 
I led her through the festal hall, 

Her glance was soft and tender ; 
She whispered gently in my ear, 
" Say, Mose, ain't this a bender 1" 

Putnam's Monthly, August, 1854. 

Bender. The slang or colloquial name 
for the English silver sixpence. It is 
rather thin, and when worn may be easily 

Bend Sinister. This phrase is ap- 
plied to any one born out of lawful wed- 
lock. In heraldry, a band running from 
the upper right-hand corner to the lower 
left-hand corner is called a bend-sinister, 
and indicates bastardy. 

Benedick. A newly married man. 
The reference is to the character of 
the name in Shakapeare's " Much Ado 
about Nothing." It is often written 
"Benedict," from the Latin benedict-us 
(a happy man), and a skit on the order 
of Saint Benedict, famous for their as- 
cetic habits, and rigidly bound to celi- 
bacy. Shakspeare avails himself of this 
joke in making Benedick, the young lord 
of Padua, "rail against marriage, but 
afterwards marry Beatrice, with whom he 
falls in love. 

Benedict (Pseud.) Edward Walter 
Dawson, an American writer. 

Benedict Cruiser, M. M. (Pseud.) 
George Augustus Sala (1858). " M. M." 
signifies " married man." 

Bene exeat. (Lat.) Let him depart 
with a good character. 

Benefit of Clergy, and Neck Verse. 

" Benefit of Clergy " [Privilegium Cleri- 
cale) arose in the regard paid by Chris- 
tian princes to the Church, and consisted 
of (i) an exemption of places conse- 
crated to religious duties from criminal 
arrests, which was the foundation of 
sanctuaries ; (2) exemption of the per- 
sons of clergymen from criminal process 
before the secular judge in particular 
cases, which was the original meaning 
of the privilegium clericale. The bene- 

fit of clergy was afterwards extended 
to every one who could read ; and it was 
enacted that there should be a preroga- 
tive allowed to the clergy, that if any 
man who could read were to be con- 
demned to death, the bishop of the dio- 
cese might, if he would, claim him as a 
clerk, and dispose of him in some places 
of the clergy as he might deem meet 
The ordinary gave the prisoner at the 
bar a Latin book, in a black Gothic 
character, from which to read a verse 
or two ; and if the ordinary said, " Legit 
ut clericus " (" He reads hke a clerk''), 
the offender was only burned in the 
hand; otherwise he suffered death (3 
Edw. L 1274). The privilege was re- 
stricted by Henry VII. in 1489, and 
abolished, with respect to murderers 
and other great criminals, by Henry 
VIII. (1512). Each prison had its par* 
ticular " Neck Verse ; " and although a 
criminal might roll off glibly that of 
Edinburgh or Carlisle, it by no means 
followed that he would be equally suc- 
cessful elsewhere. Most of these have 
now become extinct, and so far search 
for them has only ended in failure. 
The authentic " Neck Verse " used at 
Newgate is, however, extant ; it was 
the first verse of Psalm li., technically 
known as David's prayer for remis- 
sion of sin : " Miserere, mei Deus, se- 
cundum magnam misericordiam tuam. 
Et secundum multitudinem miseratio- 
num tuarum dele iniquitatem meam." 
(" Have mercy upon me, O God, accord- 
ing to thy loving kindness; according 
unto the multitude of thy tender mer- 
cies, blot out my transgressions.") This 
Newgate " Neck Verse " is the only one 
recorded as belonging especially to that 
prison. Very often the selection of a 
passage of Scripture to be used in this 
way depended upon the whim of the act- 
ing magistrate, who had the right to 
open the psalter at random and put be- 
fore the culprit any sentence he might 
select, though generally this office fell 
upon a proper ordinary, appointed by 
the Church. In the reign of Queen 
Anne the " benefit of clergy " was still 
in use, though modified somewhat, and 
extended to all persons convicted of 
clergyable offences; nor was it finally 
abolished until the time of George 
Bene placito. (Ital.) At will. (Mus.) 
Bengal Tigers. The Seventeenth Foot 
Regiment in the British army. Their 
crest consists of a green tiger. 



Benicla Boy. John C. Heenan, the 
American pugilist, was so named. He 
was born in Benicia, Cal. 

Benignant Hulda. The German god- 
dess of marriage and fecundity, who sent 
bridegrooms to maidens and children to 
the married. 

Benigno numine. (Lat.) By the favor 
of Providence. 

Benj. Benjamin. 

Benjamin's Mesa. The largest share. 
The allusion is to the banquet given by 
Joseph to his brethren. "Benjamin's 
mess was five times so much as any of 

Benj P. Johnson of Boone. (Pseud.) 
The name under which James Whit- 
comb Riley, the "Hoosier Poet" (b. 
1852), issued his "The Old Swimmin' 
Hole and 'Leven more Poems " in 1883. 
See Hoosier Poet. 

Ben Jochanan, in the satire of 
'■ Absalom and Achitophel," by Dryden, 
is meant for the Rev. Samuel Johnson, 
who suffered much persecution for his de- 
fence of the right of private judgment. 

" A Jew of humble parentage was he ; 
By trade a Levite, though of low degree." 

Benton's Mint Drops. So Philadel- 
phians named gold dollars. The term 
was given to ftem because they were 
first coined in accordance with a reso- 
lution offered by Senator Benton of 

Ben trovato. (Ital.) Well feigned 
Or invented. 

Benzine. A colloquial term for 
strong drink in the Eastern States. 
See Poison. 

' Berecynthian Goddess. Cybele is 
so called from Mount Berecynthus, in 
Phrygia, where she was held in espe- 
cial adoration. She is represented as 
crowned with turrets, and holding keys 
in her hand. 

Her helmM head 

Rose like the Berecynthian goddess crowned 

With towers. 

SouTHEY, Roderick. 

Berecynthian Hero. Midas, the 
Phrygian king. He was so named after 
Mount Berecynthus in Phrygia. 

Berengariana. Followers of Beren- 
ger. Archdeacon of Angers, the learned 
opponent of Lanfranc (eleventh century). 
He said that the bread by consecration 
did not become the very body of Christ 
"generated on earth so many years be- 
fore, but becomes to the faithful, never- 
theless, the blessed body of Christ." 

Berenice. The sister-wife of Ptolemy 
III., who vowed to sacrifice her hair to 
the gods, if her husband returned home 
the vanquisher of Asia. She suspended 
her hair in the temple of the war-god ; 
but it was stolen the first night, and 
Conon of Samos told the king that the 
winds had wafted it to heaven, where it 
still forms the seven stars near the tail of 
Leo, called Coma Berenices. See infra. 

Berenice's Hair. A beautiful cluster 
of forty-three stars in the northern hem- 
isphere, about five degrees east of the 
equinoctial colure ; its principal stars 
are between the fourth and fifth magni- 

Bergelmir. In Norse mythology a 
frost-giant, father of the Jotuns, or 
second dynasty of giants. 

Berg Folk. In Scandinavian mythol- 
ogy heathen spirits doomed to a wan- 
dering existence on the hills and moun- 
tains till Ragnarok. 

Berkeley's Seat. A rock near New- 
port, R. I., is known by this nickname. 
It was a favorite spot for meditation 
with George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne 
(1684-1753), during his two years' so- 
journ in Newport (1728-1730). 

Berks. Berkshire. 

Berkshire Hogs. A nickname con- 
ferred on the Sixty-sixth Regiment of 
the English service, " because the regi- 
ment was principally recruited in the 
country of prize pork." 

Berkshire "White Horse. See White 
Horse of Berkshire. 

Berlin Decree. A decree issued at 
Berlin by Napoleon I., forbidding any 
of the nations of Europe to trade with 
Great Britain (1806). This mad fancy 
was the first step to the great man's 

Berliner. (Pseud.) Rev. Joseph Par- 
rish Thomson, D.D., in his letters home 
from Berlin (1873), et seq. 

Bermoothes. The Spanish pronun- 
ciation of the name of Bermudez, the 
discoverer of the Bermuda gi'oup (1527), 
frequently used in literature to desig- 
nate these islands. 

Bermudas. The slang name once 
given to a disreputable portion of Lon- 
don, lying, north of the Strand, used as 
a place of concealment by insolvent 
debtors, civil offenders, etc. 

Bernard the Little. Solomon Ber- 
nard, a Lyonnese engraver, who flour- 
ished in the sixteenth century. 



Bernard the Poor. Claude Bernard 
(fl. 1 588-1641), the philanthropist of 

Bernesque Poetry. Serio-comic po- 
etry, so called from Francesco Berni, of 
Tuscany, who greatly excelled in it 

Bemouilli's Numbers. A system of 
algebraic formulas first used by James 
Bernouilli (fl. 1 654-1 705), Professor of 
Mathematics at Basle. 

Bersaglieri. A name for the sharp- 
shooters of the Sardinian army, first 
employed about 1848. 

Berserker. Grandson of the eight- 
handed Starkader and of the beauti- 
ful Alfhilde, called boer-serce, " bare of 
mail," because he went into battle un- 
harnessed. See infra. 

Berserker Rage. The champions of 
the ancient Scandinavians were called 
berserkers, from their custom of fight- 
ing with no armor save a sark or shirt ; 
hence, literally, bare-sark-er = berser- 
ker. They were at times seized with 
fits of martial frenzy, during which they 
could perform prodigious feats of valor, 
and were invincible against any foe. 
After the rage or spasm was over, reac- 
tion ensued, and then a child might lead 

You say that I am berserker. And . . . 
baresark I go to-morrow to the war. — Here- 
ward the Wake. 

Bertha M. Clay. (Pseud.) The works 
of Charlotte M. Braeme were published 
under this name in America. 

Bertha of the Great Foot. Mother 
of Charlemagne, and granddaughter of 
Charles Martel. Said to have oeen so 
named because she had one foot longer 
than the other. 

Berwick. (Pseud.) James Redpath, 
correspondent and editorial writer on 
the " Tribune," New York. 

Berwickshire Sandie. (Pseud.) Al- 
exander Brown, who printed a volume 
of poems in the Scottish dialect early 
in the present century. 

Beryl Carr. (Pseud.) L. Ella Byrd, 
in her "Marston Hall," New York, 

Berzak flit. « the interval "). In the 
Koranic system, the gap between death 
and the resurrection. 

Besieged Resident. (Pseud.) Henry 
Labouchere, English journalist and au- 
thor flD. 1831), who wrote letters from 
Paris during the siege (1870-1871) over 
this signature. 

Bessie Bernard. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Bernard G. Shields. 

Bessie Burt. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Imson. 

Bessie Chandler. (Pseud.) Mrs. 
Elizabeth [Chandler] Parker. 

Bessie Darling. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Charles Berry. 

Bessie Sudlow. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Michael Gunn. 

Bess o' Bedlam. A nickname among 
the common people for a female maniac. 
The corresponding term for a male 
lunatic is Tom 0' Bedlam. Bess and 
Tom are common English names, while 
Bedlam is a comprehensive term for all 

Best-abused Man in England. See 


Bete noire. (Fr.) " Black beast." 
Bugbear; an object of aversion. 

Better to wear out than to rust out 
When a friend told Bishop Cumberland 
(1632-1718) he would wear himself out 
by his incessant application, " It is bet- 
ter," replied the Bishop, " to wear out 
than to rust out." — Bishop Horne, 
Sermon on the Duty of contending for 
the Truth. 

Betty. A nickname for a man who 
interferes with the tasks of female do- 
mestics, or affects pursuits relegated to 
women. Also named a " Molly/' 

Between Hay and Grass is a pro- 
verbial expression in America, equiva- 
lent to the English word "hobble-de- 
hoy," — that IS, a youth between 
boyhood and manhood. 

Between the Devil and the Deep 
Sea. This expression is used by Col- 
onel Munroe in his "Expedition with 
Mackay's Regiment," printed in Lon- 
don in 1637. The regiment was with 
Gustavus Adolphus's army, and was en- 
gaged in a battle with the Austrians. 
The Swedish gunners did not elevate 
their guns sufficiently, and their shot 
fell among the ranks of this Scottish 
regiment, so that "we were between 
the devil and the deep sea." 

It may be that the phrase has an earlier origin. 
Some date it as far back as the Hebrew Exodus, 
when the chosen people had the Red Sea in front 
and Pharaoh's hosts behind. Others think it re- 
fers to Scylla and Charybdis (y. v.). Yet another 
derivation ascribes it to an unknown skippper, 
caught in a gale of wind on a rocky lee^shore, try- 
ing to " claw off " and work his ship out to sea. 
The vessel being leaky, her crew might with jus- 
tice be said to be "between the devil and the 
deep sea." 



Beulah. That land of rest which a 
Christian enjoys when his faith is so 
strong that he no longer fears or doubts. 
Sunday is sometimes so called. In 
Bunyan's allegory (" The Pilgrim's Prog- 
ress ") the pi^ims tarry in the land of 
Beulah after their pilgrimage is over, till 
they are summoned to cross the stream 
of Death and enter into the Celestial 

After this I beheld until they came unto the 
land of Beulah, where the sun shineth night and 
day. Here, because they were weary, they betook 
themselves awhile to rest ; but a little while soon 
refreshed them here ; for the bells did so ring, 
and the trumpets sounded so melodiously, that 
they could not sleep. ... In this land they 
heard nothing, saw nothing, smelt nothing, tasted 
nothing that was offensive. — Bunyan, The 
Pilgrzm^s Progress. 

Beverley. (Pseud.) Mrs. S. B. 
Hughes Cox, a writer in the Southern 

Beware of a Man of one Book. 

When Saint Thomas Aquinas was asked 
in what manner a man might best be- 
come learned, he answered, "By read- 
ing one book." 

The homo unius is indeed proverbially formid- 
able to all conversational figurantes. — Southey, 
The Doctor. 

Bezaliel, in "Absalom and Achito- 
phel," by Dryden, is meant for the Mar- 
quis of Worcester, afterward Duke of 

" Bezaliel with each grace and virtue fraught. 
Serene his looks, serene his life and thought ; 
On whom so largely Nature heaped her store, 
There scarce remained for arts to' give him 

Bezonian. An epithet often applied 
by old English writers as a term of re- 
proach, signifying "a beggar, a cheat, or 
a vulgar fellow." It is derived from the 
Italian bisogno, " need, want." 

B-Flats. Another name for bed- 
bugs ; derived from B, the initial letter, 
and flat, in allusion to the flatness of 
the insect. See Norfolk Howards. 

Bi. Bismuth. 

B. I. British India. 

Biancbi and Neri (" Whites " and 
"Blacks"), (i) Political factions in 
Florence in 1300, the Bianchi, headed 
by Vieri dj Cerchi, opposing the Neri, 
headed by Corso di Donati. The for- 
mer favored the imperial party (the 
Ghibellines), but were banished by the 
Neri in 1302. (2) Bianchi were also 
male and female penitents who roamed 
Italy, and were suppressed by Boniface 
IX. in 1400. 

Bib. Bible; biblical. 

Bibbiena, H. A name given to Car- 
dinal Bernardo (fl. 1470-1520); he wrote 
a number of comedies, and resided at 
Bibbiena in Tuscany. 

Bible-olerk. A sizar of Oxford Uni- 
versity; a student who gets certain 
pecuniary advantages for reading the 
Bible aloud at chapel. The office is 
almost a sinecure ; but the emolument 
is given to the sons of poor gentlemen, 
either as a gift or as the reward of 

Bible of the British Aristocracy. 

Burke's " Peerage," a biographical reg- 
ister of all the titled families of the 
kingdom, has been so named. 

Bible Orchard; Bible Thursday. 
Names arising out of a curious custom 
in the parish church of St. Ives, Hants, 
on the last Thursday in May. On a 
table in the church at the chancel steps 
are placed six Bibles, and near them a 
box and three dice. Six boys and six 
girls, solemnly watched over by the 
vicar and a crowd of parishioners, throw 
dice each three times to see which shall 
have the six Bibles. This remarkable 
custom dates from 1678, when Dr. Rob- 
ert Wylde bequeathed fifty pounds, of 
which the yearly interest was to be 
spent in buying six Bibles, not to cost 
more than seven shillings sixpence each, 
to be cast for by dice on the communion- 
table every year by six boys and six 
girls of the town. A piece of ground 
was bought with the money, and is now 
known as Bible Orchard. The legacy 
also provided for the payment of ten 
shillings each year to the vicar for 
preaching a sermon commending the ex- 
cellency, perfection, and divine author- 
ity of the Holy Scriptures. The will 
of the eccentric Doctor was exactly ob- 
served, and for more than two hundred 
years dice were regularly cast upon the 
communion-table. Lately a table erected 
on the chancel steps was substituted, 
the bishop of the diocese having con- 
sidered that the communion-table was 
not for throwing dice. 

Bibles, Peculiar. Because of various 
typographical and other peculiarities, 
there are a number of editions of the 
Scriptures known by curious nicknames. 
For notices of these the reader is re- 
ferred to their respective titles ; as. 
Bishop's Bible, Breeches Bible, Bug 
Bible, Caxton Memorial Bible, 
Cranmer's Bible, Douay Bible, 



Ears-to-Ear Bible, Geneva Bible, 
Great Bible, Gutenberg Bible, He- 
and-She Bible, Knave Bible, Mat- 
thew's Bible, Murderer's Bible, 
Place - Makers' Bible, Printers' 
Bible, Rosin Bible, Standing-Fishes 
Bible, Thumb Bible, To Remain Bi- 
ble, Treacle Bible, Vinegar Bible, 
Wicked Bible. 

Biblia Pauperum. See Poor Man's 

BiblicuB. (Pseud.) Alexander Til- 
loch, LL.D., in the " Star" newspaper. 

Bibliophile. (Pseud.) Samuel Aus- 
tin AUibone, American bibliographer 
(b. 1816). 

Bibliophile Jacob. A nickname con- 
ferred on Paul Lacroix, a French author 
(fl. 1807-1884). 

Biddenden Maids. This name, says 
Wheeler, was given to two unmarried 
sisters, named Mary and Elizabeth 
Chulkhurst, born at Biddenden, Kent, 
England, in mo, and joined together, 
as tradition relates, by the shoulders 
and hips. They lived together thirty- 
four years; when one died the other 
persistently refused to be separated 
from the corpse of her sister, and suc- 
cumbed six hours after. They are said 
to have left twenty acres of land, called 
" Bread-and-Cheese Land," where, on 
the afternoon of Easter Sunday, six 
hundred rolls are distributed to stran- 
gers, and two hundred and seventy 
loaves, weighing three-and-a-half pounds 
each, with cheese in proportion, are 
given to the poor of the parish, — the 
expense being defrayed out of the rental 
of the land. So runs the legend. But 
Halsted, in his " History of Kent," ridi- 
cules this story as fabulous; he does 
not dispute the existence of the " Bid- 
denden Maids," but says the " Bread- 
and-Cheese Land " was bequeathed by 
two maiden ladies named Preston, 

Bidding-prayer. The prayer for the 
souls of benefactors said before the ser- 
mon ; a relic of this remains in the prayer 
used in cathedrals, churches, etc., in 

Bideford Postman. Edward Capern, 
thepoet, was thus nicknamed. At one 
period of his career he was a letter- 
carrier in Bideford, 

Bidi. A Malabar deity, correspond- 
ing to the classic Destiny, 

Biel. In Scandinavian mythology 
the deity of the forests. 

Biens^ance. (Fr.) "Civility." De- 
corum; decency. 

Biens^anoes. (Fr.) " Decencies." 
The proprieties of life. 

Bifrons. One of the pen-names com- 
monly attributed to Junius (y. w.). 

Bifrost. In Norse mythology the 
bridge between heaven and earth; the 
rainbow may be considered to be this 
bridge, and its various colors are the 
reflections of its precious stones. 

Big Ben at Westminster. The great 
bell in the clock-tower, weighing 13 tons 
10 cwt., named after Sir Benjamin Hall, 
Chief Commissioner of Public Works 
when the monster was cast. Its note 
can be heard for many miles in calm 

Big Head. A phrase — a pure Ameri- 
canism — by which it is intended to sig- 
nify that the person suffering therefrom 
is puffed up with vanity. A swelled 
head refers to the consequences of a 

Big Knife. A name applied to Gen, 
Andrew Jackson by the Southern In- 
dians in recognition of his military 
successes against them. 

Big Thursday, The chief day of the 
State Fair at Waverly, N. J., in Septem- 
ber of each year. It is made the occa- 
sion of a great political pow-wow, and 
the party leaders assemble in force to 
see and be seen, exchange opinions, and 
make plans. 

Big Trees of California. The large 
trees in California are specified by Has- 
well as follows : The Keystone State, in 
Calaveras Grove, is 325 feet in height. 
The Father of the Forest, felled, is 385 
feet in length, and a man on horseback 
can ride erect 90 feet inside of its trunk. 
The Mother of the Forest is 315 feet in 
height, 84 feet in circumference (26.75 
feet in diameter) inside of its bark, and 
is computed to contain 537,000 feet of 
sound one-inch lumber. These measure- 
ments appear to be exceeded by some 
trees in Australia, as is set forth in the 
report of the Intercolonial Exhibition of 
1870 (p. 639), published from the Gov- 
ernment Printing Office at Sydney in 
1871. Here is the statement: The 
average height to which the Eucalypts 
attain in this colony may be stated at 
100 to 120 feet, with a stem of from 
three and a half to five feet in diameter. 
All above these dimensions must be re- 
garded as exceptional. In jungle forests 
they have been known to reach a height of 



200 feet, or more. But these heights sink 
into insignificance compared to those 
given of some allied species of the same 
genus indigenous to Victoria, Tasmania, 
and western Australia. The Tasmania 
"blue gum "(Eucalyptus globules) is said 
to reach to a height of 300 feet ; and Dr. 
Von Mueller states, in the ofBcial record 
of the Melbourne Intercolonial Exhibi- 
tion, that a " Karri tree " (Ecolossa) of 
western Australia was measured by 
Mr. Pemberton Walcot, which reached 
400 feet in height; and a Mr. Boyle 
measured a fallen tree of Eamygdalma 
in the deep recesses of Daudanong, near 
Melbourne, 420 feet in length ; further, 
that a Mr. Klein took the measurement 
of a Eucalyptus ten miles from Thales- 
ville, 480 feet high ; and that a Mr. G. W. 
Robinson ascertained the circumference 
of a tree of the Eamygdalina to be eighty- 
one feet. 

Big-wig. A slang name for a judge, 
from the custom prevalent among occu- 
pants of the bench of wearing large 

Bijou Heron. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Henry Miller. 

BiU Arp. (Pseud.) Charles H. 
Smith, American humorous writer ; one 
of the editors of the Atlanta " Constitu- 

Billet-doux. (Fr.) A love letter. 

BiUets d'etat. (Fr.) "Notes of 
State." Government paper ; bank- 

Billingsgate. A wharf and fish-market 
a little below London Bridge on the 
Middlesex shore. It is the chief whole- 
sale fish-market in London, and fish of 
every kind is admitted free of duty if 
taken by British subjects in British ves- 
sels. The vulgarity and scurrilous talk 
indulged in by the hucksters who fre- 
quent the locality has given rise to the 
proverbial use of the name. 

Bill Nye. (Pseud.) E. W. Nye, a 
well-known humorist and lecturer, and 
a contributor to the Detroit "Free 
Press " (b. 1850). 

Bill of 1800. A law introduced in 
that year by Senator James Ross, of 
Pennsylvania, to regulate the electoral 
count. It provided for a "grand com- 
mittee " of six Senators, six Represent- 
atives, and the Chief-Justice. These, 
sitting in secret, were to settle all dis- 
putes concerning electoral votes. The 
bill was amended in the House so as to 

give to the committee the power merely 
to take testimony, doubtful returns to 
be rejected only by a concurrent vote of 
both houses ; this was amended by the 
Senate so as to cause returns to be re- 
jected unless accepted by a concurrent 
vote. The bill was lost. The bill is 
memorable as the first open attempt on 
the part of Congress to arrogate to itself 
the duty assigned by the Constitution 
to the President of the Senate of count- 
ing the electoral votes. — Brown and 

Billy Barlow. A Merry-Andrew. So 
called from a half-idiot of that name, 
who fancied himself some great per- 
sonage. He was well known in the 
east of London, and died in White- 
chapel Workhouse. 

Billy Florence. The stage-name of 
William J. Conlin. 

Billy Patterson, Who struck ? The 
origin of this once famous phrase is as 
follows : About forty years ago, at one 
of the medical colleges of this country 
the students had a trick of hazing every 
new man who entered the institution. 
They would secure him hand and foot, 
carry him before a mock tribunal, and 
there try him for some high crime with 
which they charged him. He would be 
convicted, of course, and sentenced to 
be led to the block and decapitated. A 
student named William Patterson came 
along in time, and was put through the 
court and sentenced in the usual solemn 
and impressive manner. He was blind- 
folded and led to the block, and his 
neck placed in position. The execu- 
tioner swung his axe and buried it in 
the block, allowing it, to be sure, to 
go nowhere near Patterson's head. The 
students laughed when the trick was at 
an end, but Patterson was dead. He 
had died from what medical men call 
shock. All the students were put under 
arrest, and the question arose, "Who 
struck Billy Patterson ? " On the trial 
it was shown that nobody struck him ; 
but the medical students retained the ex- 
pression, and it has come down through 
them to the present day. 

Billy Sedgwick. The stage-name of 
of S. W. Putnam. 

Billy Wix. An owl. " Billy " is a 
play upon the beak, or bill, which is 
very striking in the owl ; and " Wix " is 
the German week, " a wig," alluding to 
the judge-like appearance of the "wise 



Bingham's Dandies. A nickname for 
the Seventeenth Lancers in the English 
army. Lord Bingham was once their 
colonel, and their uniform is noted for 
its almost foppish trimness. 

Blog. Biography; biographical. 

Bion. (Pseud.) Robert Southey. 

Bird of Washington. The bald eagle, 
the American emblem. 

Birkbeck. (Pseud.) Henri Beyle. 

Birmingham of China. The city of 
Fat-Shan, in Quang-Tong, China. It has 
large iron-works, whence its sobriquet. 

Birmingham Poet. John Freeth, the 
English versifier, who died in 1808, aged 
seventy-eight, was so named. He was 
a publican as well as a poet, and softie- 
thing of a wit. He set many of his lyrics 
to music, and sang them well. 

Bis. (Lat.) " Twice." A term indi- 
cating that a passage distinguished by 
a curved line drawn under or over it 
is to be played or sung twice. (Mus.) 

Bisc. Biscayan. 

Bis dat, qui cito dat. (Lat.) " Twice 
he gives who quickly gives." He who 
bestows a favor promptly and with little 
fuss, greatly enhances its value. 

Bishop Bunyan. John Bunyan (fl. 
1628-1688) was thus named because he 
visited his religious brethren in vari- 
ous parts of England, preaching and 

Bishop of all the Denominations. 
The Rev. Dr. Eraser, Bishop of Man- 
chester (d. 1885), was so named in allu- 
sion to his broad spirit of toleration to 
all sects. 

Bishop of Hippo. Saint Augustine. 

Bishop's Bible. An edition of the 
Scriptures which appeared in 1568. It 
was prepared under the supervision 
of Archbishop Parker. See Treacle 

Bismarquer. One who cheats at cards 
or billiards. The word, it is said, is 
coined from the name of Prince Bis- 
marck, whose shifty statecraft in 1865- 
1866 awoke honest indignation through- 
out Europe. See Bite. 

Bis peccare in bello non licet. (Lat.) 
To blunder twice is not allowed in war. 

Biss. Bissell's Circuit Court Reports. 

Bistonians. The Thracians. So called 
from Biston, son of Mars, who built Bis- 
tonia, on the lake Bistonis. 

So the Bistonian race, a maddening train, 
Exult and revel on the Thradan plain ; 

With milk their bloody banquets they allay, , 
Or from the lion rend his panting prey ; j 

On some abandoned savage fiercely fly, 
Seize, tear, devour, and think it luxury. 

Statius, book iL 

Bis vincit, qui se vincit in vic- 
toria. (Lat.) "Twice he conquers who 
conquers himself in victory." He con- 
quers twice who conquers himself in 
the hour of victory, — i. e., his enemy 
by his valor, and himself by his mod- 

Bite. A cheat ; one who bites us. 
" The biter bit " explains the origin. 
We say "a man was bitten" when he 
meddles with something which prom- 
ised well but turned out a failure. 

Bitter Bnd. " This phrase is nearly 
without meaning as it is used. The true 
phrase, 'better end,' is used properly 
to designate a crisis, or the moment of 
an extremity. When, in a gale, a ves- 
sel has paid out all her cable, her cable 
has run out to the 'better end,' — the 
end which is secured within the vessel 
and little used. Robinson Crusoe, in 
describing the terrible storm in Yar- 
mouth Roads, says, ' We rode with two 
anchors ahead, and the cables veered 
out to the better end.' " — Bartlett. 

Bizarre. (Pseud.) John Russell Young 
in the " Washington Chronicle." 

B. Jon. Ben Jonson. 

Bk. Bark; book. 

Black, The. See Lochiel. 

Black Abolitionists. A Southern 
nickname for the Northern abolition- 
ists during the anti-slavery agitation. 

Black Act. A law passed in the 
ninth year of George I. to punish armed 
poachers who at that day used to blacken 
their faces, and were popularly known as 

Black Acts. A series of enactments 
of the Scots' Parliament between the 
accession of James I. and the year 1587, 
because they were printed in Saxon, or 
"black" characters. 

Black Assize. During the sitting of 
the court held at Oxford in 1577, judges, 
lawyers, and jurymen were stricken with 
the plague. The plague has been called 
the " Black Assize." 

Blackbeard. Edward Teach, the 
notorious pirate, was so named. 

Black Bruns'wickers. Name given 
to a body of about seven hundred hus- 
sars commanded by Frederick William, 
Duke of Brunswick, in the Napoleonic 



wars. They were called " Black " be- 
cause they wore mourning for the de- 
ceased duke. 

Black CaptEun. A nickname given 
to Col. Dennis Davidoff, an officer in 
the Russian army, by the French during 
the French invasion. 

Black Cockade. A black cockade 
worn on the hat was an emblem adopted 
by the Federalists during the troubles 
with France in 1797, when war seemed 
imminent. Its meaning lay in the fact 
that it had been a part of the Conti- 
nental uniform during the Revolution, 
and moreover it served as a contrast to 
the tricolor cockade of France which 
the Republicans had affected. " Black 
Cockade Federalist " was a term of re- 
proach applied to Federalists during the 
days of the party's decline. 

Black Codes, Black La-ws. Cer- 
tain enactments passed in many of the 
Northern States before the abolition of 
slavery, requiring certain acts to be per- 
formed by free negroes conditional to 
their residence in those States. 

Black Country. ' A certain district of 
Staffordshire, England. "In this region 
occurs," says Mr. Moncrief, " the argil- 
laceous or clay and black band ironstone 
of the coal measures, and the geological 
formation known as the Oolite and Lias. 
It occurs in such quantities, and in such 
close proximity to the fuel necessary for 
smelting it, that it has altogether al- 
tered — we might almost say begrimed 
— the face of the country in the neigh- 
borhood of its manufacture. As most 
folks know, it has given to a great part 
of Staffordshire the name of the Black 
Country." But the truth is, many peo- 
ple do not know this. Londoners think 
all colliery and iron districts come un- 
der this designation ; and many persons 
in Birmingham have to learn that the 
black band of ironstone of the local coal 
measure is the foundation of the name 
"Black Country," though the funereal 
pall of smoke and the general grimy ap- 
pearance of the great mining and manu- 
facturing district that has made Bir- 
mingham populous and rich would be a 
sufficient reason for the designation. 

Black David. David Forman, an 
American soldier (d. 1812), so named 
from his excessive cruelties toward 
the loyalists of New Jersey during the 
Revolutionary War. 

Black Death. The name bestowed 
by the populace on a terrible sickness 

that raged in Asia, Europe, and Africa 
in the fourteenth century. It took its 
name from the black blotches, symp- 
toms of putridity, that appeared on the 
skin of its victims immediately after 

Black Diamonds, (i) Coal. Dia- 
monds and coal are both carbon. (2) A 
name given in England to " smart '' fel- 
lows of the lower classes. 

Black Dick. Richard Earl Howe, 
the English admiral (fl. 1725-1799). 

Black Dog. A fiend still dreaded in 
many country places. 

Black Douglas. William Douglas, 
Earl of Nithsdale (fl. fourteenth cen- 

Black Douglas. Introduced by Sir 
Walter Scott in " Castle Dangerous," is 
a portrait of James, eighth Lord Doug- 
las, who twice took Douglas Castle from 
the English by stratagem. The first time 
he partly burned it, and the second time 
he razed it to the ground. The castle, 
says Godscroft, was nicknamed "Dan- 
gerous " because every one who at- 
tempted to keep it from James was in 
constant peril. 

Black Douglas. Frederick Douglas, 
the colored orator and philanthropist, 
was so named to distinguish him from 
Stephen A. Douglas. 

Black Dwarf. (Pseud.) Thomas Jon- 
athan Wooler, English political writer 
(1 791-1859). 

Black Eagle. In the National Re- 
publican Convention of 1884 Gen. John 
A. Logan, who had been proposed as 
the Republican candidate for President, 
was referred to by Judge West, the blind 
orator of Ohio, as " that grand old Black 
Eagle of Illinois." 

Black Friars. The Dominicans 
are so called from the color of their 

Black Friday, (i) Dec. 6, 1745, the 
day on which the news arrived in Eng- 
land that the Pretender had landed. 

(2) May II, 1866, the culmination of the 
commercial panic in London, when Over- 
end, Gurney & Co. stopped payment. 

(3) Sept. 24, 1869, in Wall Street, New 
York, when a group of speculators forced 
the price of gold to 162^, creating a se- 
rious crisis. 

Black Hawk War. In 1832 the 
Sacs, the Foxes, and the Winnebagoes 
of Wisconsin Territory began a war, in- 
cited thereto by the famous chief Black 



Hawk, who, like many of his predeces- 
sors, believed it possible to form a con- 
federacy of Indian nations sufficiently 
strong to arrest the westward progress 
of the white man. The lands of the Sacs 
and Foxes, lying on the Rock River, Illi- 
nois, had been purchased by the United 
States a quarter of a century previously ; 
but since there was no immediate ur- 

fency for white occupancy, the Indians 
ad been allowed to retain possession 
of the ceded lands. When at last posses- 
sion was demanded, they refused to com- 
ply, and cavilled at the conditions of the 
treaty. The government insisted that 
its provisions should be carried out, and 
hostilities were forthwith commenced. 
The United States troops under General 
Scott, aided by the Illinois militia, de- 
feated the Indians in several actions, 
and captured Black Hawk. He was es- 
corted to the East, where the extent 
and power of the nation his people had 
foolishly sought to withstand became 
fully apparent to his understanding. Re- 
turning to his people, he told them that 
resistance was hopeless, and the dis- 
puted lands were then abandoned. 

Black Hole. An appellation famil- 
iarly given to a dungeon or dark cell in 
a prison, and which is associated in the 
public mind with a horrible catastrophe 
in the history of British India ; viz., the 
cruel confinement of a party of English 
in an apartment called the " Black Hole 
of Calcutta," on the night of the i8th of 
June, 1756. The garrison of the fort 
connected with the English factory at 
Calcutta having been captured by the 
Nabob Suraja Dowlah, he caused the 
prisoners, one hundred and forty-six in 
number, to be confined in an apartment 
twenty feet square. This cell had only 
two small windows, and these were ob- 
structed by a veranda. The crush of 
the unhappy sufferers was dreadful ; and 
after a night of excruciating agony from 
pressure, heat, thirst, and want of air, 
there were in the morning only twenty- 
three survivors. 

Black Horse. The Seventh Dragoon 
Guards, the " facings " of whose uniforms 
are black. Other names for this corps 
are "Princess Royal's Dragoon Guards," 
" Strawboots," and " The Blacks." 

Black Horse Cavalry. A name given 
to those legislators that act together for 
the purpose of exacting money from the 
friends of any measure under consider- 
ation, and threaten its defeat in case of 

non-compliance. Their number is fre- 
quently great enough, to be of consider- 
able influence. 

Black Indies. A name given by Eng- 
lish people to their vast system of coal- 
mines, which have contributed perhaps 
even more than the Indian colonial pos- 
sessions to swell the surprising wealth 
of the United Kingdom. 

Black Jack. Miners call blende, or 
sulphide of zinc, " Black Jack," the oc- 
currence of which is considered a favor- 
able indication. The blende usually pre- 
cedes a lode of good ore. 

Blackjack. A nickname given to 
General John A. Logan, of Illinois, The 
name is usually written " Black Jack," 
and is supposed to point to his swarthy 
complexion : but this is an error. The 
blackjack oak is the knottiest and tough- 
est wood growing in the Western coun- 
try, and during the Civil War the Con- 
federates dubbed him the "Blackjack 
Colonel " because of his toughness as a 

Blackleg. An English slang term for 
a race-course swindler. 

Black Letter. The Gothic or Ger- 
man type, because of its black appear- 

Black-letter Day. An unlucky day, 
— one to be recalled with regret. The 
Romans marked their unlucky days with 
a piece of charcoal, and their lucky ones 
with chalk. 

Black-letter Dogs. Bibliomaniacs 
who delve in out-of-the-way corners to 
unearth black-letter copies of old books. 
Black-mail. Tribute of cash, corn, 
or cattle annually paid in North Brit- 
ain to certain bands, allied to robbers, 
to be by them protected from plunder. 
Black Rent: Rent paid in grain or 
flesh. Grass-mail: Rent paid for pas- 

Black Monday, (i) On Easter Mon- 
day, April 14, 1360, Edward III. was 
encamped before Paris with his army, 
and many of his men and horses per- 
ished from the intense cold. The Mon- 
day after Easter Sunday is so nick- 
named in memory of this fatal day 
Says Lancelot, in "The Merchant of 
Venice " : " It was not for nothing that 
my nose fell a-bleeding on Black Mon- 
day last at six o'clock in the morning." 
Another account traces the origin of me 
name to the massacre of the English by 
the Irish at Cullen's Wood, near Dub- 
lin, on Easter Monday, March 30, 1209. 



The English were merrymaking, when 
the Irish fell on them and slaughtered 
men, women, and children. See Blue 
Monday. (2) Feb. 27, 1865, was so 
named in Melbourne, where a terrible 
hot wind from the N. N. W. wjrought 
much havoc. 

Black Money. Spurious coin was 
so first named in 1335. 

Black Monks. The Dominican friars 
were so named. 

Black Museum. A collection of burg- 
lar's tools and other implements of crime 
at Scotland Yard, London, is so named. 
Black Parliament. Convened by 
Henry VIIL in the London Bridewell. 

Black Prince. Edward, Prince of 
Wales, son of Edward IIL, so styled, 
according to Froissart, " by terror of his 
arms ; " according to others, because he 
wore black armor. The last derivation 
is probably without foundation. 
Black Rent. See Black-mail. 
Black Republicans. A name of re- 
proach bestowed by the pro-slavery men 
in the United States upon the Republi- 
can party, certain of whose members re- 
sisted the extension of slavery into any 
State where it was not already an "in- 
Blacks, or Neri. See Bianchi. 
Blacks, The. See Black Horse. 
Black Saturday. The 4th of August, 
1621, upon which day the Scottish Par- 
liament agreed to certain articles ad- 
mitting Episcopalian customs into the 
church, — a highly obnoxious measure 
to the Presbyterians. A violent storm 
that darkened the heavens was thought 
to be a mark of God's displeasure. 

Blacksmith Astronomer. Lawrence 
J. Ibach (1818-1888), a resident of Penn- 
sylvania, was so named. He followed 
the trade of a blacksmith nearly all his 
life. When a boy he lived with a rela- 
tive who had a knowledge of astronomy. 
Young Ibach devoted himself to the 
study of the science, and for thirty-five 
years was one of the leading almanac 
calculators in this country. Mr. Ibach 
made his calculations at night after 
working at his trade in the daytime. 

Black Snake. The sobriquet given 
to Anthony Wayne (i 745-1796) by the 
Indians, in allusion to his success in 
warfare. The black snake will attack 
any other species, and is rarely worsted. 
Black Swan. The sobriquet of Eliza- 
beth Taylor Greenfield, a negro singer 

(1808-1876). She was born in slavery, 
but developed great ability as a vocalist. 

Black Thursday. The name given 
in the colony of Victoria, Australia, to 
Thursday, Feb. 6, 1851, when the most 
terrible Dush fire known in the annals 
of the colony occurred. It raged over 
an immense area. One writer in the 
newspapers of the time said that he 
rode at headlong speed for fifty miles, 
with fire raging on each side of his 
route. The heat was felt far out at 
sea, and many birds fell dead on the 
decks of coasting vessels. The de- 
struction of animal life and farming 
stock in this conflagration was enor- 

Black Watch. Armed companies of 
the loyal clans, — Campbells, Monroes, 
etc., — employed to guard the Highlands 
of Scotland from 1725 to 1729, when 
they were mustered into the famous 
Forty-second Regiment, "the Royal 
Highland Black Watch." They wear 
dark tartans, whence the name. 

Blanche. (Pseud.) Mrs. E. B. Field, 
a story-writer in the " Saturday Night." 

Blanche Corelli. The stage-name of 
Madame Blanche Crillae. 

Blanche Manning. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Daniel C. Manning. 

Blanche Meda. The stage-name of 
Mrs. James Delphin, nie Pratt. 

Blanche Miller. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Niel Florence. 

Blanche Roosevelt The stage-name 
of Madame Machetta. 

Blanche 'Webster. The stage-name 
of Mrs. D. Birom. 

Blanche Wilson. The stage-name 
of Madeline Le Baron. 

BlaneyB Bloodhounds. See RoL- 


Blanketeers, Blanket Meeting. On 

March 10, 181 7, a number of suffering 
operatives met in St. Peter's Field, near 
Manchester, many of them having blan- 
kets or rugs rolled and strapped to their 
backs. They essayed to march on Lon- 
don, but were dispersed by the magis- 
tracy. Their object was believed to be 
the commencement of a great insurrec- 
tion. Eventually the leaders obtained 
an audience with the Cabinet ministers, 
and better feeling prevailed. 

Blarney Stone. A relic of the an- 
cient castle of Blarney, in Ireland. It 
is a triangular stone suspended from 
the north angle of the castle about 



twenty feet from the top, and bearing 
this inscription : " Cormack MacCarthy 
fortis me fieri fecit, A. D. 1446." Ac- 
cording to a tradition of the country 
the castle was besieged by the English 
under Carew, Earl of Totness, who, 
having concluded an armistice with the 
commander of the castle on condition 
of its surrender, waited long for the ful- 
filment of the terms, but was put off 
from day to day with soft speeches in- 
stead, until he became the jest of Eliza- 
beth's ministers and the dupe of the 
Lord of Blarney. From that day " kiss- 
ing the Blarney Stone " has been sy- 
nonymous with flattery and smooth, 
deceitful words. 

Blasphemous Balfour. Sir James 
Balfour, a Scottish judge, who died in 
1583, was so nicknamed because of his 

Blatoh. Blatchford's Circuit Court 

Blaze, Blazing. In Virginia crown 
grants were commonly blazed out, or 
blazoned, by cutting some marks in the 
bark of a tree. The word (from the 
French blason) has grown into an 
Americanism; a new-comer blazes out 
his pre-emption right on the tree-trunks, 
or he deadens the tree for the same pur- 
pose by belting or ringing it, — i. e., 
cutting off a circular piece of bark, so 
as to prevent the sap from rising. 

Blear-eyed. Aurelius Brandolini, the 
Italian poet (fl. 1440-1497). 

Bleeding Kansas. Kansas was so 
named because much of the sanguinary 
strife of the anti-slavery agitation imme- 
diately preceding the civil war took 
place within its borders. 

Blind, The. (i) Luigi Groto, Italian 
poet (fl. 1541-1585). (2) Ludwig III., 
Emperor of Germany (fl. 880-934). 

Blind Half Hundred. See Dirty 
Half Hundred. 

Blind Harper. John Parry, a famous 
performer, who died 1739. 

Blind Harry. A famous Scottish 
minstrel who flourished in the fifteenth 
century. He composed an epic on 
William Wallace over eleven thousand 
lines in length. 

Blind Leaders of the Blind. A sect 
of the Pharisees who were in the habit 
of walking with their eyes closed, and 
often ran against a wall or into a road- 
side ditch. Matt. xv. 14. 

Blindman's Holiday. The twilight 
hour, when it is too dark to work and 
too light to kindle gas or candles. AH 
are then in the condition of blind men, 
who for the most part enjoy perpetual 

Blind Preacher, (i) Timothy Wood- 
bridge (1784-1862). (2) James Waddel 
(1739-1805). (3) William Henry Milburn 
(b. 1823). All were Americans. 

Blind Singer. Oliver Shaw (1776- 
1849), an American song-writer and vo- 
calist, is referred to by this name by 
Dr. Ritter. 

Blind Traveller. Lieut. James Hol- 
man (fl. 1787-1857). 

Blizzard. A modern American word, 
probably more or less onomatopoetic : 
suggestive words are blow, blast,- blis- 
ter, bluster; the Fr. blesser, to wound, 
has also been conjectured, but there is 
nothing to indicate a French origin. 
As applied to a bitter snow-storm, the 
word became general in the American 
newspapers during the severe winter of 
1 880-1 881; but according to the "Mil- 
waukee Republican," March 4, 1881, it 
had been so applied in the " Northern 
Vindicator," Esherville, 111., between 
i860 and 1870. 

" Blizzards are cold snaps which come nith a 
high wind, as opposed to the calm frost of anti- 
cyclones. They are the result of the passage of 
the rear of cyclones or of V depressions in the 
winter months. Then we get high, strong north- 
westerly winds, blowing ofE a frozen continent, 
with a temperature many degrees below zero, 
and with surroundings which are very destruc- 
tive to life. The wind drives the cold into the 
bones, even through fur clothing, and raises a 
blinding dust of powdery snow. Under these 
circumstances only are the Western voyagers 
ever lost. If wood cannot be found Nature can 
only resist the cold for a certain number of 
hours, and the men are frozen to death if no 
shelter can be reached. A very curious circum- 
stance attends these deaths. In almost every 
case the victims are found to have begun to strip 
themselves. When the body is nearly reduced 
to an icicle, only a very little blood continues to 
circulate languidly through the brain. Then 
delirium sets in, with a delusive sensation of 
heat, under the influence of which the traveller 
begins to divest himself of his clothes." 

Blizzard Monday. March 12, 18S8, 
on which day the Eastern States were 
visited by a snow-storm of unparalleled 
severity, lasting two days, and which 
paralyzed travel and business for a 

Block Island Turkey. A colloquial 
name for salted codfish. See Albany 



Blondin, M. The professional name 
of Emile Gravelet, the famous tight-rope 

B.IjIi. Baccalaureus Legutn. Bache- 
lor of Laws. Same as LL.B. 

Blood Bath (ijao). A massacre of 
the Swedish nobles and leaders, which 
occurred three days after the coronation 
of Christian II., king of Denmark, Swe- 
den, and Norway. The victims were in- 
vited to attend the coronation, and were 
put to the sword, under the plea of being 
enemies of the true church. In this mas- 
sacre fell both the father and brother-in- 
law of Gustavus Vasa. The former was 
named Eric Johansson, and the latter 

Blood, Field of. See Field of 

Blood is Thicker than "Water. 

" Many think that this saying originated 
with Commodore Tatnall, of the United 
States Navy, who assisted the English 
in Chinese waters, and, in his despatch 
to his government, justified his inter- 
ference by quoting the phrase. It is, 
however, an old English proverb, and it 
is to be found in Ray's ' Collection of 
English Proverbs,' published in 1672. 
Walter Scott, too, makes Dandie Din- 
mont say, ' Weel ! blude 's thicker than 
•water; she 's welcome to the cheeses 
and the hams just the same.' It is 
a protest against modern cosmopoli- 
tanism and universal benevolence that 
'spreads as far and is as weak and 
useless as the threads of summer gos- 
samer.' A brother is better than a stran- 
ger, is the pith of ,the saying. Blood 
stands for traceable, admitted consan- 
guinity ; water, for the colorless and 
chilled fluid that flows through the veins 
of the rest of mankind, who are homi- 
nes homini lupi, and take but cold inter- 
est in the happiness of a stranger, and 
thus cause the fluid coursing through 
their hearts to appear as one with water 
to the proverb-maker. Water, too, in 
our early writers was symbolic of loose- 
ness, inattachment, falsity. ' Unstable as 
water' is the scriptural phrase. Thicker 
signifies greater consistency and sub- 
stance; hence closeness of attachment, 
adhesiveness. 'As thick as thieves,' — 
as close as bad men when banding for 
evil enterprise. Blood is always thought 
binding. Conspirators have signed their 
bonds with their own blood, as martyrs 
have their attestation of the truth. | He 
cemented the union of the two families 

by marriage,' is a stock phrase with his- 
torians. Quitting metaphor for physi- 
cal fact, we find that the blood as well 
as the hair of oxen has been used to 
bind mortar together and give greater 
consistency than mere water, as is re- 
ported of the White Tower of London. 
The proverb may also allude to the 
spiritual relationship which, according 
to the doctrine of the Roman Catholic 
Church, is created between the sponsor 
and the child whom he brings to the 
waters of baptism. The relationship by 
blood would probably be more thought 
of than one originating in water." — LlP- 


Bloodless Lambs, or Peacemakers. 

A nickname given to the Sixteenth 
Regiment of the line, because it is the 
only regiment in the British service 
without the names of battles inscribed 
on its flags. 

Blood of the Martyrs the Seed of 
the Church. " Flures efficimur, quoties 
metimur a vobis ; semen est sanguis 
Christianorum." — Tertullian, Apol- 

In a note to this passage in " Tertullian " (ed. 
1641), is the following quotation from "Saint 
Jerome": "Est sanguis martyrum seminarium 

Blood's Conspiracy. Colonel Blood, 
a cast-off member of the Protector's 
household, with a number of confed- 
erates, seized the Duke of Ormond's 
coach, Dec. 6, 1670, and carried the 
duke to Tyburn, where he would have 
been hanged but for the timely arrival 
of some friends. Blood afterwards tried 
to steal the royal crown from the Jewel- 
room in the Tower, May 9, 1671. For 
neither of these offences, strange to 
say, was he punished. 

Blood-tubs. A set of rowdies in 
Baltimore, chiefly butchers, who got 
their epithet from having on an elec- 
tion day dipped an obnoxious German 
head down in a tub of warm blood, 
and then driven him running through 
the town. The following is from the 
song of the Irish Legion, written af- 
ter the attack on the Union soldiers 
while passing through Baltimore, in 
1861: — 

" Blood-tubs and Plug-uglies, and others galore, 
Are sick for a thrashing in sweet Baltimore j 
Be jabers I that same I 'd be proud to inform 
Of the terrible force of an Irishman's arm." 

Bloody, The. Otho II., Emperor of 
Germany (fl. 9SS-983)- 



Bloody Angle. In the fighting at 
Spottsylvania in 1864 there was a sharp 
salient between the troops of Hancock 
and Lee, where the fighting was as fierce 
as any during the war, and the carnage 
correspondingly severe. 

Bloody Assize. The state trials 
held by the notorious Jeffreys in 1685 
after the defeat of Monmouth at Sedg- 
moor. Three hundred persons were exe- 
cuted ; numbers were whipped, fined, or 
imprisoned, and nearly a thousand were 
transported to the American plantations. 

Bloody Bear, in Dryden's poem, 
"The Hind and Panther," means the 

" The bloody bear, an independent beast, 
Unlicked to form, in groans her hate expresses." 

Bloody Bill. A name given to a 
statute of King Henry VIIL, which 
prescribed hanging or burning as the 
penalty to be visited on all who should 
deny the doctrine of transubstantiation. 

Bloody Butcher. The Duke of 
Cumberland, second son of George II., 
who was so dubbed because of his enor- 
mities in suppressing the rebellion of 
the partisans of the Young Pretender. 

Bloody Eleventh. An English regi- 
ment, so nicknamed from the fact that 
they were on more than one occasion 
nearly annihilated, as at Fontenoy and 

Bloody Mary. Queen Mary of Eng- 
land, whose reign is notorious for the 
burnings and beheadings of Protestants 
throughout the realm. 

Bloody Meado-w. A field in the 
outskirts of Tewksbury, England, where 
the battle of Tewksbury was fought. May 
14, 1471. 

Bloody Hump. Another and a later 
name for the Rump Parliament {q. v.). 

Bloody Shirt. We know of no bet- 
ter explanation of the origin of this 
phrase than that given by Roscoe Conk- 
ling in a speech made in New York, 
Sept. 1 7, 1880. Referring to the "bloody 
shirt," he said : " It is a relief to remem- 
ber that this phrase, with the thing it 
means, is no invention of our politics. 
It dates back to Scotland, three cen- 
turies ago. After a massacre in Glen- 
fruin, not so savage as has stained our 
annals, two hundred and twenty widows 
rode on white palfreys to Stirling Tower, 
bearing each on a spear her husband's 
bloody shirt. The appeal waked Scot- 
land's slumbering sword, and outlawry 
and the block made the name of Glen- 

fruin terrible to victorious Clan Alpine, 
even to the third and fourth generation." 
The "ensanguined garment" is a eu- 
phonious rendering of this now historic 

Bloody Sweat. See Stigmata. 

Bloody Wedding. The massacre of 
Saint Bartholomew, 1572, has been so 
named because it occurred during the 
nuptial festivities attending the union of 
Henry IV. and Marguerite, daughter of 
Catherine de' Medici. 

Blouses. A collective name for a mob 
in Paris. French workmen uniformly 
wear the blouse. 

Blow a Cloud. A term as old as the 
reign of Elizabeth for the act of smoking 
a cigar or pipe. 

Blo'wzelinda. A country maiden in 
Gay's pastoral called " The Shepherd's 
" Sweet is my toil when Blowzelind is near ; 

Of her bereft, 't is winter all the year. 

Come, Blowzelinda, ease thy swain's desire. 

My summer's shadow and my winter's fire." 

Bis. Bales. 

Blue-apron Statesman. An Eng- 
lish lay politician ; a tradesman who in- 
terferes with the affairs of the nation. 
The reference is to the blue apron once 
worn by almost all tradesmen, but now 
restricted to butchers, poulterers, fish- 
mongers, etc. 

Bluebaoks. The Southern paper cur- 
rency during the civil war was so named 
to distinguish it from the Greenbacks 
(y. V.) of the North. 

Blue Blood. The old families of 
Spain traced their pedigree beyond the 
time of the Moorish conquest, and 
claimed that their blood was blue, while 
that of common people was of a muddy 

Blue Bonnet. (Pseud.) Rev. Thomas 
Fenwick, a Canadian clergyman and mis- 
cellaneous writer. 

Blue-bonnets. The Scotch. See,BoN- 
NET Lairds. 

England shall many a day 
Tell of the bloody fray 
When the blue-bonnets came over the border. 

Blue-bottle. A policeman. So named 
from the color of his uniform. 

Blue-coat School, Blue-coat Boys. 
The name colloquially given to Christ 
Hospital and its scholars, Newgate 
Street, London, in which the boys wear 
long blue coats or gowns. 



Blue-devils, or A Fit of the Blues. 

Melancholy or low spirits. It is affirmed 
that indigo-dyers are especially subject 
to moodiness. 

Blue Dog. See Once in a Blue 

Blue Envelope. Some of the great 
American railroads use various colored 
envelopes for different branches of their 
business. On some of these a blue en- 
velope contains a notice of dismissal ; 
hence the use of the phrase " to get the 
blue envelope " signifies a loss of one's 
employment. A yellow envelope is some- 
times used. 

Blue Fear, Blue Funk. See Once 
IN A Blue Moon. 

Blue-gowns. The name popularly 
given to a class of privileged mendi- 
cants in Scotland. Their proper designa- 
tion was " King's Bedesmen," or " Beads- 
men." "Each of the beadsmen on his 
Majesty's birthday received a gown or 
cloak of blue cloth, with a loaf of bread, 
a bottle of ale, and a leathern purse 
containing a penny for every year of 
the king's life. Every birthday another 
beadsman was added to the number, as 
a penny was added to each man's purse." 

Blue-grass State. A name popularly 
bestowed on the State of Kentucky, and 
derived from the so-called " blue-grass " 
which has made the State so noted as 
the breeding-ground of fine cattle and 
horses. Of course the grass is not blue : 
the name refers to the underlying strata 
of blue limestone. 

Blue-hen State. Delaware. This 
name arose from the fact that cock- 
fighting was at one time very popular 
in the State. One of the devotees of 
this sport, a Captain Caldwell, used to 
say that no bird could be really game 
unless hatched by a blue hen. 

Blue Jacket. (Pseud.) Admiral John 
Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren, U. S. N. 

Blue Laws. A derisive name given 
to the laws of the early colonists in Con- 
necticut. It is related that "the strict 
enactments of the Puritans were re- 
counted in England and in the other 
colonies with many laughable exaggera- 
tions and malicious additions ; and some 
of the satirical statements of contempo- 
rary writers, taken literally, have given 
rise to the erroneous opinion that the 
Blue Laws actually existed as a legal 

They assumed the right to regulate the expen- 
ditures of the people, even for wearing-apparel, 

according to their several incomes. The General 
Court of Massachusetts on one occasion required 
the proper officers to notice the " apparel " of the 
people, especially their " ribands and great boots." 
Drinking of healths, wearing funeral badges, and 
many other things that seemed improper, were 
forbidden. At Hartford the General Court kept 
a constant eye upon the morals of the people. 
Freemen were compelled to vote under penalty 
of a fine of sixpence. The use of tobacco was 
prohibited to persons under twenty years of age, 
without the certificate of a physician ; and no 
others were allowed to use it more than once a 
day, and then they must be ten miles from any 
house. The people of Hartford were all obliged 
to rise in the morning when the watchman rang 
his bell. These are but a few of the hundreds of 
similar enactments found oA the records of the 
New England courts. In 1646 the Legislature of 
Massachusetts passed a law which imposed the 
penalty of a flogging upon any one who should 
kiss a woman in the streets. More than a hun- 
dred years afterward this law was enforced in 
Boston. The captain of a British man-of-war 
happened to return from a cruise on Sunday. 
His overjoyed wife met him on the wharf, and 
he kissed her several times. The magistrates or- 
dered him to be flogged. The punishment in- 
curred no ignominy, and he associated freely with 
the best citizens. When about to depart, the cap- 
tain invited the magistrates and others on board 
his vessel, to dine. When dinner was over, he 
caused all the magistrates to be flogged, on deck, 
in sight of the town ; then, assuring them that he 
considered accounts settled between him and them, 
he dismissed them, and set sail. — LossiNG. 

Blue-light Federalists. A name given 
to those Americans who were believed 
to have made friendly " blue-light " sig- 
nals to British ships in the War of 

Blue Monday. Those whose affairs 
of business occupied them on Sunday 
were considered to have a right to a 
holiday on Monday. The name is said 
to be derived from a custom of dec- 
orating European churches with blue 
the Monday before Lent. See Black 

Bluenoses. A collective nickname for 
Nova-Scotians, in allusion to the effect 
of their bleak climate upon that part of 
the face. 

Blue-peter. A flag with a blue ground 
and white square centre, flown from the 
fore, in token that a vessel is about to 
sail. " Peter " is a corruption of the 
French partir, to leave. 

Blue Ribbon of the French Turf. 
The Grand Prix de Paris. 

Blue Ribbon of the Turf. The stakes 
for the English Derby were so named by 
Lord Beaconsfield. When Lord George 
Bentinck quitted the turf for the House 
of Commons, he sold his stud. On the 
22d of May, 1848, his protectionist reso- 
lutions were negatived in the House, 



and on the 24th Surplice, one of the 
horses he had parted with, won the 
Derby. "All my life," he groaned, "I 
have been trying for this, and for what 
have I sacrificed it ! " The sympathizing 
Disraeli in vain strove to console his 
friend. " You do not know what the 
Derby is," rejoined Lord George. " Yes, 
I do," said Disraeli; "it is the Blue 
Ribbon of the English Turf." See Isth- 
mian Games of England. 

Blue-ruin. Gin is so named in Eng- 
land ; blue from its tint, and ruin from 
its effects. 

Blues. See Blue-devils. 

Blues, The, of Constantinople. A po- 
litical party in the reign of Justinian, op- 
posed to the Greens of Anastasius. Ever 
afterward blue was the emblem of roy- 
alty at Rome. 

Blueskin. The surname or nickname 
given to Joseph Blake, the English high- 
wayman, executed Nov. 11, 1723. His 
complexion was very dark. 

Blueskins. A nickname given to Pres- 
byterians, because of their alleged grave 

Blue-stocking. A female pedant. In 
14PO a society of ladies and gentlemen 
was formed at Venice, distinguished by 
the color of their stockings, and addicted 
to literary pursuits. Similar societies 
sprung up all over Europe. In England 
they did not become extinct till 1840, 
when the Countess of Cork, who, as Miss 
Moncton, was the last of the clique, 

Bluff City. Hannibal, Mo. It is built 
on rising ground on the bank of the Mis- 

Bluff Harry or Hal. Henry VIII., 
" who was famed for his bluff and burly 

B.M. Baccalaureus Medicinm. Bach- 
elor of Medicine. Same as M. B. 

Boanerges (" sons of thunder "). A 
name given to James and John, sons of 
Zebedee, because they desired to call 
down fire from heaven to consume the 
contemptuous Samaritans. See Luke 
ix. 54. The name in modern times has 
been given to a preacher who delivers 
" rousing " sermons, and expounds the 
doctrines of election and punishment 
with emphasis. 

Boar, The. Richard III. was so nick- 
named from his armorial device. See 
Bristled Baptist Boar. 

Bob. A colloquial nickname for a shil- 
ling in England. It is thought to be a 
corruption of the Scotch bawbee. 

Bobadil. A military braggart. Captain 
Bobadil is a character in Ben Jonson's 
comedy of " Every Man in his Humor." 
This name was probably suggested by 
Bobadilla, first governor of Cuba, who 
sent Columbus home in chains. 

Bobbing John. John Erskine, elev- 
enth Earl of Mar (1675-1732). 

Bobby. An English nickname for 
a policeman, because Sir Robert Peel 
first introduced them into the realm. 
They are dubbed " peelers " for the 
same reason. 

Bob Hart. The stage-name of Rob- 
ert Sutherland, a " minstrel," and later 
a revival preacher (d. 1888). 

Bob White. Nickname for the Amer- 
ican quail (Ortyx virginianus), whose 
note of warning closely resembles those 
words in sound. 

Boden See. The German name for 
the Lake of Constance in Switzerland, — 
so called because the bodmanno, or royal 
messenger, of the Carlovingian kings 
used to reside near by. 

Body of Liberties. The first code of 
laws established in New England, com- 
piled for the colony of Massachusetts in 
1641, by Rev. Nathaniel Ward. 

Boeotian. An epithet current among 
the ancients to denote a supremely stu- 
pid person. The natives of Boeotia were 
famed for their dulness. 

Boeotian Bars. Ears unable to ap- 
preciate music and rhetoric. 

This is having taste and sentiment. Well, 
friend, I assure thee thou hast not got Bceotiaa 
ears. — Lesage, Gil Bias. 

Bogle Swindle. A gigantic swindle 
concocted in Paris by fourteen persons, 
who expected to net at least a million 
sterling. It was exposed in the London 
" Times." 

Bogomili. A religious sect of the 
twelfth century, whose chief seat was 
Thrace. So called from their constant 
repetition of the words, " Lord, have 
mercy upon us," which in Bulgarian is 
bog milui. 

Bog-trotters. A colloquial term in 
Ireland for vagrants or tramps, in allu- 
sion to their skill in crossing the bogs 
from tussock to tussock. 
_ Bogus. The most plausible explana- 
tion of this common term is that the 
assumed name of a remarkably success- 



ful swindler, " Borghese," was in course 
of time not only reduced to "bogus," 
but finally applied to everything false 
and fraudulent. It spread rapidly over 
the whole Union, and is now one of the 
most familiar of Americanisms. 
Bohem. Bohemian. 
Bohemia. A slang sobriquet for 
those localities in the great cities of 
Europe and America frequented by ad- 
venturers in art or literature, and who 
lead an unsettled, gay, and often ques- 
tionable existence. Bohemia, in Eu- 
rope, was long thought to be the 
original home of the gypsies. 

Bohemian. "A term of mild re- 
proach bestowed on persons of uncon- 
ventional habits. But a ' Bohemian ' in 
the real sense of the word is a person, 
man or woman, who does not go into 
'society;' who is happy-go-lucky, un- 
conventional, now 'flush,' now 'short' 
of money; who, having money, spends 
it freely, enjoying it, and having none, 
hopes for it in the future; who makes 
the best of everything, and takes life 
as it comes. , Your true Bohemian is a 
philosopher, and in spite of his uncon- 
ventionality he is at least as apt to be 
respectable as a leader in conventional 

Bold Bean-hiller. The sobriquet 
borne by John Durkee (i 728-1 782), the 
American Indian-fighter. His place of 
residence in Windham, Conn., gave rise 
to the odd title. 

Bolerinm Promontory. Land's End, 
Cornwall, is so called. 

Bolero. A Spanish dance with casta- 

Bolingbroke. Henry IV. of England 
(fl. 1366-1413) is often alluded to by 
this name. He was bom at Boling- 
broke, in Lincolnshire. 

Bolingbroke. (Pseud.) Nicholas 
Amherst {circa 1726), as editor of the 
" Craftsman." 
Bolivar, Patsy. See Patsy Bolivar. 
Bolognese School. There were 
three periods to the Bolognese school 
of painting, — Early, Roman, and Eclec- 
tic. The first was founded by Marco 
Zoppo in the fifteenth century; and its 
best exponent was Francia. The second 
was founded in the sixteenth century by 
Bagnacavallo ; and its chief exponents 
were Primaticcio, Tibaldi, and Niccolo 
del Abbate. The third was founded by 
the Carracci at the close of the sixteenth 
century ; and its best masters have been 

Domenichino, Lanfranco, Guido, Guer- 
cino, and Albani. 

Bolt, Bolter. To secede from the 
political programme laid down by one's 
party is to " bolt " the ticket ; those who 
do so are named " bolters." 

Bolton How. (Pseud.) Hon. Spen- 
cer Cecil Brabazon Ponsonby, author of 
" Peril," etc. 

Bolton Rovire. (Pseud.) (i) Clement 
Scott. (2) B. C. Stephenson, a dramatic 
writer of the present day. 

Bolus. An apothecary, so called be- 
cause he administers boluses. George 
Colman adopts the name for his apothe- 
cary, who wrote his labels in rhyme, one 
of which was — 

" When taken, 
To be well shaken ; " 

but the patient, being shaken instead, 

Bomba. Ferdinand II., king of Na- 
ples, was thus nicknamed in conse- 
quence of his wanton attack on Mes- 
sina in 1848, during which many inno- 
cent lives were lost and much property 
destroyed. His son, Francis II., was 
nicknamed "Bomba II." for his bom- 
bardment of Palermo in i860 ; he was 
also dubbed " Bombalina ; " /. e., Little 

Bombardinio. (Pseud.) William 
Maginn in "Eraser's Magazine." 

Bombastes Furioso. One who talks 
big and uses long words ; the hero of a 
burlesque opera, so called, by William 
B. Rhodes. 

Bombastus. The family name of 
Paracelsus, who was believed to keep 
a small devil prisoner in the pommel of 
his sword. 

Bomb City. A nickname conferred 
on Chicago, 111., on account of the " Hay- 
market Riots," May 4, 1886, on which 
occasion dynamite bombs were thrown 
at the police, five of whom were killed. 

Bona Dea. Literally, "The Good 
Goddess." A mysterious Roman divin- 
ity, variously described as the wife, sis- 
ter, or daughter of Faunus. She was 
worshipped at Rome from the most an- 
cient times, only by women, however, 
even her name being concealed from 
men. Intercession was made for the 
whole Roman nation. " The solemni- 
ties were performed generally by aristo- 
cratic vestals. At this celebration no 
males were allowed to be present ; even 
portraits of men were veiled. The wine 
consumed was called milk, in order that 



its name might not be discovered ; and 
the vessel in which it was served, mella- 
rium. The symbol of the goddess was 
a serpent, indicating her healing pow- 
ers, and certain herbs were sold in her 

Bona fide. This phrase is frequently 
pronounced by imperfectly educated peo- 
ple as though the latter word were one 
syllable only. Its proper division into 
syllables is bo-nd fi-de ; the accent is on 
they£ The literal meaning is "in good 
faith." Bonajides is "good faith." 

Bon ami. (Fr.) Good friend. 

Bonanza. A Spanish term, of simi- 
lar meaning to Placer {q. v.). It is a 
nautical word, and means " fair weather 
at sea." If the reader will refer to Mat- 
thew viii. 26, he will read that, after the 
Lord rebuked the wind and the sea, 
"there was a great calm." And if refer- 
ence is next had to the Spanish version 
of the New Testament, he will find the 
phrase there given, "una grande bo- 
nanza." It is easy to understand how 
the word came into its figurative use as 
meaning a happy calm and good hope 
after a weary search. 

Bonanza Kings. James Clair Flood, 
W. S. O'Brien, John W. Mackay, and 
James G. Fair, four men of Irish parent- 
age who acquired vast fortunes from the 
gold and silver mines on the Pacific 
coast. They had various imitators and 
successors who shared the name, but 
these four men were the "only origi- 
nal " Bonanza Kings. 

Bona-roba. An Italian nickname for 
a courtesan, in allusion to her gay attire. 

Bon-bon. A sweetmeat. 

Bon bourgeois. (Fr.) " Good citi- 
zen." A citizen of substance. 

Bon cbevcilier, etc. See Good 

Bone to pick. It is the custom in 
Sicily for the father of a bride to hand 
the bridegroom a bone, saying, "Pick 
this bone ; you have undertaken a more 
difficult task." 

Boney. A diminutive nickname for 
Bonaparte, current in England in the 
first part of this century. 

Bonfaati, Mile. The professional 
name of Mrs. Hoffman, daughter-in- 
law of the late ex-Governor Hofbnan 
of New York. 

Bon Gaultier. (Pseud.) W. E. Ay- 
toun and Theodore Martin, literary col- 

Bon gt6, mal gr^. (Fr.) "Good 
will, bad will." With a good or bad 
grace; willing or unwilling. 

Bonhomie. Good-natured simplicity. 

Bonbomme. The French peasant is 
nicknamed "Jacques Bonhomme ; " i. e., 
"James Goodfellow." More particu- 
larly, however, the name is given to 
those of the common people who med- 
dled in politics. The uprising of the 
peasantry in 1358 is known as " La 

Bon Hommes (" Good Men "). An 
order of hermits of gentle and simple 
lives who first appeared in France about 
1217, and in England about 1283. The 
prior of the order was named " Le Bon 
Homme " by Louis VI. See Jacques 

Boniface. This name is probably 
applied to publicans from the legend 
mentioned in the "Ebrietatis Enco- 
mium," which relates that Pope Boni- 
face instituted indulgences for those 
who should drink a cup after grace, to 
his own memory, or to the Pope for the 
time being, which cup is proverbially 
called Saint Boniface's Cup. 

Boni principii finis bonus. (Lat.) 
A good ending comes from a good be- 

Bonis nocet quisquis peperoerit 
malis. (Lat.) He hurts the good who 
spares the bad. 

Bon jour. (Fr.) " Good day." Good 

Bon mot. A witty saying. 

Bonne. (Fr.) A nurse or governess. 

Bonne bfite. (Fr,) " Good beast." 
Good-natured fool. 

Bonne bouche. (Fr.) Literally, " a 
good mouth." Used in England as 
equivalent to fii-6ii, or in reference to 
some rare old wine; as, " Now I'll give 
you a ioKfte bouche. This is a bottle of 
the celebrated Comet Port of 1811." 

Bonne et beUe. (Fr-) " Good and 
beautiful. " Good and handsome. 

Bonne foi. (Fr.) Good faith. 

Bonne fortune. (Fr.) Good for- 
tune ; a piece of good luck. 

Bonnes gens. (Fr.) " Good peo- 
ple." Civilized beings; men of the 
right stamp. 

Bonne table. (Fr.) A good table. 

Bonnet de nuit. (Fr.) A nightcap. 

Bonnet Lairds. Country magnates 
who wore the old Scotch cap, or braid 



Bonnet rouge. (Fr.) The red cap ; 
the cap of liberty. 

Bonnie Chevalier. Charles Edward, 
the "Young Pretender" (i 720-1 788). 

Bonnie Meyer. The stage-name of 
Mrs. J. H. Thorne. 

Bono Johnny, A nickname for the 
English throughout the East. 

Bon Boir. (Fr.) Good evening. 

Bon ton. (Fr.) High fashion ; first- 
class society. 

Bon vivant. (Fr.) A jolly fellow; 
a high feeder or liver. 

Bona vivanta. (Fr.) Good com- 

Bon voyage. (Fr.) A pleasant jour- 
ney or voyage, as the case may be. 

Booby. A dunce ; a spiritless fellow. 
Among the Bahama Islands there is a 
sort of pelican, called a booby, which 
suffers itself to be attacked by other 
birds, and without resistance gives up 
the fish it has caught for itself. 

Boodle Aldermen. In 1884-1886 
certain New York aldermen were be- 
lieved to have been bribed to vote away 
a certam railroad charter on Broadway, 
and the accused were dubbed " Boodle 
Aldermen," boodle being a slang term 
for " money." One writer suggests that 
the word "boodle" is doubtless derived 
from the Dutch word "boedel," which 
means " property or goods." A " boe- 
delster," he says, is the attorney or 
other person who finally possesses the 

Book of Books. The Bible ; Greek 
/3i|3Xos, book. 

Book of the Four Kings. (Fr., 
"Livre des Quatre Rois," a pack of 
cards.) In a French pack the four 
kings are Charlemagne, David, Alex- 
ander, and Caesar, representatives of 
the Franco-German, Jewish, Macedo- 
nian, and Roman monarchies. 

Bookworm. One always poring over 
his books, in allusion to the insect that 
eats holes in books, and lives in and on 
its leaves. 

Bookworm. (Pseud.) Thomas F. 
Donnelly, American litterateur. 

Bootes (" the ox-driver "). In classical 
mythology the son of Ceres, and the 
inventor of the plough. He was trans- 
lated to the heavens, where he was 
made a constellation. 

Border, The. In the history of Great 
Britain a popular designation of the 
boundary between England and Scot- 

land. From the end of the tenth cen- 
tury until that of the seventeenth this 
frontier was the scene of constant con- 
flict, the details of which abound in and 
inspire both song and story. It was not 
until the union of the kingdoms in 1707 
that these disturbances became of less 
frequency, but during the Jacobite ex- 
citement they were revived with great 

Border Minstrel. Sir Walter Scott 
(fl. 1771-1832), poet and novelist, who 
reckoned his descent from the great 
Buccleuch family, the powerful border 

Border Ruffians. Southern settlers 
from Missouri wlw went into Kansas to 
combat the anti-slavery men about 1854. 

Border States. In ante-bellum times 
in American history a popular name for 
those States lying next to the line of 
the free States ; viz., Missouri, Ken- 
tucky, Virginia, Maryland, and Dela- 
ware. Upon the abolition of slavery 
the term passed into desuetude. 

Border-thief School. The name 
given to Sir Walter Scott and his imi- 
tators who sung the praises of vari- 
ous freebooting chiefs of the Scottish 

Border War. A name applied to the 
hostilities that took place between the 
Free-State emigrants to Kansas and 
the slaveholders from Missouri, when, in 
1854, the Kansas-Nebraska Bill left the 
question of slavery in that Territory to 
be settled by the inhabitants. Bloody 
encounters were frequent, and several 
pitched battles were fought. 

Boreas. In classical mythology the 
north wind, son of Astrasas and Aurora. 

Borough English. The law of suc- 
cession where the youngest son inherits 
instead of the eldest. It is of Saxon 
origin, and is so called to distinguish it 
from the Norman custom. It obtains 
in the manors of Lambeth, Hackney, 
part of Islington, Heston, Edmonton, 

Borrowing Days. The last three 
days of March are so named in Scot- 
land and in parts of England. The 
popular notion is that these days are 
borrowed or taken from April, and may 
be expected to consist of wet or stormy 
weather. Although this belief dates 
from a period before the change of the 
style, a few days of broken and unset- 
tled weather at the end of March often 
give color to this old superstition. 



Bosoawen. (Pseud.) Nathaniel 
Greene in liis various editorial capaci- 
ties from 1817 to 1852. 

BosphoTus, The Cimmerian. See 
Cimmerian Bosphorus. 

Boss == Master, Employer, Lead- 
er. The word " boss " is derived from 
the Dutch baas. Originally used in its 
primitive meaning of " master or over- 
seer," it became customary to speak of a 
boss tailor or a boss carpenter, meaning 
a mechanic who employed several hands 
or workmen. Soon the word became 
widely popular. It has even been turned 
into a verb, and to '■'■boss a job" is a 
common expression for undertaking a 
business. The word, harmless in itself, 
has passed into politics and become 
part of the history of the United States. 
The head of a party, the manager of an 
intrigue, the patron of a bill in Con- 
gress, each is called the boss. The term 
is current from the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
to the Gulf of Mexico, from the Nar- 
rows to the Golden Gate. 

Bossuet of the American Church. 
Archbishop Napoleon Joseph Perchd, 
of New Orleans (1805-1883), was so 
styled by Pope Leo XI IL 

Bost. Boston. 

Boston Bard. (Pseud.) Robert S. 
Coffin, American poet (1797-1827). 

Boston Massacre. A street affray 
in Boston, March 5, 1770, in which a 
sergeant's guard fired into a mob of 
people who had pelted them with 
snowballs. Three men were killed and 
several wounded. 

Boston Rebel. (Pseud.) John Low- 
ell, LL.D., American lawyer and polit- 
ical writer (1769-1840). 

Boston Sydney Smith. Thomas 
G. Appleton, a brother-in-law of Long- 
fellow, received this appellation. 

Boston Tea-Party. A name popu- 
larly conferred on the historic gather- 
ing of citizens in Boston, Dec. 16, 1773, 
who met to carry out the resolution of 
the colony respecting the non-importa- 
tion of goods from England. Disguised 
as Indians, they boarded three English 
vessels, and emptied their cargoes of 
tea into the waters of the harbor. 

Not long ago the " Boston Transcript " pub- 
lished the names of fifty-eight persons who were in 
the "Tea-Party," quoted from Thatcher's ■' Traits 
of the Tea-Party," pubUshed in 1835, at which time 
nine or ten of the parties immediately interested 
were alive and attested the correctness of the list. 
The names were as follows : George R. T. Hewes, 
Joseph Shed, John Crane, Josiah Wheeler,Thomas 

Urann, Adam CoUson, S. CoUidge, Joseph Pay- 
son, James Brewer, Thomas Bolter, Edward Proc- 
tor, Samuel Sloper, Thomas Gerrish, Nathaniel 
Green, Benjamin Simpson, Joseph Eayres, Joseph 
Lee, William Molineiix, Paul Revere, John Spurr, 
Thomas Moore, Samuel Howard, Matthew Lor- 
ing, Thomas Spear, Daniel Ingoldson, Richard 
Hunnewell, John Horton, Jonathan Hunnewell, 
Thomas Chsie, Thomas Melville, Henry Purkitt, 
Edward C. Howe, Ebenezer Stevens, Nicholas 
Campbell, John Russell, Thomas Porter, William 
Hendley, Benjamin Rice, Samuel Gore, Nathaniel 
Frothingham, Moses Grant, Peter Slaper, James 
Starr, Abraham Tower, William Pierce, William 

Russell, T. Gammell, Mcintosh, Dr. Thomas 

Young, Joseph Wyeth, Edward Dolbear, Mar- 
tin, Samuel Peck, Lendall Pitts, Samuel Sprague, 
Benjamin Clarke, Richard Hunnewell, Jr., John 
Prince. To these names have been added the fol- 
lowing, on the strength of family tradition. The 
list is not to be accepted as absolutely accurate : 
Nathaniel Barber, Samuel Barnard, Henry Bass, 
Edward Bates, Nathaniel Bradlee, David Brad- 
lee, Josiah Bradlee, Thomas Bradlee, Seth Inger- 
soU Brown, Stephen Burce, Benjamin Burton, 
George Carlton, Gilbert Colesworthy, John Coch- 
ran, Gershom Collier, James Foster Condy, Sam- 
uel Cooper, Thomas Dana, Jr., Robert Davis, 

Joseph Eaton, Eckley, William Etheridge, 

Samuel Fenno, Samuel Foster, John Fulton, Sam- 
uel Hammond, John Hicks, Samuel Hobbs, 
Thomas Hunstable, Abraham Hunt, David Ken- 
nison, Amos Lincohi, Thomas Machin, Archibald 

MacNeil, John May, Mead, Anthony Morse, 

Eliphalet Newell, Joseph Pearse Palmer, Jona- 
than Parker, John Peters, Samuel Pitts, Henry 
Prentiss, John Randall, Joseph Roby, Fhineas 
Steams, Robert Sessions, Elisha Story, James 
Swan, John Truman, Isaac Williams, David Wil- 
liams, Jeremiah Williams, Thomas Williams, 
Nathaniel Willis. 

Boswell Butt. (Pseud.) Charles H. 
Ross, English humorist (b. 1836). 

Boswell Redivivns. (Pseud.) Wil- 
liam Hazlitt, in the " New Monthly Mag- 
azine," 1 826-1 827. 

Bot. Botany. 

Botany Bay of American Colleges. 
Union College has been so named be- 
cause of the fact that many students 
who for various reasons failed to grad- 
uate from other institutions of learning 
were there allowed to complete their 
college studies. 

Botheration Primus. The college 
(Princeton) sobriquet borne by Nathaniel 
Niles, the American lawyer (1741-1828). 

Botherers, The. A by-name for the 
King's Own Borderers (Twenty-fifth 
Regiment) in the English service, grow- 
ing out of the manner In which the Scotch 
pronounce the name " Borderers." 

Bothie System. The Scottish mode 
of grouping all the outbuildings of a 
farm, with the dwellings of the laborers, 
in a sort of barrack. A bothie is a cot or 
hut, and answers to the English " booth." 



Bottle-holder. One who gives moral 
but not material support. Tlie allusion 
is to boxing or prize-fighting, where each 
combatant has a bottle-holder to wipe off 
blood, refresh with water, and do other 
services to encourage his man to perse- 
vere and win. 

Lord Falmerston considered himself tlie bottle- 
holder of oppressed States. He was the steadfast 
partisan of constitutional liberty in every part of 
the world. — T/te Times. 

Bottle Imp. See Cartesian Devil. 

Bottle of Hay. To "seek a needle 
in a bottle of hay" is a common ex- 
pression. Shakspeare makes Bottom 
(Midsummer's Night's Dream, act iv. 
sc. 2) say, " I have a great desire to a 
bottle of hay." The phrase originally 
signified a quantity of hay tied in a bun- 
dle, to be carried out for foddering cat- 
tle. The word comes from the French 
boteau, a bundle. 

Bottle Riot. An hneute at the the- 
atre in Dublin, Dec. 14, 1822, arising out 
of the intensely bitter feeling against the 
Marquis of Wellesley. So named be- 
cause, among other missiles, a bottle 
was hurled into his box. 

Bottle Trick, The. Notice was given 
in the public prints that, to settle a 
wager, a man would undertake to jump 
into a quart bottle, at the Haymarket 
Theatre, London, Jan. 16, 1749. An im- 
mense crowd assembled inside and out- 
side the house, and the pickpockets 
reaped a rich harvest. When the crowd 
realized that it had been duped, it nearly 
tore the house down. 

Bottomless Pitt. A vulgar nickname 
given to William Pitt, who was of a spare 

Bottoms. The richest land commonly 
lies along the course of a stream, or, as 
it is termed, in the " river-bottom." 

Boudoir. A small private apartment. 

Bounty-jumper. During the civil 
war a term appUed to men who re- 
ceived a bounty when enlisting, then 
ran away, enlisted in another State, and 
received a second bounty. Instances 
are known where men received many 
bounties in this way. 
My song is of a fast youtig man whose name was 

Billy Wires ; 
He used to run with the machine, and go to all 

the fires : 
But as he loved a soldier's life, and wished strange 

things to see, 
So the thought struck him that he would go and 
jump the bounti-ee. 

Song of the Bounty-Jtimfer. 

Bourbon. A dyed-in-the-wool Demo- 
crat ; " one who never learns and who 
never forgets." 

Bourgeois. A citizen of the trading 

Bourgeoisie. The body of citizens. 

Bourgeois of Calais. See Six Bour- 
geois OF Calais. 

Boustrapa. A nickname for Napo- 
leon 111., and containing an allusion to 
various notorious episodes in his career. 
The word is composed of the first let- 
ters of the words .S^aslogne, iVrasburg, 
and /'flris. 

Bow Bells. See Cockney. 

Box Days. Two days in spring and 
autumn, and one at Christmas, during 
the English law vacation, in which plead- 
ings may be filed. This custom was 
established in 1690, for the purpose of 
expediting business. Each judge has a 
private box with a slit, into which in- 
formations may be placed on box days, 
and the judge, who alone has the key, 
examines the papers in private. 

Box Harry. To " box Harry," among 
commercial travellers, is to avoid the 
usual table d''h6te, and take something 
substantial at tea-time, in order to save 

Boxing-day. The name popularly 
given in England to December 26, the 
day after Christmas. It is generally 
observed as a holiday, and is made the 
occasion of much giving of gratuities 
from employers to employed, which are 
dubbed " Christmas boxes " or presents. 
On Boxing-night, too, the metropol- 
itan theatres all open, and present their 
Christmas pantomimes. 

Boy. In the South the house and 
stable servants were universally called 
"boys," no matter what their age. From 
this arose the custom of dubbing the 
male help in American hotels "boys," 
as bell-boy, waiter-boy, though they may 
be gray-haired men. 

Boy Bachelor. William Wotton,D.D. 
(fl. 1 666-1 726), who was admitted to St. 
Catherine's Hall before he was ten years 
old, and secured his degree of B. A. when 
he was twelve. 

Boy Bishop. From a very early time 
the custom of choosing a Boy Bishop 
on St. Nicholas' Day has been in vogue 
in Catholic countries, and in England 
seems to have prevailed in almost every 

Although the election took place on St. Nicho- 
las' Day (December 6), the authority lasted to 



Holy Innocents' Day (December z8). The Boy 
Bishop was chosen from the children of the 
church or cathedral choir, or from the pupils 
at the grammar-school. He was arrayed in epis- 
copal vestments, and, attended by a crowd of 
subordinates in priestly dress, went about with 
songs and dances from house to house, bless- 
ing the people, who, as Bishop Hall says, " stood 
grinning in the way to expect that ridiculous ben- 
ediction." The ceremony, or rather saturnaha, 
contained so much that was derogatory to the dig- 
nity of religion, that it was abolished in the reign 
of Henry VIII. ; it was revived during the reign 
of Mary, but finally sank into oblivion near the 
close of the sixteenth century. — Chambers. 

Boyle Contaroversy. See Battle of 
THE Books. 

Boyle Lectures. They were founded 
by the Hon. Robert Boyle, who left an an- 
nuity for " some preaching minister, who 
shall preach eight sermons in the year 
for proving the Christian religion against 
Atheists, Deists, Pagans, Jews, and Mo- 
hammedans, not descending to any con- 
troversies among Christians themselves." 
The first was preached in 1692 by Rich- 
ard Bentley. 

Boy Merchants. John, William, and 
Robert Kelly, of New York, who, al- 
though under age, successfully carried 
on their father's business after his death 
in 1825. 

Boy Preacher, (i) Crammond Ken- 
nedy (b. 1842). (2) Thomas Harrison. 
(3) Joshua Soule, the Methodist Epis- 
copal bishop (i 781-1867). 

Boys in Blue. Soldiers in the United 
States army, — so named on account of 
the color of their uniforms. Similarly 
the soldiers of the Southern Confed- 
eracy were named " Boys in Gray." 

Boythorn. (Pseud.) William S. Rob- 
inson, in the Worcester (Mass.) " Tran- 
script " (1857-1860). 

Boz. (Pseud.) Charles Dickens, Eng- 
lish novelist (1812-1870). 

" Boz, my signature in the ' Momin^Chron- 
icle,' was the nickname of a pet child, a younger 
brother, whom I had dubbed Moses, in honor of 
the ' Vicar of Wakefield,' which, being pronounced 
' Bozes,' got shortened into ' Boz.' " 
Who the dickens " Boz " could be 

Puzzled many a learned elf ; 
But time revealed the mystery. 
For " Boz " appeared as Dickens' self. 

Epigram in the " Carihiisian." 

Bozzy. James Boswell, the biogra- 
pher of Dr. Johnson. 

Bozzy and Fiozzi. James Boswell 
and Mrs. Hester Lynch Piozzi. 

Bo 5- This seems to have been for- 
merly used as a contraction for bushel ; 
the symbol 3 being the same mark of 
contraction as used in "vi3" (which 

see). In a bill of charges for a dinner 
given by Lord " Leiyster," as Chancel- 
lor of Oxford, Sept. S, 1570, is the fol- 
lowing item : " For ij bo 3 . a pecke and 
a haulfe pecke of flower, to Mr. Fumes, 
at \]s vii^the bo 3, vij m]d" 

Bp. Bishop. 

B. R. Banco Regis or Regina. The 
King's or Queen's Bench. 

Br. Brig ; bromine ; brother. 

Brabangonne. A Belgian patriotic 
song, composed in the revolution of 
1830, and so named from Brabant, of 
which Brussels is the chief city. 

Braddock Field. (Pseud.) Charles 
Patton Dimitry. 

Eradlaugh Case. A prolonged con- 
troversy (1881-1886) over the claim of 
Charles Bradlaugh to take a seat in the 
House of Commons without taking the 
oath required of members, he declaring 
that he did not acknowledge or believe 
in its obligation ; and later, to have the 
oath administered. Two notable legal 
decisions were reached in the course of 
the controversy. In 1884, in the case 
of Charles Bradlaugh v. Francis R. Gos- 
sett, sergeant-at-arms of the House of 
Commons, arising out of a resolution 
excluding plaintiff from the House until 
he should engage not to disturb its pro- 
ceedings by demanding to take the oath 
as a member, it was held that courts 
cannot control the House in its admin- 
istration of laws relating merely to its 
internal procedure, nor inquire into the 
propriety of a resolution restraining a 
member from doing in the House what 
he had a lawful right to do, and that 
action will not lie against the sergeant- 
at-arms for obeying such resolution. In 
1885, in the Court of Appeal, the case of 
the Attorney-General v. Bradlaugh, for 
penalties under the Parliamentary Oaths 
Act, for voting in the House without 
having been sworn as a member, it was 
decided that a member who does not 
believe in a Supreme Being, and upon 
whom an oath is binding only as a prom- 
ise, is incapable of taking the prescribed 
oath ; but if he goes through the form 
of taking it (as Bradlaugh did by admin- 
istering the oath to himself at the bar 
of the House), he is liable for violation 
of the Act. 

Braggadocio. A braggart ; one who 
is valiant with his tongue, but a coward 
at heart ; a barking dog that bites not. 
The character is from Spenser's " Faerie 



Bragi. In Scandinavian mythology 
the son of Odin and Frigga, husband 
of Iduna, and the patron of poetry and 

Brahma. In Hindu mythology the 
supreme deity, forming, with Vishnu 
and Siva, the Trimurti, or triad of the 
Brahmanical faith. 

Brains. See Old Brains. 

Brain-Picture Hoax. A scientific 
hoax gotten up by George G. Rocliwood, 
photographer, and published in the New 
York papers in 1887. 

Brain Street. A sobriquet conferred 
on Fleet Street, London, by George Au- 
gustus Sala. It is the centre of the 
metropolitan newspaper press. 

Bramine, The. An endearing epithet 
bestowed by Sterne on Mrs. Elizabeth 
Draper, a young Englishwoman, for 
whom he contracted an ill-advised pas- 
sion. The name contains a reference 
to the place of her birth, — India ; and 
by his reference to himself in the same 
connection by the term " The Bramin " 
he evidently sought to indicate his cler- 
ical calling. 

Brandenburg Lucky Star. The his- 
tory of this star — so named because it 
appeared on the night in which Elector 
Sigismund of Brandenburg was born — 
is as follows : In 945, during the reign 
of Emperor Otho I., say the German 
papers, a new and brilliant fixed star 
was seen in the constellation Cassio- 
peia, which has the shape of a W. In 
1264 a similar star was seen in the 
same place ; and again on Nov. 1 1, 1572, 
when Tycho Brahe noticed a brilliant 
star of unusual magnitude in a spot 
where he had only seen small ones un- 
til then. It had no tail, nor was it sur- 
rounded by a haze, that might cause 
observers to take it for a comet. It 
resembled, on the contrary, the other 
fixed stars, and shed a more brilliant 
light than the stars of the first magni- 
tude, excelling in this respect Sirius, 
Jupiter, and Vega. It could only be 
compared to Venus, and was visible also 
in the daytime, even at noon. At night, 
with a covered sky, while all the other 
stars are invisible, it was repeatedly dis- 
tinguishable through the clouds. Tycho 
was convinced of its complete immova- 
bility. Its light began to fade in No- 
vember, 1572; and after having shone 
for nearly seventeen months, it disap- 
peared entirely in 1574. In vain the 

astronomers have looked for it in its 
wonted place since. 

Brandy Nan. Queen Anne of Eng- 
land, who was very fond of ardent 

Bras-de-fer. See Iron Arm. 

Bras de Per. (Pseud.) Comyns Cole, 
in the London " World." 

Brave, The. (l) Alfonso IV. of Por- 
tugal (fl. 1290-1357). (2) John Andreas 
van der Mersch, " the brave Fleming " 
(fl. 1 734-1 792). 

Bravest of the Brave. Marshal Ney 
(fl. 1769-1815) was so named by the 
Friedlanders on account of his intrepid 

Bravo Case. See Balham Mystery. 

Bravura. (Ital.) An air requiring 
much spirit, fire, and facility of execu- 
tion. (Mus.) 

'Bxs.'z. Brazil ; Brazilian. 

Brazen Age. In classical mythology 
one of the four eras into which the an- 
cient bards divided the history of man- 
kind. The Iron Age preceded, and the 
Silver Age followed it. 

Brazilian Humboldt. Alexander Rod- 
rigues Ferreira, the Brazilian traveller 

Bread-and-Butter Brigade. Those 
who seek office solely for the sake of 
its emoluments, without regard to party 
honor or allegiance, are thus nicknamed. 

Breakbone Fever. " A term com- 
monly used to denote the dengui, a 
malarious fever of the South. It is 
so called either from the 'pain in the 
bones,' of which the patients complain, 
or from the great debility which follows 
the attack. Both reasons have been 
assigned for the appellation." — Bart- 


Breaking on the AATheel. A barba- 
rous mode of inflicting capital punish- 
ment, formerly in vogue in Germany 
and France. It consisted in stretch- 
ing the victim upon a wheel or upon 
a wooden frame in the shape of Saint 
Andrew's cross, and then breaking his 
limbs by blows from iron bars. The 
sufferer was then left to die slowly from 
fever, thirst, and exhaustion. 

Break Prisoian's Head. To violate 
the rules of grammar. Priscian was a 
famous Roman grammarian. 

Fair cousin, for thy glances, 
Instead of brealting Priscian's head, 
I had been breaking lances. 




Breeches Bible. The Geneva Bible 
(g. V.) is also so named because of its 
peculiar rendering of Gen. iii. 7: " Made 
themselves breeches out of fig-leaves." 

Breeches Revie'w. A nickname for 
the "Westminster Review" among the 
booksellers, owing to the fact that a 
Mr. Francis Place, a weighty contrib- 
utor, was at one time a leather-breeches 
maker and tailor at Charing Cross, Lon- 
don. See Grandmother's Review, 

Breidablik. In Scandinavian my- 
thology the palace of Baldur, in the 
Milky Way. The word signifies "wide- 

Brent Winwood. (Pseud.) John 
Thomas Denny, a famous English 

Bret Harte. Francis Bret Harte, 
the American novelist. 

Brevet^, Patented. 

Brevi manu. (Lat.) " With a short 
hand." Off-hand; without delay; sum- 

Brewer of Ghent. Jacob van Arte- 

Briareus. In classical mythology a 
giant with a hundred arms and fifty 
heads, son of Coelus and Terra. He 
aided the giants to storm Olympus, and 
was buried alive under Mount Etna as 
a punishment. 

Briareus of Languages. Cardinal 
Mezzofanti (fl. 1774-1849), who knew 
fifty-eight different tongues. Byron 
dubbed him "a walking polyglot, a 
monster of languages, a Briareus of 
parts of speech." 

Briareus of Music. Handel. 

Brick. The phrase " A perfect brick," 
or " You are a brick," is one very fre- 
quently heard, and if tradition speaks 
truly, boasts a very respectable origin 
and antiquity. Plutarch, in his life of 
Agesilaus, king of Sparta, tells this 
story : — 

"On a certain occasion an ambassador from 
Esperus, on a diplowatic mission, was shown by 
the king over his capital. The ambassador knew 
of the monarch's fame, knew that though only 
nominally king of Sparta, he was ruler of Greece, 
and he had looked to see massive walls rearing 
aloft their embattled towers for the defence of the 
town, but he found nothing of the kind. He mar- 
velled much at this, and spoke of it to the king, 
when the following conversation took place : — 

" ' Sire,' he said, ' 1 have visited most of the 
principal towns, and I find no walls reared for 
defence. Why is this ? ' 

" ' Indeed, Sir Ambassador,' replied Agesilaus, 
'thou canst not have looked carefully. Come 
with me to-morrow morning and I will show you 
the walls of Sparta.' 

" Accordingly, on the following morning, the 
king led his guest out upon the plain, where his 
army was drawn up in full array, and pointmg 
proudly to the serried hosts, he said, — 

'■ ' There thou beholdest the walls of Sparta, 

ten thousand men, and every man a brick.' " 

Brick -and -Mortar Franchise. A 
Chartist phrase for the ;^io household 
system of voting in vogue some time ago 
in England. 

Brickdusts. A nickname for the 
Fifty-third Foot Regiment, from the 
color of their facings. They are also 
dubbed the "Five-and-Threepennies,"in 
allusion to their number and to the daily 
pay of the ensigns. 

Brick Pomeroy. (Pseud.) Mark M. 
Pomeroy, American journalist (b. 1840). 

Bricktop. (Pseud.) George G. Small, 
an American writer. 

Bride of Syria. A name given by 
Arab geographers to the ancient city of 
Askelon, on the Mediterranean. 

Bride of the Sea. Venice, so named 
from the ancient annual ceremony of 
throwing a ring into the sea by the 
doge. In the year 11 77 it is said that 
the Pope of Rome presented to the 
Doge of Venice a ring, saying, " Take 
this as a pledge of authority over the 
sea, and marry her every year, you and 
your successors forever, in order that 
all may know she is under your jurisdic- 
tion, and that I have placed her under 
your dominion as a wife under the do- 
minion of her husband." Hence arose 
the strange custom of " Wedding the 
Adriatic." When the yearly marriage- 
day came round, Venice kept the anni- 
versary in the most festive robes. AH 
her officers and wealthy citizens might 
be seen in their gondolas, each boat and 
its occupants striving to outdo all others 
in wealth of adornment and brilliance of 
display. The gondolas formed in pro- 
cession, the doge leading, and at a cer- 
tain part of the procession a well-known 
and often-repeated formula was recited, 
claiming for Venice authority over the 
sea ; the emblematic ring was then 
dropped into its depths, and the mar- 
riage was considered as complete. But 
the Venice of the doges is a thing of 
the past, and the custom has long been 

Bridge of Sighs. The bridge con- 
necting the palace of the doge with the 
state prison of Venice, over which pris- 



oners were conveyed from the hall of 
judgment to the place of execution. 
I stood in Venice on the Bridge of Sighs, 
A palace and a prison on each hand, 

Byron, Childe Harold. 

Bridgewater Treatises. Eight cele- 
brated works on " The Power, Wisdom, 
and Goodness of God," by eight of the 
most eminent authors in their respective 
departments, published under a bequest 
of the last Earl of Bridgewater, whereby 
each writer received ;^i,ooo, and the 
copyright of his own particular treatise. 

Bridled Bear. A young nobleman 
under the control of a travefling tutor. 

Brig. Brigade; Brigadier. 

Brig.-G-en. Brigadier-General. 

Brigians. The Castilians, one of 
whose ancient kings was named Brig 
or Brixus. 

Brillante. (Ital. and Fr.) A term 
denoting a brilliant and showy style of 
performance. (Mus.) 

Brilliant Madman. Charles XII. of 
Sweden (fl. 1682-1718). 

Brimstone Corner. Park Street 
Church, Boston, is so known, in vulgar 
nomenclature, on account of the ex- 
treme Calvinism taught there. 

Brindamour. (Pseud.) Jacques Al- 
bin Simon Collin de Plancy, contributor 
to various French journals. 

Briny, The. The ocean, in allusion 
to its saltness. 

Brio, BrioBO, or Con brio. (Ital.) 
With brilliancy and spirit. (Mus.) 

Brise. (Fr.) Broken, or sprinkled. 
Said of chords split into arpeggios. 

Brissotins. A nickname given to the 
advocates of reform in the French Revo- 
lution, because they were "led by the 
nose " by Jean Pierre Brissot. The party 
was subsequently called the Girondists. 

Bristled Baptist Boar. So Dryden 
denominates the Anabaptist sect in 
"The Hind and Panther." 

Bristol Boy, or Bristol Poet. Thomas 
Chatterton (fl. 1752-1770), the poet. He 
was also named the " Marvellous Boy." 

Bristol Diamonds. Brilliant crys- 
tals of colorless quartz found in St. 
Vincent's Rock, near Bristol, England. 

Bristol Man's Gift. A present of 
something which the giver pronounces 
to be of no use or no value to himself. 

Bristol Milk. Sherry punch, for- 
merly given by Bristol people to their 

Britain, Lesser. See Lesser Britain. 

Britain, Little. See Little Britain. 

Britannicus. (Pseud.) One of the 
signatures of Adam Thorn, in the 
Montreal "Herald" (1837-1838). 

British Aristides. Andrew Marvell 
(fl. 1620-1678) was so named on ac- 
count of his justice and probity. 

British Bayard. Sir Philip Sidney. 

British Cicero. William Pitt, Earl 
of Chatham. 

British Homer. Milton, the great 
Puritan poet. 

British Legion. The name given to 
a body of soldiery raised by Lord John 
Hay, Col. DeLacy Evans, and others, 
to assist Queen Isabella of Spain against 
the Carlists in 1835. The legion de- 
feated them at Hernani in 1836 and at 
St. Sebastian in October of the same 

British Lion. The spirit or pug- 
nacity of the British nation, as opposed 
to John Bull, which symbolizes the sub- 
stantiality, obstinacy, and solidity of 
the British nation, with all its preju- 
dices and national peculiarities. To 
rouse John Bull is to tread on his 
corns ; to rouse the British Lion is to 
blow the war-trumpet in his ears. The 
British Lion also means the most popu- 
lar celebrity of the British nation for 
the time being. 

Our glorious constitution is owing to the habit 
which the British Lion observes of sitting over 
his wine after dinner. — William Jerdan. 

British Fausauias. William Camden 
(fl. 1551-1623) was so named. He was 
among the greatest scholars and anti- 
quarians of his time. 

British Samson. Thomas Topham, 
son of a London carpenter (i 710-1753). 
He lifted three hogsheads of water, 
weighing 1,836 pounds, in the presence 
of thousands of spectators assembled in 
Bath Street, Cold Bath Fields, London, 
May 28, 1 741. Being plagued by a 
faithless woman, he committed suicide. 

British Soldiers' Battle. The battle 
of Inkerman, Nov. 5, 1854. 

For stubborn valor, for true old English reso- 
lution to fight it out to the last, amid every dis- 
advantage and against almost overwhelming odds, 
men will for ages point to Inkerman, " the British 
Soldiers' Battle." — Sir Edward Creasy, Tht 
Fifteen Decisive Battles. 

British Subject. .(Pseud.) Sir Fran- 
cis Bond Head, English soldier and 
author (i 793-1 875). 

Brit. Mas. British Museum. 



Britomartis. A Cretan nymph, very 
fond of the chase. King Minos fell in 
love with her, and persisted in his ad- 
vances for nine months, when she threw 
herself into the sea. 

Broad Arrow. A government mark, 
stamped, cut, branded, or otherwise 
affixed to all solid materials used in 
English ships or dockyards and on gov- 
ernment stores generally in order to 
guard against embezzlement. Brewer 
says that all attempts to trace the origin 
of this mark have been fruitless. It is 
said that trees fit for shipbuilding in 
the forest of Dean, during the reign of 
James I., were commonly marked or 
" blazed " with a crown and arrow. 

Broadaxe. (Pseud.) Martin Knapp 
in the Rockland County (N. Y.) " Press." 

Broadbottom Ministry. In English 
political annals a name derisively given 
to an administration comprising nine 
dukes and a grand coalition of all par- 
ties of weight and influence in the State, 
formed in November, 1 744, and dissolved 
by the death of Mr. Pelham, March 6, 

Broadbrim. (Pseud.) J. H. Warwick. 

Broad Church. (Pseud.) Thomas 
Atcheson, Louisville correspondent of 
the " Spirit of the Times " (N. Y.). 

Broadcloth Club of Boston. The 
gathering of clergymen, at Lundy's re- 
quest, to protest against slavery, in 1828. 

Broad-seal War. "A controversy 
which grew out of the Congressional 
election of 1838, when six members 
were to be chosen by a general ticket 
in New Jersey. In two of the coun- 
ties the clerks had rejected some of 
the township returns for real or alleged 
irregularities, and thus five of the Whig 
candidates received majorities which 
they would not have obtained had all 
the votes been counted. The sixth, 
having run ahead of his ticket, was 
elected beyond dispute. The Governor 
and his council, in accordance with the 
law then in force, canvassed the votes, 
and to the six persons who had re- 
ceived the highest number issued com- 
missions under the Great Seal of the 
State. Congress, on convening, found 
that the five votes from New Jersey 
must decide the speakership, and this 
gave rise to a stormy debate, which 
lasted several days, and finally ended 
in the choice of John Quincy Adams 
as temporary chairman. He decided 
that all members holding commissions 

could vote ; but the decision, being ap- 
pealed from, was reversed, and a res- 
olution adopted that only the names 
of members holding uncontested seats 
should be called. On the twelfth day 
of the session Robert M. T. Hunter 
was chosen Speaker, and on February 
28 the five Democratic members were 
admitted to their seats. The subject 
was referred to a committee, which re- 
ported that the sitting members were 
elected." — Appleton. 

Broadway Lounger. (Pseud.) George 
Alfred Townsend in the " Tribune " 
(N. Y.). ^-^^Gath. 

Brooolini, Signor. The professional 
name of John Clark, a well-known oper- 
atic singer. 

Broke. " Flat broke," " Dead broke," 
and "Gone broke" are synonymous 
terms denoting a penniless or bankrupt 
condition. " Busted " is an equally inele- 
gant, though fully as vigorous equivalent. 
The phrase sprang from the gambler's 
lingo, " breaking the bank." 

Broncho John. Professional name 
of J. H. SulHvan. 

Bronze John. Another name for Yel- 
low Jack (q. v.). 

Brooke. (Pseud.) Miss E. Nesbit in 
" Good Words " and " Saturday Night." 

Brooklyn. (Pseud.) Thomas Kin- 
sella in the " Brooklyn Daily Eagle." 

Brooklyn of San Francisco. Oak- 
land, Cal. It is, like its Eastern name- 
sake, a city of homes. 

Broomstraw. (Pseud.) Alfred Duke 
in the " State " of Richmond, Va. 

Brother Abraham. (Pseud.) Rev. 
Richard King. See Father Abraham. 

Brother-german. A real brother. A 
uterine brother is a brother by the 
mother's side only. 

Brother Jonathan. A collective per- 
sonification of the people of the United 
States. When General Washington, 
after being appointed commander of 
the army of the Revolutionary War, 
came to Massachusetts to organize it 
and make preparations for the defence 
of the country, he found a great want of 
ammunition and other means necessary 
to meet the powerful foe he had to con- 
tend with, and great difficulty to obtain 
them. If attacked in such condition, 
the cause at once might be hopeless. 
On one occasion, at that anxious 
period, a consultation of the officers 
and others was had, when it seemed 



no way could be devised to make such 
preparation as was necessary. His Ex- 
cellency Jonathan Trumbull the elder 
was then governor of the State of Con- 
necticut, on whose judgment and aid 
the general placed the greatest reli- 
ance, and remarked : " We must con- 
sult ' Brother Jonathan ' on the subject." 
The general did so, and the governor 
was successful in supplying many of 
the wants of the army. When difficul- 
ties afterwards arose, and the army was 
spread over the country, it became a 
byword, "We must consult Brother 
Jonathan." The term " Yankee " is still 
applied to a portion ; but " Brother Jona- 
than " has now become a designation of 
the whole country, as " John Bull " has 
for England. 

Brotherly Love, City of. See City 
OF Brotherly Love. 

Brown. In England a colloquialism 
for a copper coin. 

Brown Bess. A musket. Bess is a 
corruption of buss, the ancient name 
for the barrel of a fire-arm. We retain 
the original word in " arquebus " and 
" blunderbuss." 

Brown Study. Dr. Brewer says that 
the expression comes from the French, 
sombre rdverie. Sombre and brun both 
mean "sad, gloomy, dull." Congreve uses 
the expression in his "An Impossible 
Thing." It has been thought to mean 
brow study. It is more probably one of 
the group of similar phrases in which 
colors are employed to designate char- 
acteristics or temper ; as " black mel- 
ancholy," " blue-devils," " green-eyed 
monster," " yellow-stockings," " blue- 
stockings," " white feather," etc. 

Brudder Bones. (Pseud.) John F. 
Scott, an American humorous writer. 

Brumaire Revolution. The popular 
uprising in Paris on the 9th of Novem- 
ber (1 8th Brumaire, i. e., the period from 
October 22 to November 20), 1 799, which 
witnessed the overthrow of the Direc- 
tory and the establishment of the Napo- 
leonic sway. 

Brummagem. Another name for Bir- 
mingham, England, common among the 
vulgar, and derived from Bromwichham 
= " Brummagem." 

Brummagem Goods signify bogus 
articles of jewelry, or cheap and showy 
wares, for the manufacture of which the 
place is famous. 

Brummagem Joe. A nickname be- 

stowed on Joseph Chamberlain, M. P. 
for Birmingham, by his political oppo- 

Bninehilda. Daughter of the king 
of Issland, beloved by Giinther, one of 
the two great chieftains of the Nibe- 
lungenlied. She was to be carried off 
by force, and Giinther asked his friend 
Siegfried to help him. Siegfried con- 
trived the matter by snatching from her 
the talisman which was her protector, 
but she never forgave him for his 

Br. Univ. Brown University. 

Brunswick. (Pseud.) Miss Jean- 
nette L. Gilder, as New York correspon- 
dent of the Boston " Saturday Evening 

Brunswick's Fated Chieftain. The 
Duke of Brunswick, Frederick William, 
commander of the "Black Brunswick- 
ers," who fell at Quatre Bras, the day 
before Waterloo (181 5). 

Brutum fulmen. (Lat.) "A harm- 
less thunderbolt." A loud but harmless 
threat ; sound and fury, nothing else. 

Brutus. (Pseud.) (i) Fisher Ames in 
his communications to the Boston press. 
(2) Stephen Simpson in the Philadel- 
phia "Aurora." (3) One of the pen- 
names adopted by Junius (g. v.). 

B. S. Bachelor in the Sciences. 

Bubastis, a goddess of the Egyp- 
tians, was, in their mythology, the child 
of Isis and Osiris, and the sister of 
Horus. She was identified by the 
Greeks with Artemis (Diana), though 
upon what grounds is unknown, as the 
best information with regard to her is 
that she was the goddess who presided 
over pregnancy and childbirth. The 
chief temple erected to Bubastis was 
at Bubastis (g. v.). Bubastis is repre- 
sented on monuments as having the 
head of a cat, an animal which was 
sacred to her. 

Bubble Act. A popular name for an 
English law passed in 1719, which was 
designed to protect the pubHc against 
the schemes of unprincipled promoters 
of " bubble " companies. 

Bubbly Cuffs. The singular nick- 
name conferred on the English Eighty- 
fourth Regiment. 

Buccaneers. A celebrated asso- 
ciation of piratical adventurers, who, 
from the commencement of the second 
quarter of the sixteenth century to 
the end of the seventeenth, maintained 



themselves in the Caribbean seas, at 
first by systematic reprisals on the 
Spaniards, afterward by less justifiable 
and indiscriminate piracy. The name 
is derived from the Caribbee toucan, a 
term for preserved meat, smoke-dried 
in a peculiar manner. From this the 
French adventurers formed the verb 
boucaner and the noun boucanier, which 
was adopted by the English ; while, sin- 
gularly enough, the French used, in pref- 
erence, the viordi flibustier, a corruption 
of our "freebooter." The Buccaneers 
were also sometimes called " Brethren 
of the Coast." The arrogant assump- 
tion by the Spaniards of a divine right — 
sanctioned by the Pope's bull — to the 
whole New World, was not, of course, 
to be tolerated by the enterprising mar- 
iners of England and France ; and the 
enormous cruelties practised by them 
upon all foreign interlopers, of which 
the history of that time is full, naturally 
led to an association for mutual defence 
among the adventurers of all other na- 
tions, out particularly among the English 
and French. The fundamental princi- 
ples of their policy — for they, in course 
of time, formed distinct communities — 
were close mutual alliance, and mortal 
war with all that was Spanish. Their 
simple code of laws bound them to a 
common participation in the necessaries 
of life ; locks and bars were proscribed 
as an insult to the general honor ; and 
every man had his comrade, who stood 
by him when alive, and succeeded to his 
property after his death. The principal 
centre of their wild and predatory life 
was for some time the island of Tor- 
tuga, near St. Domingo. When they 
were not hunting Spaniards, or being 
hunted themselves, their chief occupa- 
tion and means of subsistence was the 
chase. From the flesh of wild cattle they 
made their " boucan ; " their skins and 
tallow they sold or bartered to Dutch 
and other traders. The history of these 
men embraces, as may be supposed, 
narratives of cruelty and bloodshed un- 
surpassed in the annals of crime. It 
has, however, not a few stories of high 
and romantic adventure, of chivalrous 
valor, and brilliant generalship. Among 
the "great captains " whose names figure 
most prominently in the records of buc- 
caneering, were the Frenchman Mont- 
bars, surnamed by the terrible title of 
"The Exterminator;" his countrymen, 
Peter of Dieppe, surnamed " The Great," 
— as truly, perhaps, as others so distin- 

guished, — and L'Olonnais, Michael de 
Busco, and Bartolommeo de Portuguez, 
Mansvelt, and Van Horn. Pre-eminent, 
however, among them all was the Welsh- 
man Henry Morgan, who organized 
fleets and armies, took strong fortresses 
and rich cities, and displayed through- 
out the bold genius of a born com- 
mander. He it was that led the way 
for the Buccaneers to the Southern 
Ocean, by his daring march in 1670 
across the Isthmus of Panama to the 
city of that name, which he toojc and 
plundered after a desperate battle. This 
brilliant but most unscrupulous person- 
age was knighted by Charles II., and 
became deputy-governor of Jamaica. A 
higher subordination of the love of gold 
to the passion for dominion in him might 
probably have made him Emperor of 
the West Indies, some dream of which 
seems at one time to have occupied his 
mind. In 1680 and 1689 extensive buc- 
caneering expeditions were made to the 
Pacific, even as far as the coasts of 
China, of which the best record is pre- 
served in the lively pages of "William 
Dampier," himself an important partner 
in these bold adventures. The war be- 
tween France and Britain, after the ac- 
cession of William III., dissolved the 
ancient alliance of the French and Eng- 
lish buccaneers. After the peace of Rys- 
wick, and the accession of the Bourbon 
Philip V. to the Spanish crown (1701), 
they finally disappeared, to make way 
for a race of mere cut-throats and vul- 
gar desperadoes, not yet utterly extinct. 
The last great event in their history 
was the capture of Carthagena in 1697, 
where the booty was enormous. See 
Keel-hauling and Marooning. 

Bucentaur. The name of a ship 
which acquired much celebrity in Ven- 
ice at the time when that State was a 
flourishing republic. A bucentaur was 
known as early as the end of the twelfth 
century ; and a vessel of the same name 
was burnt when the French took Venice 
more than six centuries afterwards ; but 
it is not certain whether this was the 
same vessel, maintained by being re- 
peatedly patched up with new ribs and 
planking. The " Bucentaur " is described 
as having been a galley, about one hun- 
dred feet long by twenty-one in extreme 
breadth; on a lower deck were thirty- 
two banks or rows of oars, manned by 
one hundred and sixty-eight rowers; 
and on an upper deck was accommo- 
dation for the illustrious visitors who 



occasionally came on board. The whole 
of the fittings were of the most gorgeous 
character. Although propelled mainly 
by oars, there were forty mariners em- 
ployed in other ways to manage the 
galley. The " Bucentaur " was employed 
only once a year, when the doge " mar- 
ried the Adriatic." A splendid water- 
procession was formed, with the doge 
and the chief notables in the " Bucen- 
taur," and other distinguished persons 
in gondolas. 

Bucephalus. In classic mythology 
the name of the famed steed of Alexan- 
der the Great. 

Buck and Breck. A popular nick- 
name coupling the names of Buchanan 
and Breckinridge, the Democratic nom- 
inees for the Presidency in 1856. 

Buckeye. (Pseud.) Samuel Sullivan 
Cox, in his " A Buckeye Abroad," etc. 

Buckeye State. Ohio ; so named 
after the Buckeye-tree {jEscuIus flavd), 
which flourishes extensively within its 

Buokmaster's Light Infantry. The 
Third West India Regiment was so 
nicknamed. Buckmaster, the military 
outfitter, used to furnish "Light In- 
fantry uniforms " to the ofiicers without 
authority of the commander-in-chief. 

Buckra. Among his own race in the 
far South the negro still clings to the 
term buckra, imported from the west 
coast of Africa, and originally meaning 
a spirit or powerful being, and then by 
a natural transition, white man. In his 
new home he used it to designate any- 
thing specially good, as the buckra yam, 
which, to deserve the epithet, must be 
white and good at the same time. 

Bucks County Rebellion. In the 
spring of 1799 the collection of what 
was known as the "window-tax" was 
forcibly resisted in Northampton, Bucks, 
and Montgomery counties, Penn., under 
the lead of John Fries (1764-1825). The 
United States officials were arrested or 
violently handled, and various excesses 
took place. Fries was sentenced to be 
hanged, but President Adams pardoned 

Buckshot War. "In 1838 the de- 
feated Democratic candidate of a con- 
gressional district in Pennsylvania 
claimed Whig frauds in. the North 
Liberties district as the cause of his 
defeat. Thereupon the ten Democratic 
return judges threw out the vote of that 
district, thus electing their member. 

The seven Whig judges met apart from 
the Democrats, and gave certificates to 
the Whig candidates for Congress, and 
also to the Whig candidates for the 
Legislature, although these latter had 
considered themselves fairly defeated. 
This proceeding was part of a scheme 
to elect a Whig senator. The Whig 
certificates reached the Secretary of 
State first, and he, also a Whig, de- 
clared his intention of recognizing them 
until discredited by investigation. The 
House met December 4 at Harris- 
burg; armed partisans of both sides 
were in town; two separate organiza- 
tions of the House took place, side by 
side, amid great confusion. Governor 
Ritner, a Whig, declared the city in the 
hands of a mob, and sought the aid of 
United States troops from their com- 
mander, and then from President Van 
Buren. In both cases he met with re- 
fusal. After a time several Whigs 
seceded to the Democratic House, 
which had succeeded in keeping pos- 
session of the chamber and records, 
and the latter was recognized by the 
State Senate, when the other Whigs 
joined them ; all but Thaddeus Stevens, 
who did not attempt to join until May, 
1839. The House then declared his 
seat vacant, and he was obliged to be 
again elected before he was finally ad- 
mitted. The remark of a Whig mem- 
ber that the mob should ' feel ball and 
buckshot before the day is over,' is 
said to have given rise to the name." 
— Brown and Strauss. 

Buckskins. A term applied to the 
American troops during the Revolution- 
ary War. The Marquis de Chastellux, 
in his "Travels in North America in 
1 780-1 782," says : "The name of ' Buck- 
skin' is given to the inhabitants of 
Virginia because their ancestors were 
hunters, and sold buck or rather deer 
skins." As applied to certain American 
soldiers, we are inclined to believe that 
from their wearing garments made of 
dressed deerskins the term was applied 
to them. 

Comwallis fought as long 's he dought. 
An' did the buckskins claw him. 


Bucktails. (i) The name of a politi- 
cal party in the State of New York, 
which sprung up about the year 181J. 
Its origin is thus described by Mr. 
Hammond: "There was an order of 
the Tammany Society who wore in 
their hats, as an insignia, on certain 



occasions, a portion of the tail of the 
deer. They were a leading order, and 
from this circumstance the friends of 
DeWitt Clinton gave those who adopted 
the views of the members of the Tam- 
many Society, in relation to him, the 
name of ' Bucktails ; ' which name was 
eventually applied to their friends and 
supporters in the country. Hence the 
party opposed to the administration of 
Mr. Clinton were for a long time called 
the ' Bucktail Party.' " — Political His- 
tory of New York. (2) Under the call 
for troops to put down the Rebellion 
in April, 1861, the Second Pennsylvania 
Reserves were mustered into service. 
They rejoiced in the above sobriquet. 

Buffalo Bill. The weH-known sobri- 
quet of William F. Cody (b. 1845), the 
famous Indian scout and hunter. The 
origin of this name was as follows : In 
1867 he entered into a contract with the 
Kansas Pacific Railway, then building, 
at a monthly compensation of I500, to 
deliver all the buffalo meat that would be 
required for food for the army of labor- 
ers employed, and in eighteen months he 
killed 4,280 Isuffaloes, earning the title 
of " Buffalo Bill," by which he was sub- 
sequently known in both hemispheres. 

Buffo, Buffa. (Ital.) An actor or 
singer who assumes light and humorous 
parts in opera. Likewise, an Opera 
buffa is a comic opera. 

Buffs, Young Buffs. The Third Foot 
Regiment were so named because their 
coats were lined with buff, and they 
wore buff waistcoats, breeches, and 
stockings. The Thirty-first, raised in 
1702, were dubbed "Young Buffs "for 
the same reason. In contradistinction 
the former were often named " Old 
Buffs ; " they were also called " Resur- 

Bug Bible. So called from its ren- 
dering of Psalm xci. 5 : " Afraid of bugs 
by night." It bears date 1551. 

Buggy, in England a light one-horse 
chaise hardly known in our day. means 
in America the most popular ot all vehi- 
cles, four-wheeled, but single-seated, and 
with or without a top. 

Bull. A " bull " may be said to be a 
gross and often humorous contradiction 
or blunder in speech. The term was 
derived from one Obadiah Bull, a lawyer 
in the time of Henry VIII., who was 
celebrated, rather than famous, for the 
blunders which fell from his lips when 
he pleaded before the judges. A witty 

Irishman, upon being asked for the defi- 
nition of a bull, said : " If you see two 
cows lying down alone in the meadow, 
the one standing up is invariably a 
bull." Miss Edgeworth, in her essay 
on " Irish Bulls," gives the following : 
"When I first saw you I thought it 
was you, and now I see it is your 
brother." " I met you this morning 
and you did not come ; I '11 meet you 
to-morrow morning whether you come 
or not." " Oh, if I had stayed in that 
climate until now I 'd have been dead 
two years." During the Irish rebel- 
lion an Irish paper published this item : 
" A man named McCarthy was run 
over by a passenger train and killed 
on Wednesday. He was injured in a 
similar way two years ago." In 1784 
the Irish Commons issued an order to 
this effect: "Any member unable to 
write may get another member to frank 
his letter for him, but only on con- 
dition that he certifies with his own 
handwriting his inability on the back 
of it." A well-known English epitaph 
commences as follows : " Reader, if 
thou canst read." This is somewhat 
akin to the hand-board which read : 
" The ford is dangerous when this 
board is covered by the water." Sir 
Boyle Roche, a witty and well-known 
member of Parliament, was not only 
the parent of many blunders of this 
sort, but he had a number fathered on 
him. Here is his famous " letter " : — 

Bear Sir, — Having now a little peace and 
quiet, I sit down to inform you of the bustle and 
confusion we are in from tl\e blood-thirsty rebels, 
many of whom are now, thank God I killed and 
dispersed. We are in a pretty mess, — can get 
nothing to eat, and no wine to drink except whis- 
key. When we sit down to dinner we are obliged 
to keep both hands armed. While I write this I 
have my sword in one hand and my pistol in the 
other. I concluded from the beginning that this 
would be the end ; and I am right, for it is not 
half over yet. At present there are such goings- 
on that everything is at a standstill. I should 
have answered your letter a fortnight ago, but 
I only received it this morning. Indeed, hardly 
a mail arrives safe without being robbed. No 
longer ago than yesterday, the mail-coach from 
Dublin was robbed near tlus town ; the bags had 
been very judiciously left behind, and by great 
good luck there was nobody in the coach but 
two outside passengers who had nothing for the 
thieves to take. Last Thursday an alarm was 
given that a gang of rebels in full retreat from 
Drogheda were advancing under the French stan- 
dard, but they had no colors nor any drums ex- 
cept bagpipes. Immediately every man in the 
place, including women and children, ran out to 
meet them. We soon found our force a great 
deal too little, and were far too near to think of 
retreating. Death was in every face, and to it 



we went. By the time half our party were killed 
we began to be all alive. Fortunately, the rebels 
had no guns except pistols, cutlasses, and pikes, 
and we had plenty of muskets and ammunition. 
We put them all to the sword; not a soul of 
them escaped, except some that were drowned 
in an adjoining bog. In fact, in a short time 
nothing was heard but silence. Their uniforms 
were all different, chiefly green. After the action 
was over, we went to rummage their camp. All 
we found was a few pikes without heads, a par- 
cel of empty bottles filled with water, and a bun- 
dle of blank French commissions filled up with 
Irish names. Troops are now stationed round, 
which exactly squares with my ideas of security. 
Adieu ! I have only time to add that I am yours 
in great haste, B. R. 

P. S. If you do not receive this, of course it 
must have miscarried ; therefore I beg you to 
write and let me know. 

Bull-dogs, in English University 
slang, are the two myrmidons of the 
proctor, who attend his heels like dogs, 
and are ready to spring on any offending 

Bulldoze. A term growing out of 
the race antagonisms in the South sub- 
sequent to the civil war, where it was 
asserted that the blacks were intimidated 
by their former owners and forcibly pre- 
vented from voting the Republican ticket. 
The term is believed to have come from 
whipping a man with a bull-whip and 
giving him a " bull's dose." 
Bullen-a-Iah. See Lilliburlero. 
BuUer of Brazenose. John Hughes, 
an English author, was so called in Wil- 
son's " Noctes Ambrosianae." He was 
a fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 

Bulletin. (Pseud.) Mr. Guild, an 
American writer of the present day. 

Bull-frogs. A nickname for the Rifle 

Brigade throughout the English service. 

Bull-necked Forger. Cagliostro, the 

stalwart impostor (fl. 1 743-1 795), was so 


Bulls. Stock-brokers or financiers 
who manipulate the market for a rise 
in values. See Bears. 

Bull's Bye. A small cloud suddenly 
appearing, seemingly in violent motion, 
soon covering the entire vault of heaven, 
producing a tumult of wind and rain. 

Bull the Barrel, Bull the Teapot. 
"Bulling the barrel" is to pour water 
into an empty spirit-cask to prevent its 
leaking ; the water becomes impreg- 
nated with the spirit, and is highly in- 
toxicating. Sailor-men, when they make 
a second brew from tea leaves, call it 
"bulling the teapot." 

Bully, or Bully-boy. This curious 
phrase often appears in American news- 

papers, and is thought to be indigenous. 
It is, however, an old English saying, as 
the following quotation from " Deutero- 
melia," etc., published in London (1609), 
will show: — 

•' We be three poore mariners. 
Newly come from the seas, . 
We spend oure lines in ieapordy 
Whiles others Hue at ease ; 
Shall we goe daunce the round, the round. 
And shall we goe daunce the round. 
And he that is a bully-boy. 
Come pledge me on the ground." 

Ford. I '11 give you a pottle of burned sack to 
give me recourse to him, and tell him my name 
is Brook, only for a jest. 

Host. My hand, bully. Thou shalt have egress 
and regress, . . . and thy name shall be Brook. 
— Shakspeare, Merry Wives of Windsor. 

Bully Brooks. Preston S. Brooks 
(1819-1857), an American politician 
elected to Congress in 1853 and in 1855. 
Mr. Sumner, having made a strong anti- 
slavery speech, in which he gave great 
offence to members from the South, 
"was, on May 22, 1856, violently as- 
saulted in the Senate-chamber by Mr. 
Brooks, and beaten on the head with a 
cane. A committee of the House reported 
in favor of the expulsion of Mr. Brooks ; 
but the report failed to receive the req- 
uisite majority of two thirds. He was 
indicted for assault, pleaded guilty, was 
sentenced to pay a fine of $300, and re- 
signed his seat in Congress, but was 
re-elected without opposition." 

Bully Da-wBon. A notorious Lon- 
don blackleg who roystered about town 
in the dissolute days of the Restoration. 

Bully Waterman. This character 
was one of the most inhuman monsters 
who ever sailed the seas. He com- 
manded a ship between New York and 
San Francisco. On one of his voyages 
he left New York with a crew of forty- 
two men, and when he reached the Gold- 
en Gate seventeen of them had been 
shot by Captain Waterman, most of 
them fatally, his excuse being that they 
would not obey orders. Upon the re- 
turn of the vessel to New York Captain 
Waterman, knowing that trouble awaited 
him, had himself put ashore on the Jer- 
sey coast and remained in hiding until 
the vessel discharged her cargo, loaded 
and cleared in the name of the first 
officer, acting as captain. The sheriff, 
who had a warrant in his hands for the 
arrest of Waterman, refused to leave 
the vessel even when she got under 
way, believing that Waterman would re- 
gain his vessel when he thought danger 



was over. The manner in which the 
sheriff was outwitted and Waterman 
actually succeeded in regaining his ves- 
sel without jeopardizing the insurance 
regulations ^ which provided that the 
vessel shall enter no port except the 
port of destination — was as follows: 
" When Sandjr Hook was reached the 
acting captain informed the sheriff that 
he was about taking departure and steer- 
ing for Cape Horn, and unless he in- 
tended to accompany the ship to San 
Francisco he had better go back to New 
York in the pilot boat. The sheriff gave 
up the chase for Waterman and went 
back to the city. The ship now stood 
in shore a few miles and then brought 
her main-topsail to the mast in order to 
allow a small boat which had put off 
from a coasting schooner to run along- 
side. It contained the notorious Water- 
man, who had succeeded in escaping the 
penalties of his crimes and reaching his 
ship in safety. He never returned to 
New York, but died in California. 
Bulwark, Iiud's. See Lud's Bui^ 


Bummer. Even students of language 
may be surprised to hear that the word 
" bummer " is not only not slang, but it 
is not even a pure Americanism, being 
found in the " English Market By-Laws " 
of two hundred years ago, and appears 
in several advertisements in the Lon- 
don " Publick Intelligencer " of the year 
1660 under the form "bummaree." It 
originally meant a man who retails fish 
by peddling outside of the regular mar- 
ket. These persons being looked down 
upon and regarded as cheats by the es- 
tablished dealers, the name became one 
of contempt for a dishonest person of 
irregular habits. The word first ap- 
peared in the United States during the 
Fifties in California, and travelled east- 
ward until, during the civil war, it came 
into general use. 

Buncombe. A colloquial term in 
the United States, signifying " speech- 
making for mere show." It is related 
that the word grew out of an incident 
in the Sixteenth Congress, when a mem- 
ber for a district in North Carolina 
which embraced Buncombe County in- 
sisted on delaying a vote on the fa- 
mous " Missouri Question " by making 
a speech, saying, " he was bound to talk 
for Buncombe." 

Bundschuh (a kind of large heavy 
shoe). The name given to the peasant- 

rising in Germany in the first half of the 
sixteenth century, because they carried 
as an insignia a shoe hoisted on a pole. 
Bungtown Copper. "A spurious coin 
of base metal, a very clumsy counterfeit 
of the English halfpenny or copper. It 
derived its name from the place where 
it was first manufactured, then called 
Bungtown, now Bameysville, in the town 
of Rehoboth, Mass. The Bungtown cop- 
per never was a legal coin ; the British 
halfpenny or copper was. The term is 
used only in New England." — Bart- 


Bunker Hill. (Pseud.) Rev. Benja- 
min Franklin De Costa, correspondent 
of the " Boston Advertiser," in 1861- 

Burdon'B Hotel. Whitecross Street 
debtor's prison, London. Mr. Burdon 
was once governor for a long term of 

Bureaucracy. A system of govern- 
ment in which the business is carried 
on in bureaux, or departments. The 
French bureau means not only the office 
of a public functionary, but also the 
whole staff of officers attached to the 

Burgundian Blo-w. Decapitation by 
the headsman. The Due de Biron, who 
was put to death for treason by Henry 
IV., was told in his youth, by a fortune- 
teller, " to beware of a Burgundian blow." 
When going to execution, he asked who 
was to be his executioner, and was told 
he was a man from Burgundy. 

Buri. In Scandinavian mythology the 
progenitor of all the gods. 

Burial of an Ass. No burial at all. 

He shall be buried with the burial of an ass, 
drawn and cast forth beyond the gates of 
Jerusalem. — Jer. xxii. 19. 

Buridan's Ass. A man of indecision. 
" If a hungry ass were placed exactly 
between two hay-stacks in every respect 
equal, it would starve to death, because 
there would be no motive why it should 
go to one rather than to tlie other." — 


Burl. Burlesque. 

Burleigh. (Pseud.) Rev. Matthew 
Hale Smith, American minister (1810- 

Burlesco. (Ital.) In a farcical or 
comic vein. (Mus.) 

Burletta. (Ital.) A light species 
of musical drama, analogous to the 
English farce. (Mus.) 



Burlington. (Pseud.) Robert Saun- 
ders, English statistical writer (1727- 

Burlington Accident. The first great 
railroad disaster in the United States. 
It occurred in 1855, near Burlington, 
N.J., causing the death and injury of 
many passengers. So horror-stricken 
was the public, that new regulations in 
regard to the backing of trains, signal- 
ling, etc., were adopted on every rail- 
road in the Union. The Rev. Dr. Board- 
man, a celebrated Philadelphia divine, 
preached a sermon ; and the " Burlington 
accident" was remembered and talked 
of for years by those who were in the 
railway service. 

Burly King Harry. See Bluff King 

Burnbill. Henry de Londres, arch- 
bishop of Dublin in the reign of Henry 
III. He was said to have surreptitiously 
obtained and then burned all the title- 
deeds by which the tenants of the see 
held their lands. 

Burned District. Localities in Bos- 
ton, JVIass., and Chicago, 111., and refer- 
ring in each case to the area burned 
over by the great fires of 1872 and 1871 
respectively. In both cities the region 
Is now covered with imposing and sub- 
stantial structures. 

Burning Mines. These are situated 
on what is known as Summit Hill, near 
Mauch Chunk, Penn. ; they have been 
on fire since 1858. All that can be seen 
is a large hill from which, in innumer- 
able places, steam and gas issue. In 
some places the rocks are so hot that 
the hand cannot touch them without 

Burns of Prance. A name conferred 
on Pierre Jean de B^ranger (fl. 1780- 
1857). See Horace of France. 

Burns Riot. A disturbance in Bos- 
ton, in 1854, caused by efforts to lib- 
erate Anthony Burns, an escaped slave. 

Burr Conspiracy. " In consequence 
of Burr's duel with Hamilton, in which 
the latter met his death. Burr was in- 
dicted in New York and New Jersey for 
murder. He went West, and made an 
extensive tour, in the course of which 
he made preparations for a gigantic but 
mysterious scheme. The real object of 
this is unknown. It was either to sep- 
arate the Mississippi Valley from the 
rest of the Union and erect it into a 
new nation, or to conquer Mexico. In 
1806 he gathered a number of reckless 

persons about him, and started for the 
region of Texas, ostensibly on a colo- 
nizing expedition. President Jefferson 
issued a proclamation warning citizens 
against joining the expedition. Burr 
was arrested by Jefferson's orders, sent 
to Virginia, and indicted there by a 
United States grand jury for treason 
and for a misdemeanor, based on his 
course in levying war within this coun- 
try on a friendly nation ; but it was 
hoped that Burr could also be shown to 
have had treasonable designs against the 
unity of this country. He was acquitted 
of treason for want of jurisdiction, on 
the failure of the evidence required by 
article 3, section 3, clause i of the Con- 
stitution ; he was also acquitted of mis- 
demeanor. He was bound over to pre- 
sent himself for trial in Ohio, but the 
matter was pressed no further. One of 
Burr's dupes in this scheme was Har- 
man Blennerhasset, who was also ar- 
rested, but was discharged after Burr's 
acquittal." — Brown and Strauss. 

Burwell Fire. On Sept. 8, 1727, a 
number of persons assembled to wit- 
ness a puppet-show in a barn at Bur- 
well, near Newmarket. A lighted can- 
dle set fire to a heap of straw, and in 
the ensuing conflagration seventy-six 
persons perished. Many others died of 
their injuries. 

Bury the Hatchet. Let by-gones 
be by-gones. The " Great Spirit " com- 
manded the North American Indians, 
when they smoked the calumet or peace- 
pipe, to bury their hatchets, scalping- 
knives, and war-clubs in the ground, 
that all thought of hostility might be 
buried out of sight. 

It is much to be regretted that the American 
Government, having brought the great war to a 
conclusion, did not bury the hatchet altogether. 
— London Times. 

Buried was the bloody hatchet ; 
Buried was the drea(tful war-club ; 
Buried were all warlike weapons, 
And the war-cry was forgotten : 
Then was peace among the nations. 

Longfellow, Hiawatha. 

Bush. Bushel ; bushels. 

Bushrangers. Australian highway- 
men, who range the "bush," lying in 
wait for travellers, whom they strip of 
all they have about them. Gold-finders 
are frequent objects of their attack. 

Bushwhacker. The word " bush " 
has in some places, notably in Austra- 
lia and South Africa, taken the Dutch 
meaning of a region abounding in trees 
and underwood (bosch). It is not likely 



that the term "bushwhacker" is a pure 
Americanism; though it is hardly known 
in England, it is heard in Australia and 
in South Africa. Originally used to des- 
ignate the process of propelling a boat 
by pulling the bushes on the banks of 
the stream, it became afterward a name 
for lawless persons and fugitives from 
justice who took refuge in the bush. 

Busiris. A king of Egypt, who used 
to immolate to the gods all strangers 
who set foot on his shores. Hercules 
was seized by him, and would have 
fallen a victim, but he broke his chain, 
and slew the inhospitable king. 

Busted. See Broke. 

Butcher, The. (i) Achmed Pasha, 
famous for his defence of Acre against 
Napoleon I. (2) John, ninth Earl Clif- 
ford (d. 1461). See Bloody Butcher 
and Royalist Butcher. 

Butte. A term of French origin, and 
applied throughout the West to solitary 
peaks or mounds of earth of no great 
altitude. The word is also used as a 
verb, and denotes the hacking off of 
any substance with a dull weapon. 

Buzzard called Havrk by Courtesy. 
A euphemism. A brevet rank ; a com- 
plimentary title. 

Of small renown, 't is true ; for, not to lie, 

We call your buzzard " hawk " by courtesy. 

Dryden, Hind and Panther. 

Buzz the Bottle. This is a common 
expression at wine parties when the bot- 
tle does not contain suiBcient to fill all 
the glasses. It means "equally divide 
what is left." The word " buzz " meant 
anciently "to empty." Perhaps the- 
word " booze " comes from the same root. 

B. V. Bene vale. Farewell. 

B. V. Beata Virgo. Blessed Virgin. 

Bz., B2S. Box, boxes. 

Byblis. In classical mythology a 
daughter of Miletus, who wept herself 
into a fountain from hopeless love for 
her brother Caunus. 

Bye Plot. A conspiracy of Lord Gray 
of Wilton, and others, to imprison James 
I. and extort from him freedom of wor- 
ship to Romanists. It was suppressed 
in 1603. It was also named the " Sur- 
prise Plot." 

By Hook or by Crook. In Marsh's 
Library, Dublin, is a manuscript enti- 
tled " Annales Hiberniae," written in the 
seventeenth century by Dudley Loftus, 
a descendant of Adam Loftus, Arch- 
bishop of Armagh. The following ex- 
tract gives a feasible account of the 
origin of this popular saying : — 

"1172. King Henry the 2d landed in Ire- 
land this year, on St. Luke's eve, at a place in 
the bay of Waterford, beyond the fort of Dun- 
cannon, on Munster syde, at a place called ye 
Crook over agt. the tower of ye Hook ; whence 
arose the proverbe to gayne a thing by Hook or 
by Crook ; it being safe to gayne land in one 
of those places when the winde drives from the 

There is, however, another more prob- 
able origin. Anciently the poor of a ma- 
nor were allowed to go into the woods 
to gather dead wood ; they were allowed 
to cut off dead branches with a bill- 
hook, or to pull down by means of a 
crook any dead branches that otherwise 
would be above their reach. In the 
records of the town of Bodmin there is 
a document claiming for the burgesses 
of the town, under a concession of the 
Prior of Bodmin, "to bear and carry 
away on their backs, and in no other 
way, the lop, crop, hoop, crook, and bag 
wood in the prior's wood of Dunmeer. 
Another part of the record calls this 
right " a right with hook and crook to 
lop, crop, and carry away fuel, etc., in 
the same wood." The date of the docu- 
ment is 1525. 

Byles. (Pseud.) Edmund Quincy, in 
the New York " Tribune." 

By 'r Iiakin. " Lakin " is a contrac- 
tion of " ladykin," which is a diminutive 
of endearment for " lady." Thus, " our 
Lakin" meant " our dear Lady," and was 
usually applied to the Virgin Mary. The 
contracted form " by 'r Lakin " was fre- 
quently used by the old dramatists as a 
kind of oath. 

By 'r Lakin 1 I can go no further, sir. —r The 

By 'r Lakin I a parlous fear. — Midsummer 
Night's Dream. 

Byzantine Historians. Certain Greek 
historians who lived under the Eastern 
Empire between the sixth and fifteenth 




C. Carbon ; cent ; consul. 

C, or Cela. Celsius's scale for the 

C, or Cent. Centum. A hundred. 

C, Ch., or Chap. Chapter. 

C. A. Chartered Accountant ; Chief 
Accountant ; Commissioner of Accounts. 

Ca. Circa. Year. 

Ca. Caesium ; calcium. 

Cabal. A term employed to denote a 
small, intriguing, factious party in the 
State, and also the union of several 
such, which for personal or political ob- 
jects agree to sacrifice or modify their 
respective claims and principles. The 
word was coined to designate an Eng- 
lish ministry in the reign of Charles II., 
the initials of whose names — viz., Clif- 
ford, Ashley, Buckingham, Arlington, 
and Lauderdale — composed the word 
in question. 

Cabala. The oral law of the Jews de- 
livered from father to son by word of 
mouth. Some of the rabbins say that 
the angel Raziel instructed Adam in it, 
the angel Japhiel instructed Shem, and 
the angel Zedekiel instructed Abraham ; 
but the more usual belief is that God 
instructed Moses, and Moses his brother 
Aaron, and so on from age to age. 

Cabalist. A Jewish doctor who pro- 
fessed the study of the Cabala. See 
supra. This science consisted mainly in 
understanding the combination of cer- 
tain significant letters, words, and num- 

Cachecope Bell. A bell rung at fu- 
nerals when the pall was thrown over 
the coiEn. From the French, cache corps, 
"over the body." 

Cachet, Lettrea de ("letters sealed"). 
Under the old French rigime, carte- 
blanche warrants, sealed with the king's 
seal, might be obtained for a consid- 
eration, and the person who held them 
might fill in any name. Sometimes the 
warrant was to set a prisoner at large, 
but it was more frequently for deten- 
tion in the Bastile. During the admin- 
istration of Cardinal Fleury 80,000 of 
these cachets were issued, the larger 
number being against the Jansenists. 
In the reigns of Louis XV. and XVI. 
fifty-nine were obtained against the one 
family of Mirabeau. This scandal was 
abolished Jan. 15, 1790. 

Cacoethes carpendi. (Lat.) A rage 
for finding fault. 

Cacoethes loquendi. (Lat.) An in- 
curable passion for speaking. 

Cacoethes scribendi. (Lat.) An in- 
curable passion for writing. 

Cactus. (Pseud.) Mary F. Foster. 

Cacus. In classic mythology an Ital- 
ian shepherd, son of Vulcan, and of 
gigantic stature. He was slain by Her- 
cules for stealing his oxen. 

Cad. (Lat., cadaver, a dead body.) A 
non-member of the university. Men, 
in university slang, says Brewer, are 
sorted under two groups, — those who 
are members of the university, and those 
who are not. As the former are called 
men, the others must be no men ; but 
as they bear the human form, they are 
human bodies (cads), though not human 
beings (men). Another authority derives 
" cad " from "cadet," a younger son. The 
younger sons of the nobility were no 
doubt looked upon with something like 
scorn by their elder and richer broth- 
ers. Hence the depreciatory remark, 
" Oh, he 's only a cad ! " — i. e., he 's only 
a cadet, having no property, and there- 
fore not worth notice. When omnibuses 
were first introduced, the conductor was 
always known as the " cad." In Dick- 
ens's earlier works the word frequently 
appears in this sense. 

Caddee League. See League of 
God's House. 

Caddice-garter. A nickname for a 
valet or servant. " Caddice " is the 
name formerly given to a worsted fab- 
ric. When garters were worn by men 
the gentry wore expensive ones, but 
menials were fain to be content with 
common worsted ones. 

Cadenus. An anagrammatic name 
under which Swift alludes to himself 
in his poem of " Cadenus and Vanessa." 
It is formed by transposing the letters 
of the Latin word decanus, dean. See 

Cadenza. (Ital.) (i) An ornamental 
passage introduced at the close of a 
vocal or instrumental composition. In 
modern music the cadenza is usually 
written in small notes. (2) The fall or 
modulation of the voice. 

Cadger. One who carries poultry, 
butter, eggs, etc., to market; a pack- 



man or huckster. From "cadge," to 
carry. The frame on which hawks' were 
carried was called a "cadge." 

Cadit quaestio. (Lat.) " The question 
falls." The matter falls to the ground. 

Cadmean Letters. See Cadmus. 

Cadmean Victory. A triumph in 
which the victors suffer as much as 
their enemies. So named from the vic- 
tory of the Thebans (then known as Cad- 
means) over the famous Seven, which 
was shortly after terribly avenged by 
the Epigoni, the descendants of the van- 

Cadmus. In classic mythology the 
son of Agenor and brother of Europa. 
He was the reputed founder of Thebes 
in Boeotia, and was said to have in- 
vented the old Greek alphabet of sixteen 
letters, — a fiyieiK^fivoTtptTTv. 
These were named Cadmean letters. 
The eight additional — s tj $ <j) x'^ <" 
— were named Ionic letters. 

Cadmus. (Pseud.) John C. Zachos. 

Caduceus. In classic mythology the 
winged staff or rod with two serpents 
twined about it, — the emblem borne by 

Cadwallader. (Pseud.) William G. 
Hudson in the " Brooklyn Daily Eagle." 

Caeca est invidia. (Lat.) Envy is 

Caesarian Operation. The extraction 
of a child from the womb by an incision 
in the abdominal wall. Julius Caesar is 
said to have been thus brought into the 
world ; whence the term. 

Caesariensis. (Pseud.) James Wad- 
dell Alexander, contributor to the " New- 
ark Daily Advertiser," the " Literary 
World," etc. 

Caesar's 'Wife must be above Sus- 
picion. " This phrase, according to 
Suetonius and Plutarch, originated with 
Caesar, under the following circum- 
stances : His wife Pompeia had an in- 
trigue with Publius Clodius, a member 
of one of the noblest families of Rome, 
and a brilliant and handsome profligate. 
As he could not easily gain access to 
her, he took the opportunity, while she 
was celebrating the mysteries of the 
Bona Dea (7. v.), 'Good Goddess,' a 
dryad with whom the god Faunus had 
an amour, to enter disguised in a wo- 
man's habit. These mysteries were cel- 
ebrated annually by women with the 
most profound secrecy at the house of 

the consul or prastor. The presence of 
a man was a hideous pollution ; even 
the pictures of male animals had to be 
veiled in the room where these cere- 
monies were performed. While Clodius 
was waiting in one of the apartments 
for Pompeia, he was discovered by a 
maidservant of Caesar's mother, who 
gave the alarm. He was driven out 
of the assembly with indignation. The 
news spread a general horror through- 
out the city. Pompeia was divorced by 
Caesar; but when Clodius came up for 
trial, Caesar declared that he knew noth- 
ing of the affair, though his mother 
Aurelia and his sister Julia gave the , 
court an exact account of all the cir- 
stances. Being asked why, then, he had 
divorced Pompeia, ' Because,' answered 
Caesar, 'my family should not only be 
free from guilt, but even from the sus- 
picion of it.' " 

Caetera desunt. (Lat.) The remain- 
der is wanting. 

Caet. par. Cceteris 'paribus. "With 
other things equal." Other things being 

Cagliostro, Count de. The name as- 
sumed by Joseph Balsamo (i 743-1 79s), 
"one of the most impudent and success- 
ful impostors of modern times." See 
Bull-necked Forger. 

Cahoot. A word used in the West- 
ern and Southern States to denote a 
companionship or partnership. 

Cain-colored Beard. Yellow. In the 
ancient tapestries Cain and Judas are 
represented with yellow beards. 

He hath but a little wee face, with a little yel- 
low beard, a Cain-colored beard. — Merry Wives 
of Windsor, 

Cainites. Disciples of Cain, a pseudo- 
Gnostic sect of the second century, who 
renounced the New Testament, and re- 
ceived instead the Gospel of Judas, which 
justified the false disciple and the cruci- 
fixion of Jesus. This sect maintained 
that heaven and earth were created by 
the evil principle, and that Cain, with 
his descendants, were the persecuted 

Cain of America. An opprobrious 
nickname bestowed on Nicholas Du- 
rand Villegaignon (1510-1571), a French 
naval officer, for his supposed treachery 
toward a colony of French Protestants 
who landed on Coligny Island, in the 
Bay of Rio Janeiro, 1555-1 SS7- 



Ca ira I The refrain of a popular song 
during tlie Frenchi Revolution of 1791 : 

" Ah, 9a ira, 5a ira, 9a ira, 

Les aristocrats k la lanteme I " 
(" It will go on," etc. 
" Hang the aristocrats.") 
" La lanterne " means the lamp-posts of 
Paris, whereon so many suspects were 
hung. , See Carmagnole. 

CaiuB. (Pseud.) Donald Grant Mitch- 
ell, in his " Notes by the Road," in the 
" American Whig Review." 

Caius Claudius Nero. A reportorial 
personification of the Earl of Winchel- 
sea in the days when newspaper reports 
of Parliamentary proceedings were not 

Caius Gracchus. (Pseud.) Frangois 
Noel Babeuf (fl. 1 764-1 797) affixed this 
name to his political articles during the 
French Revolution. See Babeuf's Con- 

Cake. A fool, a poor thing. In Uni- 
versity slang a clever man is called a 
good man, and the opposite is a bad 
one, or a " calce." 

Cal. California; calends. 

Calamity Weller. So Congressman 
Weller, of Iowa, was known in Con- 
gress, because he seemed to see in ev- 
ery measure of which he disapproved 
ruin and disaster. 

Calash, a corruption of the French 
caliche, signifies (i) an old-fashioned 
gig, and (2) a feminine head-dress or en- 
veloper known in England as an "ugly." , 

Calculate. See Guess. 

Caleb D'Anvers. (Pseud.) Nicho- 
las Amherst, circa 1726, as editor of 
"The Craftsman." 

Caleb Quotem. A parish clerk, or 
jack-of-all-trades, in Colman's play called 
"The Review." 

I resolved, like Caleb Quotem, to have a place 
at the review. — Washington Irving. 

Calecuegers. A tribe of giants in 
Indian mythology. 

Caledon. A contraction of Caledo- 
nia iq. v.). 

Caledonia. In modern poetry Scot- 
land is often referred to by this its 
ancient name. It is a corruption of 
Celyddon, a Celtic word meaning "a 
dweller in woods and forests." The 
word Celt is from the same source, and 
means the same thing. 
Sees Caledonia in romantic view. — Thomson. 
O Caledonia, stern and wild, 
Meet muse for a poetic child. 


Caledonian Comet. Sir Walter 
Scott was so named. 

Caliban. (Pseud.) (i) Robert Bu- 
chanan in the "Spectator," London, 
circa 1867. (2) Under this pseudonym 
Louis Jean Emmanuel Gonzales, the 
French journalist and feuilletonist (i 8 1 5- 
1887), contributed to the Paris press. 
See also Melchior Gomez and Ramon 


Caliban of Science. Alexander Ram- 
say, the anatomist (i 754-1 824). 

He possessed much professional learning, but 
his vanity, arrogance, and pomp, combined with 
a grotesque person, interfered with his success 
as a teacher, and gain'ed him his nickname. — 

Calico Poster. A nickname given 
to Charles Foster, who Was governor 
of Ohio, 1 880-1 884, in allusion to his 
having kept a dry-goods store in early 

California. The name is derived 
from the Spanish Caliente Fornalla 
(hot furnace), in allusion to the climate 
of Lower California. 

California Column. A body of troops 
raised in 1862 by James Henry Carleton 
(1814-1873), with whom he marched 
across the Yuma and Gila deserts to 
Mesilla on the Rio Grande. 

Caligorant. " An Egyptian giant 
and cannibal, who used to entrap stran- 
gers with a hidden net. This net was 
made by Vulcan to catch Mars and 
Venus ; Mercury stole it for the purpose 
of catching Chloris, and left it in the 
temple of Anubis ; Caligorant stole it 
thence. At length Astolpho blew his 
magic horn, and the giant ran affrighted 
into his own net, which dragged him to 
the ground. Whereupon Astolpho made 
the giant his captive, and despoiled him 
of his net. This is an allegory. Cali- 
gorant was a great sophist and heretic 
in the days of Ariosto, who used to en- 
tangle people; but being converted by 
Astolpho to the true faith, was, as it 
were, caught in his own net, and both 
his sophistry and heresy were taken 
from him." 

Caliztins. (l) A sect springing from 
the followers of Huss in 1420, who 
demanded the cup (Greek, xdXvl) in 
the Lord's Supper. They were also 
called Utraquists, as demanding both 
elements. (2) Followers of George Ca- 
lixtus, a Lutheran, who died in 1656. 
He inveighed against the celibacy of 
the priesthood. 



Call. The American minister who 
wishes to find a field of usefulness waits 
for a call, or invitation from a congre- 
gation to come and minister to their 
spiritual wants. When it is accepted he 
is settled, and receives a stated salary. 

Call a Spade a Spade. Plain speech. 
"Brought up like a Macedon.and taught 
to call a spade a spade." — Gosson, 
Ephemerides of Phialo. 

CaU-boy, The. (Pseud.) Charles J. 
Smith, in " Noah's Sunday Times." 

Calliope. In classic mythology one 
of the Nine Muses. She presided over 
eloquence and epic poetry. 

Callippic Period. The correction 
of the Metonic cycle by Callippos. In 
four cycles, or seventy-six years, the 
Metonic calculation was several liours 
in excess. Callippos proposed to quad- 
ruple the period of Meton, and deduct 
a day at the end of it. See Metonic 

Callirrhoe. The lady-love of Chse- 
reas, in Chariton's eighth-century Greek 
romance, " The Loves of Chaereas and 

Callisto. In classic mythology an 
Arcadian nymph, beloved by Jupiter, 
who changed her into a she-bear that 
Juno might not discover the intrigue. 
Her son Areas, having met her while 
hunting, was about to kill her ; but Jupi- 
ter prevented the act by translating both 
to the heavens as the two constellations, 
the Great Bear and the Little Bear. 

Callithumpians. " It was a common 
practice in New York, as well as in other 
parts of the country, on New Year's 
Eve, for persons to assemble with tin 
horns, bells, rattles, and similar eu- 
phonious instruments, and parade the 
streets, making all the noise and dis- 
cord possible. This party was called 
the Callithumpians, or the Callithum- 
fian Band, — an allusion to Calliope 
as well as to tkumping. The custom 
has now fallen almost, if not entirely, 
into disuse. A gang of Baltimore row- 
dies once assumed the name. The pres- 
ent substitute for this is a procession 
of roughs at sunrise on the Fourth of 
July, in grotesque or worse attire, call- 
ing themselves 'Antiques and Horri- 
bles,' a corruption of the venerable 
Ancient and Honorable Artillery Com- 
pany of Boston. Applied also to any 
burlesque serenade, particularly when 
given to unpopular persons on their 
marriage." — Bartlett. 

Calmar, Union of. The treaty 
whereby Denmark, Sweden, and Nor- 
way were united under one sovereign, 
1397. It was dissolved by Gustavus 
Vasa, 1523. 

Galore. (Ital.) With warmth and 
animation. (Mus.) 

Caloyers. Monks in the Greek 
Church who follow the rule of Saint 
Basil. They are divided into cenobites, 
who recite the offices from midnight to 
sunrise ; anchorites, who live in hermit- 
ages; and recluses, who shut them- 
selves up in caverns and live on alms. 
The word means " good old men." 

Calpe and Abyla. The two pillars 
of Hercules. According to one account, 
these two were originally only one moun- 
tain, which Hercules tore asunder ; but 
some say he piled up each mountain 
separately, and poured the sea between 

Calvert's Entire. A nickname for 
the Fourteenth Foot. Sir Harry Cal- 
vert, from 1806 to 1826, was their colo- 
nel; and three entire battalions were 
kept up to please Sir Harry when 
adjutant-general. Of course the pun is 
on Calvert's malt liquor. 

For the benefit of American readers it should 
be explained that the walls of English public- 
houses are covered with gaudy signs of the vari- 
ous brewers, announcing that " Buxton & Co.'s 
Entire," " Calvert's Entire," " Bass's Entire," etc., 
are sold within. The word " entire " means beer 
or porter drawn from one tap or cask and un- 
mixed with anything else. 

Calves' Head Club. Instituted in 
London in ridicule of Charles I. An 
annual banquet was held on the 30th of 
January, and consisted of a cod's head, 
to represent the person of Charles Stu- 
art ; a pike with little ones in its mouth, 
an emblem of tyranny; a boar's head 
with an apple in its mouth, to represent 
the king preying on his subjects; and 
calves' heads dressed in sundry ways, 
to represent Charles in his regal ca- 
pacity. After the banquet the king's 
book (" Icon Basil ike ") was burned, and 
the parting cup was " To those worthy 
patriots who killed the tyrant." 

Calvin's Case, also called the " case 
of tlat post-nati," 1608, — an action turn- 
ing on questions of allegiance and natu- 
ral-born subjects. It was brought to 
recover lands by Robert Calvin against 
Richard and Nicholas Smith, to which 
defendants pleaded that the plaintiff 
was an alien, and incapable of bringing 
the action, because he was born in 



Scotiand, though after the crown of 
England descended to James I., who 
was also king of Scotland. It was ar- 
gued by lawyers and judges of the 
greatest renown, including Lords Ba- 
con, Coke, Ellesmere, Yelverton, and 
Warburton, and was decided in favor 
of the plaintiff. 

Calypso, in F^nelon's " Tfldmaque," 
figures Madame de Montespan. In 
mythology she was queen of the island 
Ogygia, on which Ulysses was wrecked, 
and where he was detained for seven 

Calypso's Isle. Gozo, near Malta. 
Called in mythology Ogygia. See 

Cam. (Pseud.) Waller Lewis, M.D., 
English medical writer (1711-1781). 

Cam., Camb. Cambridge. 

Camaldolites. A religious order of 
great rigidity of life, founded in the 
vale of Camaldoli, in the Tuscan Apen- 
nines, by Saint Romauld, a Benedictine, 
in the eleventh century. 

Cam and Isis. A familiar couplet 
by which the sister universities of Cam- 
bridge and Oxford are often mentioned. 
The allusion is to the rivers on which 
they are situated. 

May you, my Cam and Isis, preach it long, 

Tlie right divine of Icings to govern wrong. 
Pope, The Dunciad. 

The drooping Muses (Sir Industry), 

Brought to another Castalie, 

Where Isis many a famous nursling breeds, 

Or where old Cam soft passes o'er the lea. 

In pensive mood. 

Thomson, Castle of Indolence. 

Camarilla. A clique ; the confidants 
or private advisers of the sovereign. It 
literally mfeans a small private chamber, 
and is in Spain applied to the room in 
which boys are fiogged. 

Cambri^. The ancient Latin name 
of Wales, the home of the Cimbri. 
Cambria's fatal day.' — Gray. 
Cambitpcan. A prince of Cambaluc 
(Pekin), whose name is a corruption of 
Genghis Khan; while the description ap^ 
plies apparently to his grandson Kublai 
Khan. This was Milton's form of the 
Cambyuskan of Chaucer's fragment of a 
metrical romance, " The Squieres Tale." 
Or call him up that left half told 
The story of Cambuscan bold, 
Of Camball and of Algarsife, 
And who had Canace to wife. 
That owned the virtuous ring and glass. 
And of the wondrous horse of brass 
On which the Tartar king did ride. 

// Penseroso. 

Camden of the Eighteenth Century. 
Richard Gough was so named. 

Camdeo. In Hindu mythology the 
god of love. 

Camel, Day of the. See Day of 
THE Camel. 

Camenae. Prophetic nymphs, of 
whom Egeria was the most renowned. 

Camera. (Ital.) A chamber ; as ca- 
mera di musica, the music-chamber. 

Camera obsoura. A dark chamber. 

Cameronian Regiment. The Twenty- 
sixth Regiment of Infantry in the Eng- 
lish army. It originated in a bocfy 
of Cameronians in the Revolution of 

Cameroy. (Pseud.) James Woods 
Lane, S.T.D., in the " Observer," New 
York, circa 1858. 

Camilla. Virgin queen of the Vol- 
scians. Virgil says that she was so 
swift that she could run over a field of 
corn without bending a single blade, or 
make her way over the sea without even 
wetting her feet. 

Camille Lorrain. (Pseud.) Hippo- 
lyte Babou, in various Parisian journals. 

Camillus. (Pseud.) Fisher Ames, 
in occasional contributions to Boston 

Camisard. A night attack. In French 
history the Camisards were the Protes- 
tant insurgents of the Cdvennes, who 
resisted the violence of the Dragonnades 
after the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes. They were so called because 
they wore a camise, or peasant's smock, 
over their armor, to conceal it, and that 
they might the better recognize each 
other in the dark. Their leader was 
Cavalier, afterward governor of Jersey. 

Campaign = Contest. The English 
" election contest " becomes in America 
a " political campaign." 

Campanieu The popular name of the 
plain surrounding Capua, in Italy, prop- 
erly called the Terra di Lavoro. 
Disdainful of Campania's gentle plains. 

Thomson, The Seasons. 

Campeador. The Cid (?. w.). 

Campbene. A nicknapie in the East- 
em States for whiskey. See Poison. 

Camp-meeting. An open-air gather- 
ing. Common everywhere in the United 
States ; usually held in summer-time in 
a grove, for religious purposes, notably 
preaching and prayer. It is a purely 
American institution. 



Campo Santo of Dissenters. Bun- 
hill Fields burying-ground, in London ; 
so named by Southey, and with good 
reason. Among those who lie buried 
there are John Banyan ; George Fox, 
the founder of the Quakers ; Dr. Thomas 
Goodwin, who attended Cromwell on 
his death-bed ; Dr. John Owen,, who 
preached the first sermon before Parlia- 
ment after Charles L was executed; 
Susannah Wesley, the mother of John 
Wesley ; Dr. Isaac Watts ; William 
Blake, the painter and poet; Daniel 
De Foe, and Home Tooke. On a rem- 
nant of land in the neighborhood the 
Friends have built a conee tavern and 
memorial hall. 

Campus Martius. The field of Mars ; 
a place for military exercises. 

Can. Canon. 

Canace. " A paragon of women, the 
daughter of King Cambuscan [f. v.], to 
whom the king of Arabia and India 
sent as a present a mirror and a ring. 
The mirror would tell the lady if any 
man on whom she set her heart would 
prove true or false ; and the ring (which 
was to be worn on her thumb) would 
enable her to understand the language 
of birds, and converse with them. It 
would also give the wearer perfect 
knowledge of the medicinal properties 
of all roots." Canace was courted by a 
crowd of suitors ; but her brother Cam- 
balo gave out that any one who pre- 
tended to her hand must encounter him 
in single combat, and overthrow him. 
She ultimately married Triamond, son 
of the fairy Agape. 

Canadian Rebellion. " In 1837 an 
insurrection took place in Canada, many 
of the inhabitants being dissatisfied with 
governmental methods. The rebellion 
was completely crushed in about a year. 
It is of interest in our history because 
it threatened to cause international com- 
plications between Great Britain and 
the United States. Many inhabitants 
of this country, largely those of Irish 
extraction, sympathized with the Cana- 
dians, and sought to aid them. In spite 
of the fact that our Government declared 
r its strict neutrality, about seven hundred 
men, chiefly from New York State, un- 
der the lead of Mackenzie, one of the 
leaders of the Canadian revolt, seized 
and fortified Navy Island, situated in 
the Niagara River and within British 
jurisdiction. They made this a base of 
operations for raids on the Canadian 

shore, until they were forced to evacu- 
ate by a battery of guns on the Canadian 
side. The steamer ' Caroline,' which 
they had made use of, was seized by the 
Canadian militia at a wharf on the 
American side of the river, and sent, 
on fire, over Niagara Falls. Our Gov- 
ernment sent General Scott with a 
force of soldiers to prevent infractions 
of our neutral position." — Brown and 

Canaille (dregs). A French term 
for the rabble, the mob, the " dangerous 

Canal Scrip Fraud. " In 1839 the 
Canal Trustees of the State of Illinois ,, 
issued about $390,000 of canal scrip, 
payable in ninety days. This had prac- 
tically all been presented for redemp;- 
tion before 1843, but, as subsequently 
appeared, the certificates had simply 
been laid away and not cancelled. In 
1859 some of the scrip appeared in cir- 
culation, and a legislative inquiry re- 
vealed the fact that $223,182.66 of these 
redeemed but uncancelled certificates 
had been re-issued by Gov. Joel A. 
Matteson. As soon as his name was 
connected with the matter, Matteson 
offered to make good any loss to the 
State, while at the same time maintain- 
ing that he had acquired the scrip by 
investment. The legislative committee 
was not disposed to press the matter, 
and although the grand jury of San- 
gamon County had voted to indict him, 
the vote was reconsidered and the matter 
dropped. The State was reimbursed for 
all but a small part of its loss."— Brown 
AND Strauss. 

Candida pax. (Lat.) White-robed 
peace. - 

Candide. (Pseud.) Jules Arnaud 
Ars^ne Claretie, a French feuilletonist 
in the Paris " Figaro," 1868. 

Candidus. (Pseud.) Thomas White, 
English philosopher and priest (1582- 

Candlemas Day. The 2d of February, 
when, in the Romish Church, there is a 
candle procession, to consecrate all the 
candles which will beneeded in thechurch 
during the year. The candles symbolize 
Christ, called " the light of the world," 
and "a light to lighten the Gentiles." 
It was the old Roman custom to burn 
candles to the goddess Februa, mother 
of Mars, to scare away evil spirits. 

Candor. (Pseud.) Noah Webster 
in the " Connecticut Courant," 1793. 



Canicular Period. Same as Dog- 
days {ff. v.). 

Canicular Year. The ancient solar 
year of the Egyptians, which began and 
ended with the rising of the Dog-star, 
and corresponded with the overflow of 

the Nile. 

Canmore. See Great Head. 

Canonical Hours. The times within 
which the sacred ofSces may be per- 
formed. In the Roman Catholic Church 
they are seven, — viz., matins, prime, 
tierce, sext, nones, vespers, and com- 
pline. Prime, tierce, sext, and nones 
are the first, third, sixth, and ninth 
hours of the day, counting from six in 
the morning. There are seven canoni- 
cal hours, because David says, " Seven 
times a day do I praise thee. 

Canonical Punishments are those 
which the Church is authorized to 

Canopic Vases. Used by the Egyp- 
tian priests for the viscera of bodies em- 
balmed, four vases being provided for 
each body. So called from Canopus, 
Egypt, where they were first used. 

Canopus. " The Egyptian god of 
water. The Chaldeans worshipped fire, 
and sent all the other gods a challenge, 
which was accepted by a priest of Cano- 
pus. The Chaldeans lighted a vast fire 
round the god Canopus, when the Egyp- 
tian deity spouted out torrents of water 
and quenched the fire, thereby obtain- 
ing the triumph of water over fire." 

Cant. Canticles. 

Cantab. Cantabrigiensis. Of Cam- 

CantabUe, or Cantando. (Ital.) In 
a graceful and singing style. (Mus.) 

Cantabile, ornamenti ad libitum, 
ma piii tosto poohi e buoni. (Ital.) 
In a singing style, with embellishments 
at will, but few and well chosen. 

Cantabrigiensis. (Pseud.) Richard 
Person, in the "Gentleman's Magazine," 
I 788-1 790. 

Cantante. (Ital.) A part to be ex- 
ecuted by the voice. (Mus.) 

Cantate Domino. (Lat.) Sing to the 

Cantatrice. (Ital.) A female singer. 

Cantell A. Bigly. (Pseud., " Can-tell- 
a-big-lie.") George W. Peck, American 
miscellaneous writer (1817-1859). 

Canterbury of Russia. The Monas- 
tery of Troitsa, near Moscow, a shrine 
of much esteem among pious Rus- 

Canterbury Tales. In writing these, 
Chaucer supposed that he was in com- 
pany with a party of pilgrims going to 
Canterbury to pay their devotions at the 
shrine of Thomas k Becket. The party 
assembled at an inn in South wark, called 
the Tabard, and there agreed to tell one 
tale each. 

Cantianus. (Pseud.) Rev. Edmund 
Marshall, in the " Kentish Gazette." 

Canto. (Ital.) The highest part in 
vocal music. 

Cantons, Lake of the Four Forest. 
See Lake of the Four Forest Can- 

Cantons, The Four Forest. See Four 
Forest Cantons. 

Cantuar. Of Canterbury. 

Canty Carl. (Pseud.) Frederick 
William Sawyer, American legal writer 
(b. 1810). 

Canucks. The nickname for the peo- 
ple of Canada in common use in the 
United States. 

Cap. Caput, capitulum. Chapter. 

Capability Brown. Lancelot Brown, 
an able English gardener of the eigh- 
teenth century. He was much ridiculed 
for his constant use of the word "capa- 
bility," but was famous for his skill in 
making the most sterile tracts " blossom 
as the rose." 

Capaneus. In classic mythology one 
of the seven who set out from Argos 
against Thebes. Jupiter killed him by 
a lightning-bolt for profanely declaring 
that not even fire from heaven should de- 
ter him from scaling the walls of the 

Cap-a-pie. From head to foot. 

Cape Cod Bard. Henry S. EUenwood 
was so named. 

Capel Court. The London Stock Ex- 
change is in Capel Court, which took 
its name from Sir William Capel, lord 
mayor in 1504. "Capel Court" is often 
used as a synonym for the London finan- 
cial world, just as " Wall Street " is for 
that of New York. 

Cape of Storms. (Port., Cabo Tor- 
mentoso.) A name by which the Cape 
of Good Hope is often referred to. It 
was bestowed in i486 by the navigator 
Bartholomew Diaz. 



Capful of Wind. Olaus Magnus says 
that Eric, king of Sweden, was so famil- 
iar with evil spirits that what way so- 
ever he turned his cap the wind would 
blow, and for this he was called Windy 
Cap. See Sale of Winds. 

CapiEis ad satisfaciendum. (Lat.) 
You may take to satisfy. 

Capital City of the Empire State 
of the South. Atlanta, Ga. 

Capital-mover. A name given to T. M. 
Reavis, who advocated shifting the capi- 
tal of the United States from Washing- 
ton to St. Louis, Mo. 

Capitano delFopolo. (Ital.) "Captain 
of the People." Garibaldi (1807-1882). 

Cap of Maintenance (" Maintenance " 
= "Defiance.") A cap of dignity an- 
ciently belonging to the rank of duke ; 
the fur cap of the Lord Mayor of Lon- 
don, worn on days of state ; also a cap 
carried before the British sovereigns at 
their coronation. 

Capriccio. (Ital.) A fanciful and ir- 
regular composition. (Mus.) 

Capriole. A leap without advancing. 

Caps and Hats. See Hats and Caps. 

Capt. Captain. 

Captain. Gonzalvo di Cordova (1453- 
1515) and Manuel Comnenus (i 120-1 180) 
were each named "the Great Captain." 
See Capitano del Popolo. 

Captain Absolute. A bold, despotic 
man, determined to have his own way. 
The characterization is founded on the 
traits of Sir Anthony Absolute in Sheri- 
dan's play, " The Rivals." 

Captain George North. (Pseud.) The 
name under which Robert Louis Ste- 
venson published " The Outlaws of Tun- 
stall Forest" in "Young Folks" in 1883. 

Captain Jack. (Pseud.) Capt. J. W. 
Crawford, who published a volume of 
poems in New York (1886). 

Captain Loys. Louise Labd (1526- 
1566), who received this sobriquet be- 
cause in early life she became a soldier 
and evinced great courage. 

Captain RaTvdon Cra'wley. (Pseud.) 
George Frederick Pardon, English au- 
thor and critic (b. 1829). 

Captain Right, Captain Rook. Im- 
aginary leaders of the Irish insurgents 
in their risings at various times during 
the last two centuries. 

Captain Schreier. (Pseud.) Leopold 
Schenck, editor of the German reprint 
of " Puck." 

Capt.-Gen. Captain-General. 

Capulet. A noble house in Verona, 
the rival of that of Montague ; Juliet 
is of the former, and Romeo of the lat- 
ter. Lady Capulet is the beau-ideal of 
a proud Italian matron of the fifteenth 
century. The expression, " the tomb of 
all the'CapuIets," is from Burke. 

Caput. (Lat.) "Head." Chapter of 
a book. 

Caput mortuum. (Lat.) The dead 
body ; the worthless remains ; in al- 
chemy an exhausted residue. 

Caput scabere. (Lat.) To scratch 
one's head as a preliminary in com- 
mencing some important work. 

Caqueteur. (Pseud.) Charles Hull 
Webb, in the " Boys'and Girls' Weekly," 
New York. 

Car. Carat. 

Caracalla. Aurelius Antoninus, who 
was born in Gaul, was so called be- 
cause he adopted the Gaulish caracalla 
in preference to the Roman toga. It 
was a large, close-fitting, hooded man- 
tle, reaching to the heels, and slit up 
before and behind to the waist. 

Caracci. Founder of the Eclectic 
School in Italy. Luis and his two 
cousins, Augustin and Annibale, found- 
ed the school called Incamminati ("pro- 
gressive "), which had for its chief prin- 
ciple the strict observance of Nature. 
They flourished 1554-1609. 

Caracci of France. Jean Jouvinet, a 
famous artist (1647-1707), whose right 
side was paralyzed, so he painted en- 
tirely with his left hand. 

Caracci of the Eclectic School. 
Bernardino Campi, the Italian (1522- 
1590), is so called by Lanzi. 

Caractacus. (Pseud.) E. Sendall, in 
the " Live-Stock Journal." 

Caradoc. One of the Knights of the 
Round Table, husband of the only lady 
in the queen's train who could wear "the 
mantle of matrimonial fidelity." 

Caraites. A religious sect among the 
Jews, who rigidly adhered to the words 
and letters of Scripture, regardless of 
metaphor, etc. They rejected the rab. 
binical interpretations and the Cabala. 

Carbonari (" charcoal-burners "). A 
name assumed by a secret revolutionary 
society in Italy m 1820. They adopted 
a code of signals consisting of words 
taken from ttie lingo of the charcoal- 
burners of the forests. 



Card. Cardinal. 

Cardinal Virtues. Justice, prudence, 
temperance, and fortitude, on which all 
the other virtues depend. 

Ca. resp. Capias ad respondendum. 
A legal writ. 

Caret initio et fine. (Lat.) It wants 
beginning and end. 

Carinae. Women hired by the Ro- 
mans to weep at funerals. So called 
from Caria, whence most of them came. 

Carisbrooke. (Pseud.) Miss E. Nes- 
bit, in " Good Words," " Sunday Maga- 
zine," etc. 

Carl. (Pseud.) (i) Frederick William 
Sawyer, American legal writer (b. 1810). 
(2) Rev. Charles Hanbury Williams. 

Carl Benson. (Pseud.) Charles As- 
tor Bristed, American author (1820- 

Carleton. (Pseud.) Walter Charl- 
ton, M. D., English philosophical writer 
(1 61 9-1 707). 

Carlftied. (Pseud.) C. F. Wingate, 

Carling Sunday. The octave pre- 
ceding Palm Sunday. So called because 
the special food of the day was carling, 
i. e., peas fried in butter. The custom 
is a continuation of the pagan bean- 

Carlo Khan. A sobriquet conferred 
on Charles James Fox (fl. 1749-1806). 
He introduced a bill in Parliament in 
1783 regulating the government of the 
East Indies. The nickname arose out 
of a supposition that he aimed to estab- 
lish for himself a sort of dictatorship 
over those colonies. 

Carlotta Fatti. The professional and 
the maiden name of Madame De Miinck. 

Carludovica. A Panama hat, made 
from the Carludovica palmata. So called 
in compliment to Carlos IV. of Spain, 
whose second name was Ludovic. 

Carlyle, Jupiter. See Jupiter Car- 


Carmagnole. A red republican song 
arid dance in the French Revolution. 
So called from Carmagnola in Pied- 
mont, the great nest of the Savoyards, 
noted for street music and dancing. Be- 
sides the song, the word is applied to 
the dress worn by the Jacobins, consist- 
ing of a blouse, red cap, and tricolored 
girdle ; to the wearer of this dress, or 
any violent revolutionist ; and to the 
dance performed by the mob round the 

Carmelites. Monks of Mount Carrael, 
the monastery of which is named Elias, 
from Elijah the prophet, who on Mount 
Carmel told Ahab that rain was at hand. 

Carmen Fisani. The stage-name of 
Madame Frapolli. 

Carmen Silva. (Pseud.) Princess 
Elizabeth of Roumania, translator of 
Roumanian poems. 

Carmilhan. The phantom ship on 
which the kobold of the Baltic sits 
when he appears to doomed vessels. 

Caro. (Pseud.) Mrs. C. A. B. Mason, 
an American poet, in the Salem (Mass.) 
" Register." 

Carolina Doctrine. Additional duties 
having been levied by order of Congress 
upon manufactured goods imported from 
abroad. South Carolina was greatly of- 
fended at this act, because " the manu- 
facturing districts were favored at the 
expense of the agricultural States." It 
claimed that a State had a right to de- 
clare null and void a law passed by 
Congress which was injurious to its (the 
State's) interests. 

Caroline BeU. The stage-name of 
Mrs. George Hearne. 

Caroline Hill. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Herbert Kelcey. 

Caroline Howard, Vernon Grove, 
N. Y. (Pseud.) Mrs. Caroline H. 
Glover, American writer for children 
(b. 1823). 

Caroline Parker. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Charles Fenton. 

Carp. (Pseud.) Frank Carpenter, 
sometime Washington correspondent of 
the " Cleveland Leader." 

Carpathian 'Wizard. Proteus {q. v.). 

Carpe diem. (Lat.) Enjoy the pres- 
ent day ; seize the present opportunity. 

Carpet-baggers. Corrupt and often 
ignorant politicians — mostly from the 
North — who flocked to the South dur- 
ing the era of Reconstruction. They 
were uniformly "on the make," and 
were responsible for much of the ve- 
nality and rascality that disgraced that 
period of the history of the South. 

Some of them were the dregs of the Federal 
army, — the meanest of the camp followers; 
many were fugitives from Northern justice ; the 
best of them were those who went down after 
the peace, ready for any deed of shame that was 
safe and profitable. These, combining with a 
few treacherous " scalawags," and some leading 
negroes to serve as decoys for the rest, and 
backed by the power of the General Government, 
became the strongest body of thieves that ever 



pillaged a people. Their moral grade was far 
lower. . . . They swarmed on all the States from 
the Potomac to the Gulf, and settled in hordes, 
not with the intent to remain there, but merely 
to feed on the substance of a prostrate and de- 
fenceless people. They took whatever came 
within their reach, Intruded themselves into all 
private corporations, assumed the functions of 
all offices, including the courts of justice, and in 
many places they even " ran the churches." By 
force of fraud, they either controlled all elections, 
or else prevented elections from being held. — 
North American Review, for July, 1877. 

Carpet Knight. One dubbed at court 
by favor, not having won his spurs by 
service in the field. Majfors, lawyers, 
and other civilians are knighted as they 
kneel on a carpet before the sovereign. 

" Carpet knights are such as have studied law, 
physic, or other arts or sciences, whereby they 
have become famous, and seeing that they are 
not knighted as soldiers, they are not therefore 
to use the horseman's title or spurs ; they are 
only termed simply miles and milites, ' Knight,' 
or ' Knights of the Carpetry,' or ' Knights of the 
Green Cloth,' to distinguish them from those 
knights that are dubbed as soldiers in the field." 
— Randle Holmes, Academy of Armour, 
iii. 57. 

Carpocratians. The Gnostic sect, 
so called from Carpocrates, who flour- 
ished in the middle of the second 

Carrie Andrews. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Leander Richardson. 

Carrie Carlton. (Pseud.) Mrs. M. H. 
Chamberlain, an American poet. 

Carrie Turner. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Albert His. 

Carryall. A vehicle for freight and 
passengers. A corruption of the French 

Cars = Carriages. On American 

.railroads the passenger vehicles are 

called " cars " or " coaches," while in 

England they are called "carriages." 

See Horse-car. 

Carte blanche. (Fr.) Unconditional 

Carte du pays. (Fr.) Map of the 

Cartesian Devil, or Bottle Imp. An 
ingenious scientific toy named after 
Descartes. A tall glass vessel, as a 
preserve-jar, is nearly filled with water, 
and the mouth covered with an air-tight 
piece of bladder or india-rubber. In 
and on the water floats a small hollow 
figure, with a hole near the top, partly 
filled with air and partly with water. 
When the cover of the glass is pressed, 
the air beneath is compressed, and wa- 
ter enters the floating figure, so as to 
bring the air in it to the same degree of 

compression, and the figure sinks in 
the water, not rising again till the pres- 
sure is removed. 

C. A. S. Connecticutensis Academia 
Socius. Fellow of the Connecticut Acad- 
emy of Arts and Sciences. 

Ca. sa. Capias ad satisfaciendum. A 
legal writ. 

Caaa de pupilos. (Span.) " A house 
of pupils." A boarding-house. 

Case of the Impositions. See 
Bates's Case. 

Case of the Post-nati. See Calvin's 

Cash. Cashier. 

Casket Homer. Alexander the 
Great's edition, with Aristotle's cor- 
rections. " After the battle of Arbela, 
a golden casket, studded with jewels, 
was found in the tent of Darius. Alex- 
ander being asked to what purpose it 
should be applied, made answer, ' There 
is but one production in the world worthy 
of so costly a depository ; ' and placed 
therein his edition of Homer, which 
received from this circumstance the 
term of Casket Homer." 

Caspar Hauser. Nearly a century ago 
the civilized world was shocked at the 
discovery of one of the cruelest crimes 
that ever disgraced humanity, the victim 
of which had been kept in a narrow and 
dimly lighted dungeon, separated from 
all communication with his kind from 
babyhood, robbed of his childhood and 
boyhood and of the care of his natural 

fuardians, until, at the age of seventeen, 
e was cast adrift on the common high- 
way, helpless as an infant, unable to 
talk or to walk, his mind a blank, his 
faculties undeveloped, and his body a 
torment. Scarcely had this youth been 
restored to the companionship of man- 
kind, and partially taught and civilized, 
— the progress of his mental and moral 
education being watched with intense 
interest by the physician and the physi- 
ologist, by the minister and the moral- 
ist, — than an attack upon his life was 
made by persons unknown. He recov- 
ered from this assault, but a second at- 
tempt to murder him, made some three 
years later, was only too successful. All 
efforts to discover the authors of these 
villanies failed, and the youth bade fare- 
well to the world as mysteriously and as 
tragically as he had entered it. Need- 
less to say that these events aroused 
widespread wonder. Great pains were 
taken to rend the veil of darkness en- 



shrouding the foul transaction, but with- 
out avail; and in all the capitals of 
Europe men asked one another, Who 
was he? The query has never yet 
been answered, and the crime has never 
yet been brought home to its perpe- 
trators. In the city of Nuremberg, be- 
tween four and five o'clock on the 
afternoon of Whit-Monday, May 26, 
1828, a citizen who resided in the 
Unschlitt Place, near the lonely Haller 
Gate, was standing at his door enjoying 
the cool of the evening. A short dis- 
tance away, just within the barrier, he 
noticed a youth, clad in peasant's 
clothes, who with a shambling and 
staggering gait was endeavoring to 
move forward, but who appeared to be 
unable to stand erect or to control the 
motions of his body. The citizen ap- 
proached the stranger, who with an 
appealing look handed him a letter 
addressed "To his Honor the Captain 
of the Fourth Squadron of the Cavalry 
Regiment, Nuremberg." As the cap- 
tain lived not far from the Haller Gate, 
the citizen undertook to lead the strange 
lad thither. The boy walked, or rather 
painfully stumbled along, when unsup- 
ported, with hands thrust out before 
him, swaying from side to side, and 
lifting his feet wholly from the ground 
like a toddling infant. On the way to 

the residence of Captain W , who at 

that time commanded the fourth squad- 
ron of the Sixth Regiment of the 
Chevaux-legers, the citizen made sev- 
eral efforts to learn whence he came, 
his name, and how he came to be so 
helpless. But he soon found that his 
questions were entirely unintelligible to 
the lad. To all interrogatories he re- 
turned answer in a jargon of words : 
" Ae sechtene mocht ih waeh ne, wie mei 
waehn is ; " or, " Woas nicht ; " or Votta 
" Reuta wahn, wie mei Votta wahn is ; " 
or, " Hoam wissa." These nearly un- 
intelligible phrases comprised his sole 
vocabulary ; and they were delivered in 
a groaning, guttural tone of voice, more 
like the whining of an animal than the 
speech of a human being. As he seemed 
to be suffering from hunger and thirst, 
a piece of meat was handed to him ; but 
scarcely had it touched his lips when 
his face became convulsed with horror, 
and he violently spat it out. The same 
disgust was manifested at a glass of 
beer. A slice of bread and a goblet of 
fresh water he consumed eagerly and 
with every sign of relish. The children 

stood around him in silent wonder. His 
language consisted of tears, moans, and 
meaningless sounds, while with gestures 
of pain he pointed to his feet. Being 
led to the stable, he fell into a sound 
sleep. A dozen hours after his arrival 
Captain W arrived home, and im- 
mediately went to the stable to look at 
the strange creature who had been so 
mysteriously directed to his house, and 
of whose antics the children told such 
strange tales. The boy was still sleeping, 
and all efforts to arouse him were for 
a long time fruitless. He was shaken, 
pinched, rolled over and over, stood on 
his feet, and shouted at, but still he 
slept on. At length, we are told, " after 
many troublesome and painful experi- 
ments upon the sleeper's capacity of 
feeling," he slowly opened his eyes, 
awoke, gazed intently at the gay colors 
and gold braid of the captain's uniform, 
and then groaned out, with tearful eyes : 
" Reuta wahn, wie mei Votta wahn is " 
(" I would be a rider, or trooper, as my 
father was "). Could anything be more 
puzzling or ridiculous ? Recourse was 
next had to the letter which the boy 
had brought. It ran as follows : " From 
a place near the Bavarian frontier which 
shall be nameless, 1828. High and Well- 
born Captain: I send you a boy who 
wishes to serve his king. This boy 
was left in my house the seventh day 
of October, 1812; and I am myself a 
poor day-laborer, who have also ten 
children, and have enough to do to 
maintain my own family. The mother 
of the child only put him in my house 
for the sake of having him brought up. 
But I have never been able to discover 
who his mother is, nor have I ever given 
information to the provincial court that 
such a child was placed in my house. I 
thought I ought to receive him as my 
son. I have given him a Christian edu- 
cation, and since 1812 I have never suf- 
fered him to take a single step out of my 
house. So that no one knows where he 
was brought up. Nor does he know 
either the name of my house or where 
it is. You may ask him, but he cannot 
tell you. I have already taught him to 
read and write, and he writes my hand- 
writing exactly as I do. And when we 
asked him what he would be he said he 
would be one of the Chevaux-legers, as 
his father was. If he had had parents 
different from what he has, he would 
have become a learned lad. If you 
show him anything, he learns it imme- 



diately. I have only showed him the 
way to Neumark, whence he was to go 
to you. I told him that when he had 
once become a soldier I should come to 
take him home or I should lose my 
head. Good Mr. Captain, you need not 
try him ; he does not know the place 
where I am. I took him away in the 
middle of the night, and he knows not 
the way home. I am your most obedi- 
ent servant. I do not sign my name, 
for I might be punished. He has not a 
kreutzer of money, because I have none 
myself. If you do not keep him you 
may get rid of him or let him be scram- 
bled lor." This remarkable " lying let- 
ter " was written in German characters, 
but the style and orthography were evi- 
dently disguised so as to pass for those 
of some ignorant peasant. But with it, 
in the same hand, but in Latin, was in- 
closed the following paper : " The child 
is already baptized. You must give him 
a surname yourself ; you must educate 
the child. His father was one of the 
Chevaux-legers. When he is seventeen 
years old send him to Nuremberg to the 
Sixth Chevaux-leger Regiment, for there 
his father also was. I ask for his edu- 
cation till he is seventeen years old. 
He was born the 30th of April, 1812. 
I am a poor girl and cannot support 
him. His father is dead." These docu- 
ments shed no light on the matter; on 
the contrary, they rather deepened the 

mystery. Captain W knew nothing 

or the stranger, nor could he gather any 
clew to his past history from the fore- 
going papers. The assertion that his 
father had been a member of the regi- 
ment it was impossible either to verify 
or disprove. As nothing could be as- 
certained by questioning the chief per- 
former in this strange case but the 
interminable " Woas nicht," or " Reuta 
wahn," etc., he was turned over to the 
police, and to them was confided the 
task of discovering the stranger's iden- 
tity. The police could make nothing of 
him. He appeared to possess no more 
intelligence than a dog or a horse. The 
objects and persons surrounding him 
appeared to arouse neither emotion nor 
confusion. He stared about him, but 
apparently the things he saw excited no 
thought, and, as a bystander said, " he 
evinced as much perception as a turnip." 
Some present even doubted whether he 
were not a clever impostor, so difScult 
did they find it to believe that so much 
vacuity could be contained in a sin- 

gle human being. This suspicion, un- 
founded as it afterward proved to be, 
received apparent confirmation from an 
unexpected source. As a last resort an 
officer handed the boy a pen and paper, 
motioning that he should write. An ex- 
pression of placid pleasure spread over 
his face, and not at all awkwardly he 
took the pen between his fingers and 
wrote in a good plain hand the name 
" Caspar Hauser." Then he was told 
to add the name of the place whence he 
came, but laying down the pen he only 
groaned out the interminable "Reuta 
wahn " and " Woas nicht." Caspar Hau- 
ser was, when he appeared at Nurem- 
berg, four feet nine inches in height, 
and from sixteen to seventeen years old. 
His chin and lips were very thinly cov- 
ered with down; the so-called wisdom 
teeth were yet wanting, nor did they 
make their appearance before the year 
1 83 1. His light brown hair, which was 
very fine, and curled in ringlets, was cut 
according to the fashion of peasants. 
The structure of his body, which was 
stout and broad-shouldered, showed per- 
fect symmetry without any visible de- 
fect. His skin was fine and very fair; 
his complexion was not florid, but ^^'^^*' 
neither was it of a sickly hue ; his 
limbs were delicately built; his small 
hands were beautifully formed, and his 
feet, which showed no marks of ever 
before having been confined or pressed 
by a shoe, were equally so. The soles 
of his feet, which were without any 
horny skin, were as soft as the palms 
of his hands, and they were covered all 
over with blood blisters, the marks of 
which were some months later still visi- 
ble. Both his arms showed the marks 
of inoculation, and on his right arm a 
wound, still covered with a fresh scab, 
was observable, which, as Caspar after- 
ward related, was occasioned by a blow 
given him with a stick or a piece of 
wood by the man " with whom he had 
always been," because he had made too 
much noise. His face was at that time 
very vulgar; when in a state of tran- 
quillity it was almost without any ex- 
pression, and its lower features, being 
somewhat prominent, gave him a brut- 
ish appearance. The staring look of his 
blue but clear and bright eyes had also 
an expression of brutish obtuseness. 
The formation of his face altered in a 
few months almost entirely, his counte- 
nance gained expression and animation, 
the prominent lower features of his face 



receded more and more, and his earlier 
physiognomy could scarcely any longer 
be recognized. As time passed, the fruit- 
less efforts of the police to discover a 
clew to the dark enigma gradually les- 
sened, and pubhc interest in the case 
died away for want of food to feed upon. 
But a number of scholarly and humane 
gentlemen had become interested in the 
phenomenon of a youth of seventeen 
with a normal body and the mind of 
an infant. Among these were Messrs. 
Daumer and Binder, the first a professor 
at the university, and who at once inter- 
ested himself in the education of the 
lad. It was soon discovered that the 
boy was neither an idiot nor a madman. 
On the contrary, so mild, so obedient, 
so sunny-tempered was he, that no one 
could be tempted to believe that he 
came of brutish parents, or had grown 
up among such. When Caspar had 
been a little over a month at Nurem- 
berg he came under the notice of Herr 
Anselm von Feuerbach, president of one 
of the Bavarian Courts of Appeal, to 
whom the world is indebted for a dis- 
passionate and candid history of this 
remarkable youth, "An Account of an 
Individual Kept in a Dungeon." On 
July 1 1, 1828, this gentleman went to Nu- 
remberg expressly to visit and to study 
Caspar Hauser. That the study of his 
unfolding mind and the development of 
his body yielded an interest surpassing 
for the time being the question of his 
identity can readily be credited. Such 
an opportunity for physiological and 
psychological investigations had never 
before been afforded men of science, 
and they embraced it with such ardor 
that before long the health of the sub- 
ject of their studies began to suffer seri- 
ously under the strain to which he was 
subjected. This, together with the high- 
pressure efforts at educating him, and 
the varied influences brought to bear 
upon his immature brain by the inter- 
minable procession of visitors, resulted 
at length in an illness that for a time 
threatened serious results. On July i^, 
1829, Caspar Hauser was removed from 
his abode in the police tower and trans- 
ferred to the home-like care and super- 
intendence of Professor Daumer, who 
assumed entire charge of his education, 
and in whose house he was shielded 
from the exciting influences that had 
come so near costing him his life._ As 
may be imagined, the labor of instilling 
into such a mind ideas of God, relig- 


ion, nature, humanity, and the thousand 
things which ordinary children learn by 
imitation, was a slow and tedious process. 
But, assisted both by his natural aptitude 
and by his intense desire to learn, his 
progress in the first year was phenom- 
enally rapid, and, under the kind care of 
the Professor and his mother and sister, 
Caspar soon became a rational, well- 
informed being. By the careful atten- 
tion of these same worthy people, too, 
the boy's health was vastly improved. 
Such was his mental progress, that in 
the summer of 1829, a little more than a 
year after his entry into Nuremberg, he 
was able to collect his recollections of 
his marvellous career into a well-written 
memoir. This production so delighted 
him that, like many another young au- 
thor, he never wearied of tellmg of his 
performance ; and it was soon announced 
in various European journals that the 
Foundling of Nuremberg was writing 
his life. It has been thought by his 
biographers that it was this announce- 
ment that precipitated an attack that 
was doubtless intended to terminate 
abruptly his short but sorrowful career. 
On Saturday, Oct. 15, 1829, Caspar 
happened to be left alone in the home 
of Professor Daumer. The house then 
stood in a thinly peopled quarter, sur- 
rounded by open fields, and far from any 
other structure. About eleven o'clock 
he had occasion to visit an outhouse, 
and on his return thence was stabbed 
or struck in the temple with some sharp 
instrument by a man whose features 
were probably masked, and who imme- 
diately fled. Caspar staggered toward 
the house, and either fell or stumbled 
down the cellar steps, at the foot of 
which he was found an hour later, insen- 
sible from loss of blood. A little after 
r.oon Miss Daumer was sweeping the 
hall-way, when she observed on the 
stairs several drops of blood, and bloody 
footsteps. These marks she traced 
along the passage-way to the closet, and 
there, to her horror, found a mass of 
clotted blood. In great alarm she sum- 
moned her mother, and together they 
tracked the boy to the cellar, whence he 
was carefully and tenderly removed to 
his room. The blow, said the physi- 
cians and other experts, was doubtless 
intended for the boy's throat; but he 
probably " ducked his head " in time, and 
thus escaped a fatal stroke. Beyond the 
shock and pain, confinement to his room 
for a few days was all the inconvenience 



Caspar suffered. By order of the mu- 
• nicipal authorities, the boy was attended 
by the medical officer of the city, and 
constantly guarded by two soldiers. 
Under the loving care of the Daumer 
family he soon recovered, and when 
strong enough the magistrates caused 
him to be examined concerning the at- 
tempt on his life, but no clew to the 
criminal was elicited. Among the priv- 
ileged visitors while Caspar was under 
Professor Daumer's care was Lord 
Stanhope, an English nobleman of 
wealth and generosity, who had become 
interested in the boy, his story, and his 
career. This gentleman offered to as- 
sume the entire charge and expense of 
his education. The offer was accepted, 
and, as a first step, Caspar was sent to 
Anspach, and there placed under the 
care of an accomplished tutor. His 
career while at Anspach fulfilled every 
expectation ; and in a few months he 
was deemed competent to assume the 
duties of an official appointment, and he 
was accordingly made clerk in the Reg- 
istrar's Office of the Court of Appeal. 
It was Lord Stanhope's idea by this 
means to accustom Caspar to the duties 
of life, and in time to take him to Eng- 
land and adopt him as his foster-son. 
But the deep and diabolical mystery 
which hung over his young existence 
pursued him to his new abode, and the 
benevolent intentions of the philanthro- 
pist were frustrated. At midday on 
Dec. 17, 1833, while the youth was 
returning home from his official duties, 
he was accosted by a stranger, who said 
he was in possession of important infor- 
mation concerning the birth and origin 
of Caspar Hauser (though he informed 
him that this was not his rightful name), 
which he would divulge if he would 
meet him in the park attached to the 
Castle of Anspach late that afternoon. 
All on fire to possess the priceless 
secret, Caspar very imprudently kept 
the appointment without informmg his 
protectors or his friends of his inten- 
tion, secrecy having been enjoined by 
his unknown acquaintance. Arrived at 
the rendezvous, the stranger was at his 
post. Without a word he took Caspar 
by the arm, and led him aside until 
they were absolutely alone. Then, in 
silence, he plunged a dagger into his 
breast, and was gone! Caspar had 
only strength to totter to the public 
highway. He was speedily carried to 
the residence of his tutor, gasped out a 

few indistinct phrases telling of the at- 
tempt on his life, and fell fainting to 
the floor. The police were summoned, 
but ere a final deposition could be taken, 
or he could furnish any clew to the per- 
petrator of the outrage, Caspar Hauser 
was no more. All the resources of the 
police were set in motion to endeavor 
to apprehend the murderer, but without 
avail. The author of the dual crime (for 
doubtless the same coward hand dealt 
both blows) was never discovered, and 
the secret preserved at the expense of 
so much iniquity is still masked from 
the eyes of men. Professor Daumer 
considered him to have been a son of 
the Grand-Duke Charles of Baden and 
of his wife Stephanie, "pushed aside in 
some criminal way in order to secure 
the succession to the children of the 
Grand-Duke Charles Frederick and the 
Countess of Hochberg." But this the- 
ory, though substantiated by an array 
of corroborative incidents, is little more 
than a mere guess, although it is perhaps 
the most plausible, not to say probable, 
of all the theories offered in solution of 
the puzzle. After all, as has been well 
said, this part of the story has com- 
paratively little interest in view of the 
many curious psychological problems 
presented in the course of tiie boy's 

Caspian Gates {Pylce Caspice). A 
name given to the Russian fortress of 
Dariel, situated in a narrow defile of 
the Caucasus, on the Terek, eighty 
miles north of Tiflis. 

Cassander. (Pseud.) John Bruckner, 
French preacher in England (i 726-1804). 

Cassandra. In classic mythology a 
daughter of Priam and Hecuba. She 
possessed the gift of prophecy, but no 
one would believe her. 

Cassi. Inhabitants of Cassio Hun- 
dred, Hertfordshire, referred to by 
Csesar in his Commentaries. 

Cassiope. Wife of Cepheus and 
mother of Andromeda, and renowned 
for her beauty. After her death she 
was relegated to the firmament, forming 
the constellation known as the "Lady 
in her Chair." 

Cassius of Britain. Algernon Sid-' 
ney is so named by Thomson in " The 

Castaly. A fountain of Parnassus 
sacred to the Muses. Its waters had 
the power of inspiring with the gift of 
poetry those who drank of them. 



Castara. Under this fanciful name 
William Habington, the poet (fi. 1605- 
1654), sung the praises of Lucia, daugh- 
ter of Lord Powis, — the lady who after- 
ward became his wife. 

Cas«ea in Spain. (Fr., ch&teaux en 
Espagne.) Groundless or visionary pro- 
jects. In the fifteenth century they said, 
in a similar sense, Faire des ch&teaux 
en Asie, — " To build castles in Asia." 

Castor and Pollux. Twin sons of 
Leda and Tyndareus, king of Lacedae- 
mon. On account of their mutual at- 
tachment Zeus placed them among the 
stars, where they form the two principal 
luminaries in the constellation Gemini. 

Casus belli. (Lat.) An occasion of 
war ; a cause for going to war. 

Casus foederis. (Lat.) A case of 
conspiracy ; the end of the league. 

Casus in eventu est. (Lat.) The 
result is doubtful. 

Casus necessitatis. (Lat.) A case 
of necessity. 

Cat. or Cata. Catalogue. 
Catacazy Affair. An episode in the 
diplomatic relations between the United 
States and Russia. M. Catacazy ar- 
rived in Washington as the accredited 
Russian ambassador in 1870, made a 
very agreeable impression, and gave 
promise of being a very acceptable 
envoy. It was soon found, however, 
that Catacazy began interfering in ques- 
tions not appropriately connected with 
his Legation, and in those pending be- 
fore Congress, importuning senators and 
members, and resorting to personal in- 
terviews and solicitations unusual on 
the part of representatives of other 
Powers accredited to this Government ; 
and he did not hesitate to use the 
press of this country to influence pub- 
lic opinion upon questions pending be- 
fore the Government. This was borne 
with ; but the act which particularly 
outraged President Grant was an arti- 
cle published in the New York "World " 
of Nov. 29, 1870, purporting to be from 
its Washington correspondent, under 
the caption of " Russia and Amer- 
ica,'' which bore evidence of inspira- 
tion from some one familiar with the 
instructions from his Government to 
the Russian minister, and of his con- 
fidential correspondence and conver- 
sation. Catacazy, when charged by 
Secretary Fish with having inspired 
this article, denied all knowledge of its 

authorship, but asserted that the infor- 
mation was furnished by his enemies to 
bring him into disrepute with our Gov- 
ernment. He subsequently wrote a note 
to Mr. Fish, in which he denied " em- 
phatically and categorically all con- 
nection, direct or indirect, with the 
' World's ' false and absurd assertions," 
which he characterized from beginning 
to end as " a tissue of lies and absurdi- 
ties." Nevertheless George W. Adams, 
the " World " correspondent, in reply to 
a note from Secretary Fish, informed 
that gentleman that the article in ques- 
tion was written from notes made in the 
course of an interview of Catacazy's 
own timing at his own house. It was 
written under the stipulation that Cata- 
cazy should revise the writer's manu- 
script, that it was so revised by Catacazy, 
and was sent to the " World " as revised, 
and printed as sent. Upon the receipt 
of this information, Secretary Fish at 
once sent a despatch to Minister Curtin 
at St. Petersburg sa3ring that the Presi- 
dent could no longer hold any official or 
social intercourse with Catacazy, and 
asking that he be recalled. Curtin was 
not as expeditious in securing the object 
desired as the President thought he 
should have been, and a subsequent 
despatch was sent saying that if Cata- 
cazy was not at once recalled by his 
own Government, his passports would 
be sent him. The Russian Government 
begged that the President would tolerate 
Catacazy until after the visit of the 
Grand Duke Alexis, and this request 
was acceded to, with the condition that 
the President would only receive Cata- 
cazy when he was in attendance upon 
the Grand Duke. After the reception 
of the Grand Duke in New York, Secre- 
tary Fish, under date of Nov. 24, 1871, 
informed Catacazy that intercourse with 
him as the diplomatic representative of 
the Russiari Government would cease. 

Catalogue raisonne. (Fr.) A cata- 
logue of books arranged according to 
their subjects, with illustrations, proofs, 

Catch a Crab. This phrase origi- 
nated with the Italians, who have sev- 
eral proverbial sayings of similar 
import. Chiappar un granchio is used 
exactly in the same sense as our " catch 
a crab." Pigliare un granchio means 
"to commit a blunder;" and Pigliare 
un granchio a secco, " to catch a crab on 
dry land," is used when a person pinches 
his finger. 



Catch Club. A society of amateur 
musicians founded in London in 1761. 
A " catch " is a humorous canon or 
round, so contrived that the singers 
catch up each other's sentences. 

Catching a Tartar. To be outdone 
or outwitted. An Irish soldier in a 
battle against the Turks shouted to his 
commanding officer that he had caught 
a " Tartar.'^ " Bring him along, then," 
said the general. " But he won't come." 
" Then come along yourself." " Bedad, 
and so I would, but he won't let me," 
answered Pat. 

Catch-penny. This well-known term 
for anything brought out for sale with a 
view to entrap unwary purchasers, ori- 
ginated in the year 1824, just after the 
execution of Thurtell for the murder of 
Weare. This murder had created a 

great sensation, and Catnach, the cele- 
rated printer of Seven Dials, in Lon- 
don, made a very large sum by the sale 
of Thurtell's " last dying speech." When 
the sale of this speech began to fall off, 
Catnach brought out a second edition, 
with the heading "WE ARE alive 
again ! " the words " we are " being 
printed with a very narrow space be- 
tween them. These two words the 
people took for the name of the mur- 
dered man, reading it " WEARE alive 
again ; " and a large edition was rap- 
idly cleared off. Some one called it a 
"catchpenny," and the word rapidly 
spread, until Catnach 's productions were 
usually so styled, and the word became 
adopted into the language. 

Catchpole. A constable, whose 
business it was to apprehend criminals. 
Pole, or poll, means " head, person ; " 
and the word means " one who catches 
persons by the poll or neck." This 
was formerly done by means of an in- 
strument something like a shepherd's 

Cater-cousin. An intimate friend; 
a remote kinsman. It is a corruption 
of the French quatre-cousin, a fourth 

Catharine Earnsha^r. (Pseud.) Ma- 
ria L. Pool, in the New York " Weekly." 

Catharista. (Gr. Ka6ap6s, pure.) The 
last surviving sect of the Gnostics, so 
called from their professed purity of 
faith. They maintained that matter is 
the source of all evil, that Christ had 
not a real body, that the human body is 
incapable of newness of life, and that 
the sacraments do not convey grace. 

Cathay. In modern times the poetical 
sobriquet for the Far East, — China and 
Japan, — but in olden times the name for 
those countries. It is said to have been 
brought into Europe by Marco Polo, and 
is derived from the Tartar word Khitai, 
the land of the Khitans, a people who 
occupied a portion of China at the time 
of the great Mongol invasion. 
Better fifty yearsof Europe than a cycle of Cathay. 
Tennyson, Locksky Hall. 

Cathedral of Methodism. City Road 
Chapel, London. John Wesley's tomb 
is here. 

Catherine Cole. (Pseud.) Mrs. M. 
R. Field, a writer on the staff of the 
New Orleans "Picayune." 

Catherine Corcoran. The stage- 
name of Mrs. J. A. Heme. 

Catherine Leiris. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Donald Robertson, formerly 
Mrs. Arfwedson. 

Catholic, The. (i) Alfonso I., king 
of Asturias. (2) Ferdinand II., king of 
Aragon and (V.) of Castile. (3) Isabella, 
queen of Castile. 

Catholic Majesty. A title bestowed 
by the Holy See on certain Spanish 
monarchs, because of their zeal for the 
faith. See Catholic, The. 

Catiline's Conspiracy. Lucius Ser- 

fius Catiline, a dissolute Roman noble, 
aving been refused the consulship, in 
65 B.C. conspired to kill the Senate, 
plunder the treasury, and set Rome on 
fire. Catiline fled to Gaul, where he 
was slain by Petreius, 62 b. c. 

Cato. (Pseud.) John Trenchard in 
the London " Times " and the " British 

Cato Street Conspiracy. A gang 
of desperate politicians, formed by Ar- 
thur Thistlewood, which assembled in 
Cato Street, Edgeware Road, London, 
proposed the assassination of the minis- 
ters of the crown at a cabinet dinner, and 
th e overthrow of th e government. They 
were betrayed by one of their number, 
and arrested Feb. 23, 1 820 ; and the prin- 
cipals were executed as traitors on the 
May I following. 

Cat Raphael Godfrey Mind, a fa- 
mous painter of feline figures. 

CafsPaw. The tool of another; the 
medium who does another's dirty work. 
The allusion is to the fable of the mon- 
key who wanted to get from the fire 
some roasted chestnuts, and used the 
paw of the cat 



Cattle, in England used promiscu- 
ously for all animals that serve for food 
or draught, designates in America only 
the bovine genus. 

Cattle-rangea. Those vast tracts of 
country in the West and Southwest 
given up to the pasturage of cattle. See 

Caucus. This is peculiarly an Amer- 
ican institution. It consists of a secret 
conference of the members of the Na- 
tional or State legislature of the same 
political stripe. The conclusions arrived 
at are usually considered as binding on 
the members of the caucus during the 
succeeding public proceedings. Gor- 
don (History of the American Revolu- 
tion) speaks of this word as having been 
in use in 1724. Dr. Trumbull, of Hart- 
ford, Conn., says, " Its origin is the 
Indian cau-cau-as'u" which he defines 
or translates as " one who advises, 
urges, encourages, etc." (Am. Philol. 
Assoc. Trans. 1872). In "Webster's 
Dictionary " is a quotation from " The 
Political Passing-bell," a Parody on 
Gray's "Elegy," Boston, 1789: — 

That mob of mobs, a caucus, to command. 

Hurl wild dissension round a maddening land. 

There is, however, another theory as 
to the origin of the term. About 1724 
Henry Adams, father of Samuel Adams, 
in company with some friends, mostly 
sea-captains, shipwrights, and persons 
otherwise connected with the shipping 
interest, which was then very power- 
ful, founded a political club in Boston, 
designed " to lay plans for introducing 
certain persons mto places of trust and 
power." This institution was known as 
"the calkers' club," and the term "cau- 
cus " may have been derived therefrom. 

Caudlne Forks. (Furcula Caudiniz.) 
Two high, narrow, and wooded mountain 
gorges near the town of Caudium, in 
ancient Samnium, on the boundary 
toward Campania. These gorges are 
celebrated on account of the defeat here 
suffered by the Romans in the second 
Samnite war (321 B. c). 

Cauliflowers, The. A nickname by 
which the Forty-seventh Regiment is 
known throughout the English service. 
It is also called " Lancashire Lads," in 
allusion to the place of recruitment. 
'* Causa causans. (Lat.) " The cause 
causing." The great First Cause ; the 
Supreme Being. 

Causa sine qua non. (Lat.) An 
indispensable cause. 

Cause c61ebre. (Fr.) A remarkable 
trial in a court of justice. 

Causeur. (Pseud.) William Alfred 
Hovey, in the "Evening Transcript," 
Boston, circa 1880. 

Cautionary Towns. Four towns in 
Holland — the Briel, Flushing, Ram- 
mekins, and Walcheren — were so 
named because they were given to 
Queen Elizabeth in 1585 as security for 
their repaying her for assistance in 
their struggle with Spain. They were 
restored to the Dutch Republic by 
James I. in 1616, although only a por- 
tion of the sum advanced was refunded. 

Caution Money. A sum of fifteen 
pounds paid before entering Oxford or 
Cambridge Universities, by way of se- 
curity. This money is deducted from 
the account of the last term, when only 
the balance has to be paid. 

Cavalazzi, Madame. The stage- 
name of Mrs. Charles Mapleson, a 
famous danseuse. 

Cavalier, The. (i) Eon de Beaumont, 
French soldier (fl.1728-1810). (2) Charles 
Breydel, the Flemish landscape painter 
(fl. 1677-1744). (3) Francesco Cairo, the 
historian (fl. 1598-1674). (4) Jean Le 
Clerc (fl. 1587-1633). (5) Jean Baptiste 
Marini, Italian poet (fl. 1569-1625). 
(6) Andrew Michael Ramsay (fl. 1686- 


Cavaliers. The royalist party during 
the civil war in England. The Parlia- 
mentarians were nicknamed Round- 
heads {g. v.). 

Cavatina. (Ital.) An air having one 
movement or part only, generally pre- 
ceded by a recitative. 

Caveat actor. (Lat.) Let the doer 

Caveat creditor. (Lat.) Let the 
creditor beware, or be on his guard. 

Caveat emptor. This is a Latin 
phrase, signifying "Let the purchaser 
beware, or take care of himself." It 
was formerly held that a buyer must be 
bound by a bargain under all circum- 
stances. Chief-Justice Tindal, in giving 
judgment in the case Brown v. Edging- 
ton (2 Scott N. R. 504), modified this 
ancient rule. He said : " If a man pur- 
chases goods of a tradesman without 
in any way relying upon the skill and 
judgtnent of the vendor, the latter is 
not responsible for their turning out 
contrary to his expectation ; but if the 
tradesman be informed, at the time the 



order is given, of the purpose for which 
the article is wanted, the buyer relying 
upon the seller's judgment, the latter 
impliedly warrants that the thing fur- 
nished shall be reasonably fit and proper 
for the purposes for which it is re- 

Cavendish. (Pseud.) Henry Jones, 
M. R. C. S., Irish poet and dramatist 
(i 720-1 770). 

Cavendo tutus. (Lat.) Safe through 

Cave of Adullam. See Adullam- 


Caza de consolidacion. (Span.) 
The sinking fund. 

Caxtou Memorial Bible. An edi- 
tion printed in 1877, during the Caxton 
celebration in England, and which con- 
stituted one of the most remarkable 
mechanical feats of modern times. It 
was wholly printed and bound in twelve 
hours. Only a hundred copies were 
struck off. 

C. B. Cape Breton ; Communis ban- 
cus, Common Bench ; Companion of the 

C. C. Caius College; account cur- 
rent; County Commissioner; County 
Court ; cubic centimetre. 

C. C. A. Chief Clerk to the Admi- 

C. C. C. Corpus Christi College. 

C. C. P. Court of Common Pleas. 

C. D. V. Carie de visite. 

Cd. Cadmium. 

C. B. Canada East ; Civil Engineer. 

Ce. Cerium. 

Cecil. (Pseud.) William Hone, Eng- 
lish writer (i 779-1842). 

Cecil Davenant. (Pseud.) Rev. Der- 
went Coleridge in " Knight's Quarterly 

Cecil Iiaker. (Pseud.) Mrs. Har- 
riette Smith Bainbridge, an American 
contributor to periodical literature, and 
author of a volume of poems, " Irene 
Floss," 1878. 

Cecil Povrer. (Pseud.) Grant Al- 
len, naturalist and author (b. 1848). See 
J. Arbuthnot Wilson. 

Cecrops. In classical mythology the 
first king of Attica, an autochthon ; the 
upper part of his body being human, 
the lower part that of a dragon. 

Cedant arma togae. (Lat.) " Let 
arms yield to the gown." Let military 
authority yield to the civil power. 

Cede Deo. (Lat.) Submit to Provi- 

Cel., or Celt. Celtic. 

Celava sans dire. (Fr.) "That goes 
without saying." That requires no ex- 
planation ; that is imderstood ; of course. 

Cela viendra. (Fr.) " That will 
come." All in good time. 

Celeste. (Pseud.) Mrs. George C. 
[Bowlin Jenkins] Brown. 

Celestial City. Heaven is so named 
by Bunyan in the " Pilgrim's Progress." 

Celestial Bmpire. A popular desig- 
nation of the Chinese Empire, derived 
from the words Tien Chan (heavenly 
dynasty), implying that the kingdom is 
swayed by rulers appointed by Heaven. 
But the right of the emperor to the 
throne as the Tien Tze (son of heaven) 
can only be established by good gov- 
ernment, t,--" 

Celestials, (i) The Chinese, because 
they call their country the Celestial 
Empire. (2) A nickname conferred on 
the Ninety-seventh English Regiment, 
and gained during its long service in 

Celestial T2Jle7rand. Marquis 
Tseng, the Chinese ambassador to 
France during the Tonquin troubles in 
1 883-1 884, was so named. 

Celestians. Followers of Celestius, 
disciple of Pelagius. Saint Jerome 
calls him "a blockhead swollen with 
Scotch pottage." 

Celestines. A religious order founded 
in 1254 by Pietro Morone, afterward 
Pope Celestine V., and suppressed in 

CeUa. (Pseud.) Mrs. C. M. Bur- 
leigh, in the Western press. 

Celtic Homer. Ossian, son of Fin- 
gal, king of Morven. 

Ce n'est que le premier pas qui 
coHte. (Fr.) It is only the first step 
which is painful, or costs an effort. 

Cenobites. Monks, because they 
live in common. Hermits and ancho- 
rites are not cenobites, since they live 

Censor. (Pseud.) Oliver Bell Bunce, 
in "Don't: a Manual of Mistakes and 
Improprieties," New York, 1883. 

Cent. Centigrade, a scale of one 
hundred degrees from freezing to boil- 

Centaur. (Pseud.) Charles Sass m 
the " Mail and Express," New York. 



Centaurs. In classical mythology 
a fabulous people of Thessaly, half men 
and half horses. 

Centennial State. Colorado ; it was 
admitted to the Union in 1876, the one 
hundredth year of American indepen- 

Cento. (Pseud.) Philip Millington. 

Century "White. John White (fl. 
1 590-1 645), the nonconformist jurist, so 
named from his great work, " The First 
Century of Scandalous and Malignant 
Priests made and admitted into Bene- 
fices by the Prelates." 

Cerberus. In classical mythology a 
dog with three heads, a serpent's tail, 
and a snaky mane, who guarded the 
gates of Hades so effectually that none 
who entered could make their exit 
thence. Hercules overpowered him and 
brought him away. 

Cerberus. (Pseud.) Nathan Haskell 
Dole, dramatic critic on the Philadel- 
phia " Press." 

Cerdonians. A sect of heretics, es- 
tablished by Cerdon of Syria, who lived 
in the time of Pope Hyginus, and main- 
tained the errors of the Manichees. 

Ceremonious, The. Peter IV. of Ara- 

Ceres. In classical mjrthology the 
daughter of Saturn and Ops, sister of 
Jupiter, Pluto, Neptune, Juno, and. Vesta, 
mother of Proserpine, and the goddess 
of the harvest, corn, and flowers. 

Cerinthians. Disciples of Cerinthus, 
a heresiarch of the first century. They 
denied the divinity of Christ, but held 
that a certain virtue descended into him 
at baptism, which filled him with the 
Holy Ghost. 

Cert. Certify. 

Certif. Certificate. 

Certiorari. (Lat.) To be made more 

Cesarevritch. The name (pronounced 
Zar'o-vitz) of an English turf stake in- 
stituted and named in honor of the eld- 
est son of the Emperor of Russia. 

Cessio bonarum. (Lat.) Yielding up 
of goods. 

C'est a dire. (Fr.) " That is to say." 

C'est une autre chose. (Fr.) That 
is quite a different thing. 

Cf., or cf. Confer. Compare. 

C. G. Commissary-General ; Consul- 

C. G. H. Cape of Good Hope. 

C. H. Court-house. 

Ch. Church ; chapter | Charles. 

Chacun k son go&t. (Fr.) Every one 
to his taste. 

Chad. (Pseud.) Henry Chadwick, an 
American writer on sport. 

Chal. Chaldron. 

Chald. Chaldea; Chaldean; Chaldaic. 

Chalk for Cheese. In Nicholas Gri- 
nald's " Translation of Cicero," pub- 
lished in 1568, there is an address to 
the reader, in which the following words 
occur : " and wanting the right rule, 
they take chalke for cheese, as the 
sainge is." 

Chalking the Door. In Scotland a 
landlord gives his tenant notice to quit 
by "chalking the door." The "chalk- 
ing " is done by a " burgh officer," upon 
the verbal authority of the landlord. It 
is usual, though not necessary, for the 
officer to give notice to the tenant of 
the object of his visit. 

Cham. (Pseud.) Amed^e de Noe, a 
French caricaturist (1819-1879). 

Cham. See Great Cham. 

Chambre Ardente. (Fr., "the fiery 
chamber.") The name in France for 
a peculiar court of justice, probably so 
called on account of the unusual se- 
verity of the punishments it meted out, 
death by fire being the most frequent 

In the year 1535 Francis I. established an In- 
quisitorial Tribunal and a Chambre Ardente. 
Both were intended for the extirpation of heresy. 
The former, of which the pope was a corre- 
sponding member, searched out by means of 
spies cases of heresy, and instructed the pro- 
cesses ; while the latter both pronounced and 
executed the final judgment. Under Henry II. 
the activity of the Chambre Ardente received a 
new impulse, — the entrance of that monarch 
into Paris on the 4th of July, 1559. By and 
by, the Chambre Ardente relaxed its penalties, 
and a cry was got up among the more bigoted 
Roman Catholics that it was conniving at heresy. 
This seems to have roused the " lurking devil " 
in its members ; and in order to wipe away the 
reproach, they commenced a series of unheard-of 
cruelties, which, along with other events, con- 
tributed to originate the religious war of 1560. 
— Chambers. 

Chambre Introuvable. (Fr., "unfind- 
able chamber," — i.e., the chamber the 
like of which is not to be found again.) 
" The name sarcastically given to that 
Chamber of Deputies in France which 
met after the second return of Louis 
XVIII. (July, 181 J), and which by its 
fanatical royalty began to throw the 



country and society anew into commo- 
tion. The former chamber, which had 
shown much moderation, had been dis- 
solved under the influence of the court 
party, and the ministry, led by Talley- 
rand, had done everything to procure 
for the ruling party at least a man- 
ageable chamber adapted for business. 
The number of the deputies was arbi- 
trarily raised from two hundred and 
fifty-nine to three hundred and ninety- 
two ; and to secure the victory of a 
complete restoration, all rushed forward 
who saw in the constitutional charter 
an encroachment on their privileges and 
pretensions. When it is considered, in 
addition, that the elections — at least in 
the departments of the south — took 
place under terror and the sanguinary 
outrages of a populace in a state of 
political and religious excitement, that 
the press was stifled, and the people de- 
prived of all freedom of expression by 
the foreign armies, ultra-royalism could 
not fail to be completely triumphant. 
When the ministers saw this startling 
result they did not venture to open the 
session ; they resigned, and gave place 
to the Richelieu ministry. Then broke 
out the most frightful excesses in the 
southern provinces. At the elections in 
Nimes (August 22) more than one hun- 
dred persons were killed by the royalist 
bands. At last, on October 7, the king 
opened the chamber, on which he en- 
joined quietness and moderation ; and it 
appeared as if it did take this advice to 
heart for an instant. But when, in one 
of the first sittings, Boyer d'Argenson 
asked for the intervention of the cham- 
ber in behalf of the Protestants, who 
were being slaughtered in the south by 
the ultra-royalist bands, the speaker was 
called to order, and the chamber from 
that time ceased to observe any bounds 
or moderation. The fanatical legislation 
of this chamber inspired the ministers, 
the king, and especially the Emperor 
Alexander, with so much aversion and 
apprehension, and also met so decidedly 
with the disapprobation of all peaceful 
and sincere friends of the throne, that 
the news of its dissolution, on April 5, 

1816, was received with universal re- 
joicing. The electoral law of Feb. j, 

1817, prevented the return of a simi- 
lar chamber ; and it was not till by the 
modified electoral law of 1820 that ultra- 
royalism regained a predominating influ- 
ence in Parliament. It is said that Louis 
XVIII. first used the epithet Chambre 

Introuvable in an ironical sense, and 
that the majority of the chamber took 
it seriously as a compliment." 

Champ. (Pseud.) The professional 
signature of J. W. Champney, the Amer- 
ican artist. 

Cbampion City. Springfield, Ohio, 
is so named. 

Champion of England. A dignitary 
who rides up Westminster Hall, Lon- 
don, on coronation day, and challenges 
any one who disputes the right of suc- 
cession. The office was established by 
William the Conqueror, and was given 
to Marmion and his male descendants, 
with the manor of " broad Scrivelsby." 
De Ludlow received the office and ma- 
nor through the female line ; and in the 
reign of Richard II. Sir John Dymoke 
succeeded, and since then the ofiice has 
continued in that family. 

Champion of the Virgin. Saint Cyril 
of Alexandria. See Doctor of the In- 

Champion of the Whistle. A great 
toper. There is a story told of a gigan- 
tic Dane who came from Denmark in 
the retinue of the Princess Anne, when 
she married James VI. of Scotland. He 
had an ebony whistle, which at the be- 
ginning of a carouse he would lay on 
the table, and whoever was last able to 
blow it — i, e., whoever was the last man 
to get- "whistle drunk" — was consid- 
ered the " champion of the whistle." Sir 
Robert Laurie, of Maxwellton, defeated 
the Dane, after a drinking-bout which 
lasted three days and three nights, and 
carried off the whistle as a prize. See 
Whistle Drunk. 

Chanc. Chancellor. 

Changer de note. (Fr.) To turn over 
a new leaf. 

Channel Archipelago. Another name 
for the Channel Islands, — Jersey, Guern- 
sey, Alderney, and Sark, besides a mul- 
titude of rocky islets. 

Chanson. (Fr.) A song. 

Chansonette. (Fr.) A little song. 

Chant du dfepart. After the " Mar- 
seillaise " this was the most celebrated 
song of the French Revolution. It was 
written by Chenier for a festival, held 
June 1 1, I75[4, to commemorate the taking 
of the Bastile. The music is by Mehul. 
A mother, an old man, a child, a wife, a 
girl, and three warriors sing a verse in 

Chap. Chapter. 



Chap. An abbreviation of the word 
" chapman," one who sells in a cheap- 
ing or market. Todd says : " If the 
phrase be 'a good chap,' it implies a 
dealer to whom credit may be given ; 
if simply ' a chap,' it designates a per- 
son of whom a contemptuous opinion is 
entertained." The general application 
of the word to a boy or youth of infe- 
rior position is of modern usage. 

Chapeau. (Fr.) A hat. 

Chapelle Ardente. (Fr.) The place 
where a dead person lies in state. 

Chaperon. This word is frequently 
incorrectly spelled chaperone. The word 
is not feminine, although it is generally 
applied to a lady. It means a hood, and 
when used metaphorically signifies that 
the married lady shields her youthful 
firoUgie as the hood shields the face. 
The word " chaperoness " is used in the 
" Devil's Law Cure," a play written about 
the year 1620. 

Chapter and Verse. "The prover- 
bial expression of 'chapter and verse' 
seems peculiar to ourselves, and I sus- 
pect originated in the Puritanic period, 
probably just before the civil wars un- 
der Charles I., from the frequgnt use of 
appealing to the Bible on the most frivo- 
lous occasions practised by those whom 
South calls ' those mighty men at chap- 
ter and verse.' " — Disraeli, Curiosi- 
ties of Literature. 

Chapter of Mitton. The battle of 
Mitton was so called because so many 
priests took part therein. Hailes says 
that " three hundred ecclesiastics fell in 
this battle, which was fought Sept. 20, 

Charbonnerie D^mocratique. Anew 
Carbonari society, founded in Paris on 
the principles of Babeuf. The object 
was to make Paris the centre of all polit- 
ical movements. 

Charg^ d'affaires. (Fr.) An ambas- 
sador of second rank. 

Charles Ardesier-Macdonald. The 
pen-name of Andrew H. K. Boyd in his 
contributions circa i860 in " Fraser's 
Magazine " entitled " Recreations of a 
Country Parson." 

Charles Barron. The stage-name of 
Charles Brown. 

Charles Broadbent. (Pseud.) Charles 
G. Halpine, as associate editor of the 
"Carpet-bag," about 1852. 

Charles Burton. The stage-name of 
A. Burton Chadwick. 

Charles Egbert Craddock. The pen- 
name of Miss Mary Noailles Murfree, 
a favorite contributor to the " Atlantic " 
for several years, and to which she con- 
tributed her sketches of Tennessee life, 
since gathered into book form with the 
title " In the Tennessee Mountains." 
She was born at Murfreesboro', Tenn. 

Charles Holmes. (Pseud.) Charles 
NordhofE, in " Harper's Magazine." 

Charles M. Clay. The pen-name of 
Mrs. Charles Moon Clarke, an American 

Charles Summerfield. (Pseud.) A.W. 
Arrington, litterateur and traveller (b. 

Charles Wilford. The stage-name of 
Charles W. Dukes. 

Charlies. An old name for the watch- 
men who preceded the present police- 
men of London. So named from Charles 
I., in whose reign they were reorgan- 

Charlotte Dacre. (Pseud.) Mrs. Char- 
lotte Dacre Byrne. 

Charlotte Elizabeth. (Pseud.) Mrs. 
Charlotte E. [Brown] Tonna, novelist 
(i 792-1846). 

Charlotte Thompson. The stage- 
name of Mrs. Lorain Rogers. 

Charon. In classical mythology son 
of Erebus and Nox, who ferried the 
souls of the dead across the river Styx. 
He is always depicted as an aged per- 

Charon's Toll. A coin placed in the 
mouth or hand or on the eyes of the 
dead, to pay Charon for ferrying the 
spirit across the Styx to the Elysian 

Chartist Parson. Charles Kingsley 
was so named for his participation in 
the upward movement of the masses 
known in England as Chartism. He 
subsequently adopted the epithet as a 
pen-name to several magazine articles. 

Charybdis. See Scylla and Cha- 


Chasse. (Fr.) In the hunting style. 

Chaste, The. Alfonso II., king of As- 
turias and Leon (758-842).' 

Chateaux en Espagne. Castles in 
the air; something that exists only in 
the imagination. In Spain there are no 

Chat-Huant. (Pseud.) E. F. S. Pigott, 
in his paper, the " London Leader." 



Chatty BrookB. (Pseud.) Miss Ro- 
sella Rice, in " Arthur's Magazine." 

Chauviniame, Chauviniste. (Fr.) 
Chauvin was the principal character in 
a French comedy which was played 
with immense success at the epoch of 
the Restoration. Since then a chauvi- 
niste has come to mean a man who has 
extravagant and narrow-minded ideas 
of patriotism accompanied with unrea- 
soning enmity toward foreign peoples. 

Che. (Ital.) Than ; as poco piii che 
andante, rather slower than andante. 

Cheddar Letter. A letter written by 
the contribution of several friends, each 
furnishing a paragraph. In Cheddar, 
Somersetshire, England, all the dairies 
contribute to make a cheese, which is 
thus sure to be made of quite fresh 
milk. The phrase " Cheddar letter " is 
used by Lord Bolingbroke in a letter to 

Cheers but not inebriates. Cowper 
used this phrase in reference to tea, but 
it had been previously applied by Bishop 
Berkeley to tar-water. In the 21 7th para- 
graph of his work " Siris " he says that 
tar-water "is of a nature so mild and 
benign and proportioned to the human 
constitution, as to warm without heat- 
ing, to cheer but not inebriate, and to 
produce a calm and steady joy, like the 
effect of good news." 
Cheese. See Quite the Cheese. 
Cheese-paring. A word used to char- 
acterize the kind of national economy 
advocated by some public men who 
would effect a saving in places where 
justice and foresight demand liberality, 
while the amount so saved would be 
insignificant. Examples of this are op- 
position to steps for increasing the sal- 
aries of judges in cities, or reductions 
of the salaries of foreign ministers who 
must in their persons represent the Gov- 

Cheese-wring, The. A fanciful appel- 
. lation given to a pile of eight stones, 
thirty-two feet high, in Cornwall, Eng- 
land. So named from their resemblance 
to a cheese-press. They are probably a 
freak of Nature. 

Chef-de-bataUlon. (Fr.) " Chief of 
batallion." A major. 

Chef-de-cuisine. '(Ft.) "Chief of 
kitchen." Head-cook. 

Chef-de-mission. (Fr.) "Chief of 
mission." The head of an embassy. 

Chef-de-poUoe. (Fr.) " Chief of po- 
lice." The head of the police. 

Chef-d'oeuvre. (Fr.) A masterpiece. 

Chelsea. (Pseud.) Charles A. Nel- 
son, Boston correspondent of the Chi- 
cago " Bookseller and Stationer," i88'?- 

Chem. Chemistry. 

Ch^re amie. (Fr., fem.) " Dear 
friend." A dear friend ; a mistress. 

Cherokee Outlet, or Cherokee Strip. 
The " Cherokee Outlet " is a narrow 
strip of land, situated at the northwest- 
ern end of the Indian Territory, about 
60 miles wide and 230 miles long. It 
embraces an area of 6,022,244 acres. Its 
surface is rolling, with no great eleva- 
tions, and it is watered by the Cimarron 
River and the Salt Fork of the Arkansas 
River. Its luxurious and rich grasses 
furnish excellent food, and its broad 
prairies and plains extensive ranges for 
stock. With suflBcient rainfall or proper 
irrigation, its naturally fertile lands for 
farming purposes will rival any else- 

Cherokee War. Early in "the thir- 
ties " troubles arose with the Chero- 
kees of Georgia, the most civilized and 
tractable of the native tribes. They 
possessed towns, schools, and a code 
of their own, and had adopted to a 
great extent the manners and customs 
of the whites. But their lands were de- 
sired, and the United States Govern, 
ment had pledged itself to Georgia to 
purchase their territory for the benefit 
of the State. This promise was not car. 
ried out. The authorities of the State 
grew tired of waiting, and so declared 
the Indian territory subject to the laws 
of the State, and their own code null 
and void. This act was declared uncon- 
stitutional by the United States Su- 
preme Court. The Indians appealed to 
the President for help; but he refused 
to interfere, and recommended their re- 
moval west of the Mississippi, and for 
this purpose the Indian Territory was 
organized in 1834. Although more than 
five million dollars was paid them for 
their lands, the Indians yielded very re- 
luctantly, and at last General Scott was 
detailed to remove them to the new 
territory, using force if needful, and in 
1837-1838 the final transfer of the In- 
dians was effected. 

Cheronean Sage. Plutarch ; he was 
born at Cheronea in Boeotia. 



Clierry Pairs. Meetings in " cherry 
orchards " for the young and gay on 
Sunday evenings, — not to buy and sell 
cherries, but to enjoy themselves. The 
"cherry orchards" did not necessarily 
grow cherries, but were similar to what 
the English call tea-gardens, where, by 
the way, little tea is ever sold. 

They prechen us in audience 

That no man schalle hys soule empeyre, 

For all is but a chery fayre. 


Cherry-pickers, or Cherry-buns. A 

nickname for the crack Eleventh Regi- 
ment of the English army, in allusion 
to the color of their trousers. 

Cherry Valley Massacre. " On the 
nth and 12th of November, 1778, a 
party of Tories under Walter N. Butler, 
accompanied by Indians under Brant, 
fell like lightnmg upon the settlement 
of Cherry Valley. Many of the people 
were killed, or carried into captivity ; 
and for months no eye was closed in 
security at night within an area of a 
hundred miles and more around this 
desolate village. Tryon County, as that 
region of New York was then called, 
was a ' dark and bloody ground ' for 
full four years, and the records of the 
woes of the people have filled volumes." 

Chersonese. See Golden Cherson- 

Cherubims. The Eleventh Hussars 
of the British army are so called, by a 
bad pun, because their trousers are of a 
cherry color. 

Ches, Chesapeake. 

Che sar^, sar4. (Ital.) Whatever will 
be, will be. 

Cheshire Cats. The nickname of 
the Twenty-second Regiment of the 
line (English). 

Chester. (Pseud.) William Broome, 
Enghsh poet and divine (1694-1745). 

Chevalier de Saint George. James 
Francis Edward Stuart, the " Pretender," 
or the " Old Pretender" (i 688-1 765). 

Chevalier d'industrie. (Fr.) "Knight 
of industry." A swindler or sharper. 

Chevauz-de-frise.' "Horses of Fries- 
land." Beams filled with spikes to keep 
off horses. So called from their use in 
the siege of Groningen, Friesland, in 
1594. Somewhat similar engines had 
been used before, but were not called 
by the same name. In German they are 
" Spanish horsemen." 

Chi. China; Chinese. 

Chibiabos. The musician ; the har- 
mony of Nature personified. He teaches 
the birds to sing and the brooks to war- 
ble as they flow. " All the many sounds 
of Nature borrow sweetness from his 

Very dear to Hiawatha 
Was the gentle Chibiabos. . . . 
For his gentleness he loved him, 
And the magic of his singing. 

Longfellow, Hiawatha. 

Chic. Chicago. 

Chicago of the South. Atlanta, Ga. 

Child of Hale. John Middleton (b. 
1578), the famous English giant, was 
thus humorously nicknamed. His height 
was nine feet three inches. 

Chiliasts. Another word for Mille- 
narians ; those who believe that Christ 
will come again to this earth, and reign 
a thousand years in the midst of his 

Chiltern Hundreds. In former times 
the beech forests which covered the 
Chiltern Hills, in Buckinghamshire, Eng- 
land, were infested with robbers ; and 
in order to restrain them, and protect 
the peaceable inhabitants of the neigh- 
borhood from their inroads, it was usual 
for the crown to appoint an officer, who 
was called the Steward of the Chiltern 
Hundreds. The office, which has long 
ceased to serve its primary, now serves 
a secondary purpose. A member of the 
House of Commons cannot resign his 
seat unless disqualified either by the 
acceptance of a place of honor or profit 
under the crown, or by some other cause. 
Now the stewardship of the Chiltern 
Hundreds is held to be such a place, 
and is consequently applied for by, and 
granted, in the general case as a matter 
of course, to any member who wishes 
to resign. As soon as it is obtained it 
is again resigned, and is thus generally 
vacant when required for the purpose 
in question. When the Chiltern Hun- 
dreds are not vacant, however, the same 
purpose is served by the stewardship of 
the manors of East Hendred, Norths- 
head, and Hempholme. The practice 
of granting the Chiltern Hundreds for 
the above purpose began only about the 
year 1750. 

Chimaera. In classic mythology a 
fire-breathing dragon or monster that 
ravaged Lycia, and was killed by Belle- 

Chimborazo of Suicide. At one 
period the kingdom of Saxony was so 



named by a compiler of social statistics, 
who stated that the number of those 
who took their own lives was higher in 
Saxony than in any other country of 

Chimney-s^iveeps' Day. See May 

China, Birmingham of. See Bir- 
mingham OF China. 

China of Europe, The. " Austria is 
the China of Europe : despotism, fe- 
rocity, and immobility." — Mazzini. 

China's Sorrcw. The river Hoang- 
ho, or Yellow River, in China, has ob- 
tained this epithet from the fact that it 
not infrequently changes its course, 
causing great loss in property and much 
damage through inundations. 

Chincapiu. (Pseud.) W. R. Barber, 
in " Punchinello," New York. 

Chinese Gordon. Maj.-Gen. Charles 
George Gordon, C. B., R. E., an English 
soldier (b. 1833). He visited China in 
i860, where, by his bold and judicious 
conduct in supporting the Chinese Em- 
peror against the Taeping rebels, he 
earned the thanks of both England and 
China, as well as the above sobriquet. 
He was killed in the Soudan, 1884. 

Chink. Money; so called because 
it chinks or jingles in the purse. Thus, 
if a person is asked if he has money, he 
rattles that which he has in his purse 
or pocket. 

Have chinks in thy purse. — Tusser. 

Chip. The signature of Frank P. W. 
Bellew, American author and artist. 

Chiron. In classic mythology the 
wisest of all the Centaurs, skilled in 
music, medicine, and the chase. Jupi- 
ter placed him in the heavens as the 
constellation Sagittarius, " the Archer." 

Chi tace confessa. (Ital.) Silence 
is confession. 

Chloris. The Greek goddess of flow- 
ers, — the same as the Roman Flora. 

Choke-pear. An argument to which 
there is no answer. Robbers in Hol- 
land at one time made use of a piece of 
iron in the shape of a pear, which they 
forced into the mouth of their victim. 
On turning a key, a number of springs 
thrust forth points of iron in all direc- 
tions, so that the instrument of torture 
could never be taken out except by 
means of the key. 

Chollet. (Pseud.) Louise E. Fur- 
niss, in " Harper's Magazine." 

Chon. The Egyptian Hercules. 

Cbondaravali. In Hindu mythology 
the daughter of Vishnu. 

Chop Logic. To bandy words; to 

How now, how now, chop logic I What is this ? 
" Proud," and " I thank you," and " I thank you 

And yet ""not proud." 

Romeo and Juliet. 

Chopping and Changing. The word 
" chopping," in this familiar phrase, was 
probably originally " chapping," an old 
term for " dealing." The term "chap- 
man " is not yet quite extinct as a legal 
phrase; and the words "cheap, chepe, 
chipping, cheaping," all refer to market- 
ing, or jbuying and selling. 

Chores. A pure Americanism, nam- 
ing collectively the hundred and one 
odd jobs that need daily attendance 
about the house or farm. 

Chose qui platt est k demi vendue. 
(Fr.) A thing which pleases is already 
half sold. 

Chowder. The name and the dish 
come to us from Canada, the name be- 
ing a corruption of chaudiire (kettle), in 
which utensil is made this Norman 
variety of the Provencal bouillabaisse 
immortalized by Thackeray. 

Chr. Christ; Christian; Christopher. 

Chrisom Child. A child that dies 
within a month of its birth. So called 
because it is buried in the white cloth, 
anointed with chrism (oil and balm), 
worn at its baptism. 

He 's in Arthur's [Abraham's] bosom, it ever 
man went to Arthur's bosom. 'A made a liner 
end, and went away, an it had been any christom 
[chrisom] child. 'A parted just ... at turning 
o' the tide. (Quicldy's description of the death 
of Falstaff.) — Shakspeare, Henry V. 
Why, Mike 's a child to him . . a chrism child. 
Jean Ingelow, Brothers and a Sermon. 

Christabel. (Pseud.) Miss Mahony, 

Christendom. A term of wide appli- 
cation, in its modern meaning referring 
to all Christian countries. But Shak- 
speare uses it for Christian fellowship, 
or baptism : — 

By my Christendom, 
So I were out of prison and kept sheep, 
I should be as merry as the day is long. 
King John, act iv. 

Christendom, Key of. See Key of 

Christian Adam. (Pseud.) Carl 
Christian Thorvaldus Andersen, a Da- 
nish writer. 



Christian Attious. Reginald Heber, 
bishop of Calcutta, was so named (178-?- 
1826). ^ ' •^ 

Christian Cicero. Lucius Coelius 
Lactantius, a Christian Father (d. 330). 

Christianissimus Rex (Most Chris- 
tian King). The title conferred by Pope 
Paul II. on Louis XI. of France.* 

Christian Seneca. Bishop Hall, of 
Norwich (fl. 1 574-1656). 

Christine McKenzie. (Pseud.) Miss 
Annie Duffell, author of " In the 
Meshes," 1877. 

Christine Nilsson. The professional 
name of the Countess Casa Miranda, 
formerly Madame Rouzeaud, the famous 
prima donna. 

Christines. Supporters of the Queen 
Regent Christina against the Carlists in 
Spain during the war, 1 833-1 840. 

Christmas. The name Christmas 
arose from the fact that in the primi- 
tive Church an especial Mass — the 
" Mass of Christ " — was celebrated on 
that day. The other term which desig- 
nates this greatest of feasts of Christen- 
dom — " Christ-tide " — was coined by 
the Puritans, in order to avoid using the 
word "mass." The initial observance 
of the 25th of December is commonly 
ascribed to Julius, bishop of Rome, 
A. D. 337-352. Previous to his time the 
Eastern Church had kept the 6th of 
January in commemoration of both the 
birth and the baptism of our Lord. 
Singularly enough, before the end of the 
fourth century the East and the West 
had exchanged dates, the Western 
Church adopting January 6 as the anni- 
versary of Christ's baptism, and the 
Eastern Church keeping fioliday on De- 
cember 25 in honor of the Saviour's 
nativity. In common with many other 
Church red-letter days, the cause that 
influenced the fixing of the festival at 
this period was the fact that most of 
the heathen nations of Europe regarded 
the winter solstice as the time when 
Nature took on renewed life and vigor. 
At this part of the year, too, the sun is 
nearest the earth, and then occurred 
those hoary rites common among our 
rude ancestors, which had their origin 
in a species of sun-worship. The Ger- 
mans, when they were Christianized, 
had a festival at this time. Of course, 
December 25 is probably not the true 
date of Christ's birth, which cannot be 
ascertained from the New Testament 
nor from any other source. Nor for 

the first three centuries of our era was 
there any special observance of the fes- 
tival of the Nativity. It was not till 
220 A. D. that the Eastern Church com- 
memorated the baptism of Jesus, and it 
is historically certain that the Christmas 
festival proper is of comparatively late 
institution. Not until the sixth century 
did the whole of Christendom unite in 
keeping Christmas on the same day. 
The comparative lateness of the found- 
ing of this feast may be accounted for 
in a variety of ways. SchafE says that, 
in the first place, "no corresponding 
festival was presented by the Old Tes- 
tament, as in the case of Easter and 
Pentecost. In the second place, the 
day and month of the birth of Christ 
are nowhere stated in the Gospel his- 
tory, and cannot be certainly determined. 
Again, the Church lingered at first about 
the death and resurrection of Christ, the 
completed fact of redemption, and made 
this the centre of the weekly worship 
and the Church year. Finally, the ear- 
lier feast of Epiphany afforded a substi- 
tute. The artistic religious impulses, 
however, which produced the whole 
Church year must, sooner or later, have 
called into existence a festival which 
forms the groundwork of all other an- 
nual festivals in honor of Christ." As 
we have seen, the heathen winter holi- 
days — the Saturnalia, the Juvenalia, 
and the Brumalia — were transmuted 
into and sanctified by the establishment 
of the Christian cycle of Christmas 
obsefvg.nce, and along with them were 
brought over a number of harmless cus- 
toms, such as the giving of presents, 
the lighting of tapers, and so forth. 
Similarly, what has been called the 
Christmas cycle of festivals gradually 
attached itself to the observance of the 
Nativity of Christ. Beginning with 
Christmas Eve and ending with January 
8 (the Epiphany), it includes Saint Ste- 
phen's Day (December 26), Saint John's 
Day (December 27), Massacre of the 
Innocents (December 28), the New Year 
observances ; and the Baptism of Christ 
(January 6) — the present English 
Twelfth - Night, or Little Christmas. 
What may be termed the adjuncts of 
Christmas — the boar's head, the mince- 
pie, the yule-log, the Christmas-tree, the 
mistletoe and the holly, the carol and 
the Christmas-box, — the last two es- 
pecially cherished among our English 
kith and kin — are all, save the mmce- 
pie, of heathen parentage. The boar's 



head was originally esteemed " a dainty 
dish " fit " to set before a king," and it 
was deemed most proper to serve it up 
at the Christmas feast, which honored 
the birth of the King of kings. The 
smoking head was brought into the 
dining-hall ornamented with flowers and 
ribbons, an apple or an orange, stuck 
in its mouth; and when it appeared 
the company received the " monarch of 
dishes" standing, while a Latin ode 
was chanted in its honor. Mince-pies 
were probably of partial Christian ori- 
gin, at least, though they too may have 
been a remnant of the cakes consumed 
in such large quantities at the Roman 
winter sports. In time they came to be 
made in oblong form, like the shape of 
a manger ; and the eating of them was a 
test of orthodoxy, seeing that the Puri- 
tans considered them to be a relic of 
Popery, and would not touch them. 
The dressing of houses and churches 
with evergreens, holly, and mistletoe 
is a relic of customs as old as the Dru- 
idic worship. The last-named plant was 
regarded as sacred by those ancient 
worshippers of the groves. Although the 
custom of kissing under the mistletoe- 
bough is mentioned in the very old- 
est English and German annals, its ori- 
gin is lost in the darkness of antiquity. 
The Christmas-tree is of German birth, 
and dates back to the practice of the 
early Christian missionaries to that peo- 
ple. In order to convert th e barbarians, 
they invested Christmas-tide with all 
manner of merry-making and songs, and 
adopted bodily the German custom of 
placing a green bush over the door of 
each hut at the mid-winter festival. 
The " Christmas box," equivalent to the 
Scottish " hansel," a present of money 
to children or dependants, is another 
observance of this convivial season de- 
rived from the Roman custom of mak- 
ing presents at that time ; while, of 
course, our own habit of making gifts 
to friends is a scion from the same root. 
The yule-log (from huel, a wheel) is a 
survival of the sun-worship of our an- 
cestors. The luminary was termed 
" the fire-wheel ; " and the burning of 
the yule, peculiar to the English Christ- 
mas from time immemorial, recalls the 
fact by which they sought to typify the 
coming return of the warmth of spring 
and summer. The Christmas carol, 
which grew out of the Nativity hymns 
of the early Christians, was at one time 
prohibited by the clergy, on account of 

the license to which it gave rise. Un- 
der the Saxon kings the singing of 
carols formed an important part of the 
day's observance ; but in 1642 the Puri- 
tans abolished them, and substituted 
psalm tunes. It only remains to men- 
tion the patron saint of Christmas, — the 
good Saint Nicholas, — the Santa Claus 
of the Germans and the Kris Kringle 
of the Dutch. Saint Nicholas was a 
saint of the primitive Church, the espe- 
cial friend of children ; and his festival 
was kept in Germany about December 6 
with joyful games and ceremonies. As 
time passed, the celebration of Saint 
Nicholas' Day and of Christ's Nativity 
became merged in each other. Christ- 
mas Day is a legal holiday in all the 
United States. 

Christmas Box. A small gratuity 
given to English servants, etc., on Box- 
mg Day (the day after Christmas Day). 
In the early days of Christianity boxes 
were placed in churches for prom.iscuous 
charities, and opened on Christmas Day. 
The contents were distributed next day 
by the priests, and called the " dole of 
the Christmas box," or the "box money." 
It was customary for heads of houses 
to give small sums of money to their 
subordinates " to put into the box " be- 
fore mass on Christmas Day. Some- 
what later, apprentices earned a box 
round to their masters' customers for 
small gratuities. 

Christmas of the Gentiles. See 

Chrlstolytes. A sect of Christians 
which appeared in the sixth century. 
They maintained that when Christ de- 
scended into hell he left his soul and 
body there, and rose only with his heav- 
enly nature. 

Christopher Caustic. (Pseud.) Thom- 
as Green Fessenden, American satirical 
poet (1 771-1837). 

Christopher Crowfield. (Pseud.) 
Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, American 
authoress (b. 1812). 

Christopher North. (Pseud.) John 
Wilson, Scottish critic and poet (1785- 

Chron. Chronicles. 

Chronogram, The. One of the sim- 
plest devices of the word-juggler, and 
as old as the Romans. It consists 
in selecting certain letters indicating a 
date from a name or an mscription on 
a tomb, an arch, or a medal, printing 



them larger than the others, and obtain- 
ing thereby a date which is regarded as 
an augury. In some chronograms only 
the initial letters are counted as form- 
ing the solution of the puzzle, but in 
others all the characters used for Ro- 
man numerals are taken into account. 
History supplies many first-rate chron- 
ograms ; in fact, it was once the cus- 
tom to strike medals with chronogramic 
sentences, in which the date of the oc- 
casion commemorated was set forth by 
the letters selected. Thus, on a medal 
struck by Gustavus Adolphus is the 
chronogram, "ChrIstVs DVX; ergo 
trIVMphVs," — "Christ our Leader; 
therefore triumphant," — the numerals 
serving to indicate the date of the 
medal (1632), in which year occurred 
one of his famous victories. Another 
is made from the Latinized name of 
George Villiers, first Duke of Buck- 
ingham : " georgI Vs. DVX. bVCk- 
IngaMI^." The date MDCXVVVIII 
(1628) is that of the year in which the 
duke was murdered by Felton at Ports- 
mouth. Queen Elizabeth died in the 
year 1603, and the following chrono- 
gram relating to that' event has come 
down to us: "My Day Is Closed In 
Immortality." This is a "perfect" 
chronogram, because initials only are 
used to make up the date (1603). 

Chrononhotonthologos. A nickname 
bestowed on General Burgoyne, because 
of a pompous speech made to the In- 
dians during the Revolutionary War. 

Chrysotome Dagobert. (Pseud.) 
Jean Baptiste Alphonse Led'huy, French 

Chrystal Croftangry. (Pseud.) Sir 
Walter Scott, Scottish novelist (1771- 

Churches, Mother of all the. See 

Mother of all the Churches. 

Churches, Seven. See Seven 
Churches of Asia. 

Chute. A stream of water suddenly 
hemmed in between high and narrow 
banks, and thereby forced to reach a 
lower level with more or less velocity. 
In "mining parlance the name is given 
to an artificial stream of water confined 
within narrow limits. See Flume. 

Cic. Cicero. 

Cicerone. (Ital.) A guide. 

Cicero of France. Jean Baptiste Mas- 
sillon (1663-1742)- 

Cicero of Germany, (i) Johann III., 
Elector of Brandenburg (1455-1499). 
(2) Johann Sturm, printer and scholar 

Cicero of the British Senate. George 
Canning (i 770-1 827). 

Cicero's Month. Philippe Pot (1428- 
1494), prime minister to Louis XI. of 
France, was thus nicknamed on account 
of his eloquence. 

Cicisbeo. A dangler about women ; 
the professed gallant of a married wo- 
man. Cicisbeism, the practice of dan- 
gling about women. 

Ciclenius. Mercury. So called from 
Mount Cyllene, in Peloponnesus, where 
he was born. 

Cid. (Arabic for "lord.") DonRode- 
rigo Laynez, Ruy Diaz (son of Diaz), 
count of Bivar. He was called " Mio cid 
el campeador," — "My lord the cham- 
pion " (1025-1099). 

Ci-devant. (Fr.) Former; formerly. 

Cid of Portugal. Nunez Alvarez Pere- 
ira, the famous diplomatist (1360-1431). 

Ci-glt. (Fr.) Here lies. 

Cimmerian Bosphorus. An ancient 
name for the Strait of Kaffa. 

Cimmerian Darkness. Homer sup- 
poses the Cimmerians to dwell in a land 
"beyond the ocean-stream," where the 
sun never shone. 

Cimmerians. In classic mythology 
a people, according to the Homeric 
legends, who dwell " beyond the ocean 
stream," in a land where the sun never 
shines and where the blackest darkness 
always prevails. 

Cin. Cincinnati. 

Cincinnatus. (Pseud.) William Plu- 
mer, a voluminous newspaper contrib- 

Cincinnatus of the Americans. 
George Washington (l 732-1 799)- 

Cincinnatus of the West. William 
Henry Harrison. 

" It is narrated by an ancient historian, though 
the story is discredited by modern Mies, that on 
an occasion when Rome was in great danger, and 
Lucius Quintius Cincinnatus had been made dic- 
tator to deliver her from danger, the message of 
his appointment found him at the plough. It is 
in allusion to this that William Henry Harrison 
was spoken of as the ' Cincinnatus of the West ' 
when he was called to the presidency from his 
estate on the Ohio River." 

Cinna. (Pseud.) Robert Baldwin Sul- 
livan, contributor to various Canadian 
journals, circa 1833. 



Cinquecento. The fifteenth centuiy 
of Italian notables. They were Ari- 
osto (1474-1533), Tasso (IS44-IS95). and 
Giovanni Rucellai (1475-1526), poets; 
Raphael (1483-1520), Titian (1480-1576), 
and Michael Angelo (1474-1 564), paint- 
ers. These, with Macchiavelli, Luigi 
Alamanni, Bernardo Baldi, etc., make 
up what is termed the " Cinquecentesti." 
The word means the worthies of the 
'500 epoch, and they all flourished be- 
tween 1 500 and the close of that century. 

Cipher Despatches. " The presiden- 
tial election of 1876 was long doubtful ; 
the change of a single electoral vote 
would have turned the result. After the 
election a number of cipher despatches 
were discovered, which on translation 
proved to have been sent by persons 
closely identified with Samuel J. Tilden, 
relating to corrupt agreements for the 
purchase of electoral votes in Florida 
and Oregon for the Democratic party. 
The allegations were investigated by 
a congressional committee, which con- 
cluded that while at least one of the 
Florida Canvassing Board was purchas- 
able, still that Tilden was not impli- 
cated in any attempts to purchase him, 
even if these were made. The minor- 
ity report, being that of the Republican 
members of the investigating commit- 
tee, concluded that the charges of cor- 
ruptibility on the part of members of 
canvassing boards were 'but the slan- 
ders of foiled suborners of corruption.' 
They regarded the proofs of attempted 
corruption as conclusive, and did not 
hesitate to indicate their belief that Til- 
den had knowledge of the matter. In 
a card dated Oct. 16, 1878, Tilden de- 
nied in most emphatic terms all con- 
nection with the matter." — Brown and 

Giro. Circuit. 

Circe. In classic mythology a daugh- 
ter of Sol, and a famous sorceress, who 
attracted numbers of persons to her 
abode and then changed them into vari- 
ous animal shapes. 

Circle of Ulloa. A white rainbow 
or luminous ring sometimes seen in Al- 
pine regions opposite the sun in foggy 

Circumlocution Office. A popular 
synonym for governmental routine or 
bureaucratic red tape, or a dilatory, 
round-about way of doing business. 
Dickens coined the phrase in his " Lit- 
tle Dorrit." 

Cistercians. A religious order, so 
called from the monastery of Cister- 
cium, near Dijon, in France. The abbey 
of Cistercium or Citeaux was founded 
by Robert, abbot of Moleme, in Bur- 
gundy, at the close of the eleventh cen- 

Cit. Citation ; citizen. 

Cities of the Plain. Another name 
for Sodom and Gomorrah, chief of those 
five cities which, according to the com- 
monly received account, were destroyed 
by fire from heaven, and their sites 
overwhelmed by the waters of the Dead 

Cities, Queen of. See Queen of 

Citizen King. Louis Philippe of 
France (i 773-1 850). So named because 
he was elected king by the citizens of 

Cito maturum, cito patridum. (Lat.) 
Soon ripe, soon rotten. 

City by the Sea. Newport, R. I., a 
famous and fashionable summer resort. 

City Golgotha, The. An old name 
for Temple Bar, London. So named 
because the heads of traitors were im- 
paled thereon. 

City of Beer and Bricks. Milwau- 
kee, Wis. 

City of Brotherly Love. Philadel- 
phia, Penn. It is the meaning of the 
name {ipiKaSe\cj>ia) in Greek. 

City of Churches. Brooklyn, N.Y. So 
named because of the many churches it 
contains in proportion to its size and 
population ; but according to the census 
of 1880 it seems that Brookljm has no 
primary right to the title on the grounds 
stated above. The following table shows 
the rank of eight of the leading cities of 
the Union as a " city of churches," and 
establishes the right of Cincinnati to the 
first place, while Brooklyn falls to the 


New York . 
Philadelphia . 
Brooklyn . . 
Chicagro . . 
BostoQ . . . 
Cincinnati . . 
San Francisco 
New Orleans . 



No. Of 


Persons to 
a Church. 


of the 










City of David. Jerusalem. So named 
by King David, who captured it from the 
Canaanites, 1049 b. c. 

City of Blms. New Haven, Conn., 
whose streets are shaded by many of 
these noble trees. 



City of Flour and Sawdust. Min- 
neapolis, Minn. 

City of HiUs. Yonkers, N. Y. 

City of Homes. Philadelphia, Penn. 
So named on account of the large num- 
ber of private dwellings it contains, and 
the almost total absence of tenement- 

City of Intelligence. A name given 
by its inhabitants to the city of Berlin. 

City of Magnificent Distances. 
Washington, D. C, the political capital 
of the United States, the plan of which, 
designed by an architect named L'En- 
fant, is conceived on an exceedingly 
broad and generous scale, showing an 
anticipation of a great metropolis. Its 
plot extends 4^ miles northwest and 
southeast, and 2^ miles northeast and 
southwest, an area of nearly eleven 
square miles ; and the streets, cutting 
each other at right angles, are of noble 

City of Masts. London, England. 
So named from the spectacle presented 
by its vast array of shipping. 

City of Men and Ideas. Atlanta, Ga. 

City of Mobs. Baltimore, Md. So 
named in allusion to the mobbing of the 
Massachusetts Sixth Regiment on its 
way to the front in i86r. 

City of Notions. Boston, Mass., the 
home of " notions," — i. e., articles of all 
kinds, trifling in size and ■ra.lue, but for 
which there is a large sale. 

City of Palaces, (i) Rome. Agrippa 
converted it from " a city of brick huts 
to one of marble palaces." (2) Modern 
Paris has been so named, and justly. 
(3) Calcutta, the capital of British India, 
from the large number of elegant Euro- 
pean residences. Black Town, the na- 
tive quarter, is poorly built. (4) Edin- 
burgh is occasionally alluded to by this 
name, but it is only of late years, if at 
all, that the name has become an appro- 
priate one. 

City of Peace. Jerusalem. Its an- 
cient name, Salem, signifies " peace." 

City of Perspectives. St. Peters- 
burg. Its streets and quays are famous 
for the long vistas they present. 

City of Rocks. Nashville, Tenn. In 
the immediate vicinity quarries of fine 
limestone abound, which enters largely 
into the construction of its buildings. 

City of Roses, (i) Lucknow, India. 
(2) Little Rock, Ark. 

City of Smoke. London, England, 
has been so named. See Smoky City, 
also Iron City. 

City of Snow. St. Petersburg. For 
nine months in every year it is shrouded 
in a canopy of snow. 

City of Spindles. Lowell, Mass. It 
contains more mills for the manufac- 
ture of cotton and woollen goods than 
any other city in the United States. 

City of the Dead. A cemetery. See 
Silent City. 

City of the Great King. Jerusalem 
is so named in the Scriptures (Ps. xlviii. 
21 ; Matt. V. 35). 

City of the Holy Faith. Santa F^, 
New Mexico. 

City of the Kings. Before the Eng- 
lish invasion of Ireland the town of 
Cashel was known by this name. 

City of the Mines. Iglesias, Sar- 
dinia, on account of the magnitude of 
its mining operations. 

City of the Plains. Denver, Col. 

City of the Prophet. See Prophet's 

City of the Reef. Pernambuco, Bra- 
zil. The harbor is protected by an ex- 
tensive reef of rocks. 

City of the Saints, (i) St. Paul, 
Minn. (2) Salt Lake City, Utah. Here 
is located the headquarters of the Mor- 
mon hierarchy, "the Church of Latter- 
Day Saints of Jesus Christ." 

City of the Simple. The Belgian 
town of Gheel, to which lunatics are 
consigned for restraint and treatment. 

City of the Straits. See Strait 

City of the Sun. Baalbec, in Coele- 
Syria, the Heliopolis of the Greeks, is 
often referred to by this title, which is a 
translation of its two names. It is cel- 
ebrated for its superb ruins, yet ex- 
tant, of an ancient temple dedicated to 
the sun. 

City of the Three Kings. Cologne, 
on the Rhine, in reference to the old 
legend which makes Cologne the burial- 
place of Balthazar, Melchior, and Jas- 
per, the " wise men of the East." 

City of the Tribes. Galway, Ireland, 
because, in 1235, there settled here thir- 
teen clans, named Athy, Blake, Browne, 
Budkin, Burke, D'Arcy, Ffont, Joyce, 
Kirwan, Lynch, Martin, Morris, and 



CSty of the Violated Treaty. Limer- 
ick, Ireland, because of the frequent in- 
fractions of the treaty signed Oct. 3, 1691. 

City of the Violet Crown. A poet- 
ical designation of the city of Athens, 
the origin of which is now forgotten. 

"He [Pitt] loved England as an Athenian 
loved the city of the Violet Crown." — Macau- 

City of the West. Glasgow, Scot- 
land, situated on the Clyde, the great- 
est of western Scottish streams. It is 
the commercial and manufacturing me- 
tropolis of the country. 

City of Victory. See Victorious 

Civilation. A euphony for intoxica- 
tion. A Cork orator at a debating soci- 
ety was speaking on the state of Ire- 
land before it was added to England, 
and said, " Sir, the Irish had no civila- 
tion — cilivation, I mean — no civilation," 
and sat down, too far gone to pronounce 
the word " civilization." 

Civiliter mortuus. (Lat.) " Civilly 
dead." Deprived of all civil rights. 
One was " civilly put to death " who 
formerly retired into a religious house ; 
also one sentenced to penal servitude 
for life ; and likewise an outlaw. 

Civil Rights. By this phrase is meant 
equal social rights and privileges for ne- 
groes in hotels, public conveyances, the- 
atres, schools, and the like, as are ac- 
corded to whites. 

Civil-service Reform. A movement 
having for its object the abolishment of 
the " spoils " system (the bestowal of 
office as a reward for party service) and 
the substitution therefor 01 a system of 
selection on the ground of merit and fit- 
ness solely, no removals to be made ex- 
cept for cause. Laws embodying these 
ideas were passed by Congress, and a 
" Civil Service Commission" appointed. 

C. J. Chief-Justice. 

CI. Chlorine. 

Clabber Napper's Hole. A cavern 
near Gravesend, England. The odd 
name is by some thought to have been 
derived from a smuggler ; but others de- 
rive it from the Celtic Caer-ber-Varber, 
" Watertown lower camp." 

Clapham Sect. A name bestowed by- 
Rev. Sydney Smith upon the Evangel- 
ical party in the Church of England in 
the latter part of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Many of its members resided at 
Clapham, a suburb of London; vide 
Thackeray's " The Newcomes." 

Clap-trap. This phrase seems to 
have been derived from the clap-net, 
used for trapping larks and other birds. 
Bailey says that "clap-trap is a name 
given to the rant that dramatic authors, 
to please actors, let them go off with ; 
as much as to say, to catch a clap of 
applause from the spectators at a play." 

Clara. (Pseud.) Miss Carrie Bell Sin- 
clair, author of poems in the " Georgia 

Clara Augusta. (Pseud.) (i) Mrs. S. 
, Trask, of Framingham, Mass. (2) Win- 
ifred Winthorpe. 

Clara Belden. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Henry Trippetts. 

Clara Belle. (Pseud.) (i) Olive Lo- 
gan, Junius Henri Browne, his wife, and 
others, in the Cincinnati " Enquirer." 

(2) Mrs. William Thompson, a writer 
on fashions in the Western press. 

(3) Mrs. Mary Hewins Fiske, a well- 
known newspaper correspondent. See 
Giddy Gusher. 

Clara Belmont. The stage-name of 
Mrs. C. H. Calvert. 

Clara Bernetta, Mile. The stage- 
name of Clara Johnson. 

Clara Byron. The stage-name of 
Mrs. W. P. Lake. 

Clara Cushman. (Pseud.) Emily 

Clara Morris. The stage-name of 
Mrs. F. C. Harriott, n^e Morrison. 

Clara Ormsby. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Alma Lewis. 

Clarendon Constitutions. This is 
the name given to the concordat be- 
tween Church and State in England, 
drawn up at a council of nobility and 
clergy held at the village of Clarendon, 
in Wiltshire, in 1 164, in the reign of 
Henry II. These constitutions or laws 
were sixteen in number, and their main 
object was to restrict the power of the 
Church in England, and to give the 
Crown the right to interfere in the elec- 
tion to all vacant livings and offices in 
the Church. " Many of the clauses," 
says Mr. J. R. Green, "were simply a 
re-enactment of the system established 
by the Conqueror ; " yet it is impossible 
to doubt "that the sharp separation 
between the civil and ecclesiastical ju- 
risdictions introduced into England by 
William was the reason of the conflict 
between the two." The Primate, Thomas 
Becket, signed them, but they were re- 
jected by Pope Alexander III., upon 



which Becket himself vehemently re- 
canted his consent, which led to his 
assassination and the penance done by 
Henry II. But in spite of these events 
the Clarendon Constitutions remained 
on the statute-book, and may be regarded 
as the germ of the ecclesiastical revolu- 
tion accomplished in the reign of Henry 

Clarendon Press. The university 
press of Oxford, England, now known 
as "the University Printing-House," or 
" University Press." 

ClaribeL (Pseud.) Mrs. Caroline 
Barnard, author of " Tales for Chil- 

Clarior e tenebria. (Lat.) Brighter 
from obscurity. 

Claud Haloro. (Pseud.) John Breck- 
inridge, a Canadian author, circa 1843. 

Claudia. (Pseud.) Miss Clara V. 
Dargan, in the Charleston " Courant," 

Claw-backs. Flatterers. Bishop 
Jewel speaks of " the pope's claw- 

Clay-eaters. "A miserable set of 
people inhabiting some of the Southern 
States, who subsist chiefly on turpentine 
whiskey, and appease their craving for 
more substantial food by filling their 
stomachs with a kind of aluminous 
earth which abounds everywhere. This 
gives them a yellowish, drab-colored 
complexion, with dull eyes, and faces 
whose idiotic expression is only varied 
by a dull despair or a devilish malignity. 
They are looked down upon by the ne- 

froes with a contempt which they return 
y a hearty hatred." — Bartlett. 
Clay's Compromise. Two episodes 
in American history are known by this 
name : (i) Henry Clay's tariff compro- 
mise, 1833 ; and (2) his measures provid- 
ing for the admission of California as a 
free State, the organization of New 
Mexico and Utah into Territories, the 
settlement of the Texas boundary, the 
abolition of the slave-trade in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, and the rendition of 
fugitive slaves. 

Clay Whiga. " The death of William 
Henry Harrison raised John Tyler to 
the presidency. Both were Whigs. 
Henry Clay was the leader of the Whig 
party. Tyler was one of those nuUifiers 
that had remained with the Whig party 
when Calhoun and his followers with- 
drew about 1838. The contrast between 
him and the other leaders of his party 

at once showed itself, and a bitter fight 
ensued between the followers of Clay 
and those of Tyler. Clay's adherents 
were known as Clay Whigs. The first 
quarrel was on the subject of a charter 
for a national bank. The President was 
opposed to its being chartered, and ve- 
toed a bill for that purpose drawn by the 
Secretary of the Treasury, giving as his 
reason the presence of certain matures 
which he considered objectionable. A 
bill was hastily drawn up embodying the 
President's suggestions, but tliis, too, 
received his veto. The conflict was 
continued on other measures. The 
House next elected was more strongly 
Democratic." — Brown and Strauss. 

Cia. Cleared. 

Cleanliness is nezt to Godliness. 
The author of this phrase, quoted by 
John Wesley, is not known. Some- 
thing similar to it is found in the Tal- 
mud, and Plutarch tells us that among 
the ancient Egyptians "health was no 
less respected than devotion." A Jew- 
ish lecturer, on Dec. 3, 1878, reported 
in "The Jewish World," said, "This 
well-known English phrase had been 
taught by the Rabbins of the Talmud 
many centuries ago, both as a religious 
principle and a sanitary law." 

Clean S'nreep is a phrase used in 
American politics to indicate the re- 
moval by an ofiicial of all his subordi- 
nates not belonging to his political 

Clean-the-Causeway Riot. A fac- 
tion fight between the rival clans of 
Douglas and Hamilton in Edinburgh in 
151 5. The former were worsted and 
fled in great confusion, being, as was 
said, swept from the streets. 

Clear Grit. See Grit. 

Cleophil. (Pseud.) William Con- 
greve, English dramatic poet (1670- 

Clever is one of the most cruelly ill- 
treated Americanisms. It has assumed 
two very different meanings, designating 
in the North a good-natured,_ obliging 
person, while at the South it means 
" gifted and talented." The American 
pet word smart {q. v.) has, however, 
largely superseded it. 

Climacteric Years. The seventh 
and ninth, with their multiples by the 
odd numbers 3, 5, 7, 9, — namely, 7, 9, 
21, 27, 35, 45, 49, 63, and 81, — over 
which the astrologers thought Saturn, 
the malevolent planet, presided. 



Climb. In England this word is al- 
ways used in the sense "to mount, to 
rise, to ascend." In America, people 
climb down. Rev. H. W. Beecher, who 
may be considered a competent jud^e 
of correct English, in describing his 
visit to Oxford, says, " To climb down 
the wall was easy enough." And in the 
" Star Papers," p. 41, we find, " I partly 
climbed down, and wholly clambered 
back again." 

Climbing Leaves. See Walking 

Clincher. Something that settles a 
point or argument. This application of 
the word is said to have arisen from two 
notorious liars being matched against 
each other. " I drove a nail through 
the moon once," said the first. " Yes," 
said the other, " I remember the cir- 
cumstance ; and I went round to the 
back and clinched it." 

Clinton Bridge Case. An important 
litigation in the United States Supreme 
Court (1870), which established the doc- 
trine by which railroad bridges may be 
said to have gained clear recognition 
of their rights of way in preference to 
the navigable waters crossed by them, 
through the power of Congress to reg- 
ulate inter-State commerce. 

Clinton's Big Ditch. The Erie Canal, 
connecting New York with the great 
lakes, has been jocularly so named. It 
was planned and carried to completion 
by DeWitt Clinton. 

C. L. I. O. ("Clio"). (Pseud.) Jo- 
seph Addison, English essayist and 
humorist (1672-1719). It is said that 
this pen-name arose in the following 
manner : Addison would append various 
initials to his manuscript, according to 
the place where it was penned, " C." de- 
noting the city, " L." denoting London, 
" I." denoting Islington, where he lived, 
while "O." indicated the office. The 
four combined made the word " Clio." 

Clio. One of the Nine Muses. She 
presided over history. 

Clionas. (Pseud.) Sir Nicholas 
Harris Nicolas in the " Gentleman's 
Magazine." It is an anagram on his 

Clipper. The origin of this name for 
a fast-sailing vessel has been much de- 
bated. The following, from " Alice 
Lorraine," vol. iii. p. 2, seems plausible : 
"The British corvette ' Cleopatra-cum- 
Antonio' was the nimblest little craft 
ever captured from the French ; and 

her name had been reefed into ' Clipater ' 
first, and then into ' Clipper,' which still 
holds sway." 

Cliquot. A nickname for Frederick 
William IV. of Prussia, coined by the 
London " Punch," and containing an 
allusion to his fondness for champagne. 

Clk. Clerk. 

Clock of the King's Death. A clock 
in the palace at Versailles; it had no 
works but a dial and one hand, which 
latter was set at the minute of the death 
of the last monarch of France, and re- 
mained so all through the reign of his 

Clog Almanac. A primitive alma- 
nac or calendar, called in Scandinavia a 
Runic staff, from the Runic characters 
used in its numerical notation. 

Clotha virumque cano. (Lat.) 
" Clothes and the man I sing." I sing 
of clothes and the man. Carlyle: a 
parody of the first words of the ^neid, 
" Arma virumque cano " (Arms and the 
man I sing). 

Clothier of England. See Jack of 

Clotho. In classic mythology one of 
the three Fates, who presided over 
birth, and spun the thread of life. 

Cloth, The. A collective name for 
the clergy. In former times the priest, 
hood wore a distinguishing costume of 
gray or black cloth by which they might 
be recognized. 

Cloth of Gold, Field of the. See 
Field of the Cloth of Gold. 

Cloud City, The. Leadville, Col., 
has been so named. It is situated at 
an altitude of nine thousand feet above 
sea-level, and is surrounded by moun- 
tain peaks whose summits pierce the 

Cluacina. A surname of Venus. 

Club, The. (i) A group of Whig 
malcontents in Edinburgh in the time 
of William III. Their aim was to an- 
noy the Government, and so obtain for 
themselves fat places. But they finally 
fell to pieces, the chiefs betraying each 
other. (2) A celebrated coterie of men 
of letters, and others, which flourished 
in London in the last century. The 
original members were Reynolds, Burke, 
Johnson, Goldsmith, Nugent, Beau- 
clerk, Langton, and Sir John Hawkins. 
Many other eminent names in science^ 
letters, and art were borne upon its 



Clubmen. Associations formed in 
the southern and western counties of 
England to restrain the excesses of 
the soldiery during the civil war, 1642- 
1649. They professed neutrality, but 
were believed to favor the king by his 

Clytemnestra. In classic mythol- 
ogy the unfaithful wife of Agamemnon, 
slain by her son Orestes for her enor- 

Clytie. In classic mythology a water- 
nymph who became enamored of Apollo, 
the sun-god. Meeting with no encour- 
agement, she changed herself into a 
sunflower, and keeps her face constantly 
turned toward him in his daily course. 

C. M. Common metre. 

C. M. G. Companion of the Order of 
Saint Michael and Saint George. 

Cnaeus Fulvius. A reportorial per- 
sonification of Mr. Fox in the days 
before newspaper reports of the Parlia- 
mentary proceedings were legalized. 

C. O. Crown Office ; Colonial Office ; 
Criminal Office. 

Co. Company; county; cobalt. 

Coal-oil Johnny. A nickname given 
to John Steele, a famous oil-operator in 
the Pennsylvania oil-fields, who amassed 
a great fortune and squandered it in 
riotous living. 

Coal-oil Payne. A nickname con- 
ferred on Senator Payne, of Ohio. 

Coat-of-arms, A ITorkshireman's. 
See Yorkshireman's Coat-of-arms. 

Cob. The name given to the spikes 
of the maize plant after the grains are 
" shucked " or removed. See Ear. 

Cobden Club. The Cobden Club, of 
England, takes its name from the great 
free-trader Richard Cobden. It is the 
centre of the free-trade doctrine in Brit- 
ish politics. 

Cocagne. An imaginary land of idle- 
ness, luxury, and delight. The French 
pays de cocagne, and similar terms in 
other tongues, convey the idea of a Uto- 
pia. Particularly the term has been ap- 
plied to London and its suburbs, famed 
for luxury and plenty from earliest times. 
The word " cockney," a denizen of Lon- 
don as distinct from a countryman, is, ac- 
cording to some, derived from cocagne. 
See Cockney. 

Coch., or CooU. Cochleare. A spoon- 

Cockade City. Petersburg, Va. 

Cock-a-hoop. A crested cock (Old 
French hupe, crested, proud). The term 
is applied to vainglorious, conceited 
persons, who carry their heads thrown 
backward, as a peacock does. 

Cock-and-Bull Story. The most 
probable explanation of this term as ap- 
plied to preposterous tales related in pri- 
vate life, is that which refers it to the old 
fables in which cocks, bulls, and other 
animals are represented as endowed with 
speech. Matthew Prior's "Riddle on 
Beauty " closes with these lines : — 

" Of cocks and bulls, and flutes and fiddles, 
Of idle tales and foolish riddles." 

Another version says that the pope's 
bulls were named from the bulla, or seal, 
which was attached. The seal bore the 
impression of a figure of Saint Peter 
accompanied by the cock. Hence after 
the Reformation any tale or discourse 
that was unheeded was on a par with a 
pope's bull, which was a " cock-and-bull 

Cockatrice. A fabulous animal of 
the basilisk species. Its distinguishing 
peculiarity was a crest or comb like a 
cock's. Sometimes, indeed, the beak, 
head, and claws of the cock were added. 
It differed in no other respect from the 
ordinary basilisk, and by some authori- 
ties is looked upon not as a separate 
species, but as the same animal under 
another name. Sir Thomas Browne, 
however, in his book of " Vulgar Errors " 
(book iii. p. 7), draws a clear distinction 
between the two. Sir Thomas rather ar- 
gues for the possibility of the existence 
of such an animal, and strives to give 
to its " death-darting eye " a rationalis- 
tic explanation : — 

Say thou but " I," 

And that bare vowel, " I," shall poison more 

Than the death-darting eye of cockatrice. 

Shakspeare, Romeo and Juliet, act iii. sc. 2. 

Cocker, According to Cocker. 

Edward Cocker, a writing-master, en- 
graver, and aritlimetician, was born in 
1632 and died about 1673. He is said 
to have published fourteen engraved 
copybooks. He published some time 
before 1664 the " Tutor to Writing and 
Arithmetic." His work was for a long 
time the standard authority on arith- 
metic ; hence the phrase. In an edition 
of Cocker's " Pen's Triumphs," pub- 
lished in 1657, is his portrait, with the 
following lines: — 
" Behold rare Cocker's life-resembling shade, 
Whom envy's clouds have more illustrious 



Whose pen and graver have displayed his 

With virtuosos in the book of fame." 

In Wing's "Ephemeris," 1669, is an 
advertisement as follows : " Cocker's 
Compleat Arithmetician, which hath 
been nine years his study and practice. 
The piece so long and so much ex- 
pected." Cocker also published a dic- 
tionary, of which a posthumous edition 
(the third) appeared in 1724. See Ac- 
cording TO GUNTER. 

Cockerel Church. The M. E. 
church on Hanover Street in Boston, 
between Prince and Richmond streets, 
was known as the " Cockerel " Church, 
from having a rooster on its spire. It 
was for the dedication of this church 
that N. P. Willis wrote the hymn which 
opened thus : — 

" The perfect world by Adam trod, 
Was the first temple, built by God ; 
His fiat laid the corner-stone, 
And heaved its pillars, one by one." 

Cockeye. A by-name conferred upon 
Gen. B. F. Butler by the men in the 
ranks, for obvious reasons. 

Cock Lane Ghost. " In the year 1 762 
London was thrown into a state of ex- 
traordinary excitement by the reported 
existence of a ghost in the house of a 
Mr. Parsons, in Cock Lane, Smithfield. 
Strange and unaccountable noises«were 
heard in the house, and a luminous lady, 
bearing a strong resemblance to one 
who under the name of Mrs. Kemt had 
once resided in the house, but who had 
died two years before, was said to have 
been seen. Dark suspicions as to Mr. 
Kemt having poisoned the lady were im- 
mediately aroused, and were confirmed 
by the ghost, who on being interrogated 
answered after the fashion of the spirits 
of our own day, by knocking. Crowds, 
including Dr. Johnson, were attracted 
to the house to hear the ghost, and the 
great majority became believers. At 
length a plan was formed by a few 
sceptics to ascertain the real origin of 
the noises. The girl from whom the 
sounds were supposed to proceed was 
taken to another house, and threatened 
with the imprisonment of her father in 
Newgate if she did not renew the rap- 
pings that evening, the noises having 
for some time been discontinued. She 
was observed to take a board with her 
into bed ; and when the noises took 
place, no doubt was entertained that 
they had all along been produced by 
similar methods, and by the aid of ven- 

triloquism, in which she was now found 
to be an adept. The entire afiair was 
discovered to be a conspiracy on the 
part of the girl and her parents to extort 
money from Mr. Kemt, and two of the 
delinquents were pilloried and impris- 
oned July 10, 1762." — Chambers. 

Cockle-hat. A pilgrim's hat. War- 
burton says, as the chief places of 
devotion were beyond sea or on the 
coasts, pilgrims used to put cockle- 
shells upon their hats to indicate 
that they were pilgrims. Cockles are 
symbols of Saint James, patron saint of 

Cockney. A Londoner. Camden says 
the Thames was once called the Cock- 
ney, and therefore a Cockney means sim- 
ply one who lives on the banks of the 
Thames. One bom within the sound of 
Bow Bells, z. e., the bells of the church 
of St. Mary-le-Bow, Cheapside. 

Wedgwood suggests cocker, " to fondle," and 
says a Cockemey or Cockney is one pampered 
by city indulgence, in contradistinction to rus- 
tics hardened by out-door work. 

" I am a Cockney because I was bom within 
the sound of Bow Bells. My father used to tell 
me that a London boy went into the country to 
see some cousins, and heard a horse neigh ; he 
asked what the noise was, and was told that it 
was a neigh. Soon afterward the boy heard a 
cock crow, and not knowing what to call the 
noise, exclaimed, ' Uncle, the cock neighs too.' 
From that Londoners were called 'cockneys.' " 

Chambers, in his " Journal," derives the word 
from a French poem of the thirteenth century, 
called " The Land of Cocagne," where the houses 
were made of barley-sugar and cakes, the streets 
paved with pastry, and the shops supplied goods 
without requiring money in payment. The 
French, at a very early period, called the English 
cocagne men, L e., bons-^ivants (beef and pud- 
ding men). 

Cockney School. Leigh Hunt, Haz- 
litt, Shelley, and Keats were so dubbed 
by Lockhart in 181 7. 

Cock of the North. The Duke of 
Gordon is so called on a monument 
erected in his honor at Fochabers in 
Aberdeenshire. He died in 1836. 

Cock of the Walk. The dominant 
bully or master-spirit. The place where 
barndoor fowls are fed is called the 
walk ; and the cocks, if there is more than 
one, will fight for the supremacy of this 

Cockpit of Europe. Belgium is so 

called because it has been the site of 
more European battles than any other ; 
e. g., Oudenarde, Ramillies, Fontenoy, 
Fleurus, Jemappes, Ligny, Quatre 
Bras, Waterloo, etc. 



Cocktail. The national American 
" drink," said to have been invented by 
one Elizabeth Flanagan. 

She was the widow of an Irish soldier who 
fell in the service of this country. She appears 
after his death to have been a sutler, and in that 
capacity to have followed a troop of Virginia 
horse who, under command of Colonel Burr, took 
up quarters in the winter of 1779 in a place 
called the " Four Corners," situated on the road 
between Tarrytown and White Plains, West- 
chester County, N. Y. Here Elizabeth Flanagan 
set up a hotel, which was largely patronized by 
the ofBcers of the French and American forces 
quartered in the vicinity ; and here it is that the 
drink known as the " cocktail " was invented. 

Cooytus. In classic mythology one 
of the streams that flowed by the shores 
of Hades, and prevented the dead from 
returning to earth. It was a branch of 
the Styx. 

C. O. D. Cash (or collect) on de- 

Coda. (Ital.) A few bars added at 
the close of a piece, beyond its natural 
termination. (Mus.) 

Codfish. See Hooks and Codfish. 

Cceur de Iiion. (i) Richard I. of 
England. (2) Louis VIII. of France. 
(3) Boleslaus I. of Poland.. 

Cogia Hassan's Stone. This phrase 
occurs in Thackeray's " Pendennis." 
Cogia Hassan was he of the " Arabian 
Nights," and his surname was Al Hab- 
bal (the ropemaker). Cogia (the mer- 
chant) was an addition made to the name 
after that of Al Habbal ; so the full 
name came to be Cogia Hassan Alhabbal. 
It is related that two friends, Saad and 
Saadi, tried an experiment upon him; 
Saadi gave him two hundred pieces of 
'igold, in order to see if it would raise him 
From extreme poverty to affluence. 
Hassan took ten pieces for immediate 
use, and sewed the rest in his turban ; 
but a kite pounced on his turban and 
carried it away. The two friends, after 
a time, visited Hassan again, but found 
him in the same state of poverty ; and 
having heard his tale, Saadi gave him an- 
other two hundred pieces of gold. Again 
he took out ten pieces, and wrapping 
the rest in a linen rag, hid it in a jar of 
bran. While Hassan was at work, his 
wife exchanged this jar of bran for ful- 
ler's earth, and again the condition of 
the man was not bettered by the gift. 
Saad now gave the ropemaker a small 
piece of lead, and this made his fortune 
thus: A fisherman waiited a piece of 
lead for his nets, and promised to give 
Hassan for Saad's piece whatever he 

caught in his first draught. This was 
a large fish, and in it the wife found a 
splendid diamond, which was sold for 
100,000 pieces of gold. Hassan now 
became very rich, and when the two 
friends visited him again they found him 
a man of consequence. He asked them 
to stay with him, and took them to his 
country-house, when one of his sons 
showed him a curious nest made out of 
a turban. This was the very turban 
which the kite had carried off, and the 
money was found in the lining. As 
they returned to the city they stopped 
and purchased a jar of bran. This hap- 
pened to be the very jar which the wife 
had given in exchange, and the money 
was discovered wrapped in linen at the 
bottom. Hassan was delighted, and 
gave the one hundred and eighty pieces 
to the poor. As to what is meant by 
Cogia Hassan's stone, in whatever sense 
used, may not be difficult to comprehend 
in the light of the foregoing. 

Cogito, ergo sum. (Lat.) " I think, 
therefore I am." 

Cognomen. A surname. 

Cognoscenti. (Ital.) " Knowing 
ones." The scientific ; those who know 
how to look at things. 

Cohesive Power of Public Plunder, 
" This phrase has grown out of words 
used by John C. Calhoun in a speech. 
May 27, 1836: 'A power has risen up 
in the government greater than the peo- 
ple themselves, consisting of many and 
various and powerful interests, com- 
bined into one mass, and held together 
by the cohesive power of the vast sur- 
plus in the banks.' "— Bartlett. 

Coila. (i) The Latin name of Kyle, 
County Ayr, Scotland, embalmed in 
the lyrics of Burns. (2) The word is 
also used as a fanciful designation for 
Scotland, — ■ 

Farewell, old Coila's hills and dales. 
Her heathy moors and winding vales. 


Col. Colorado; Colonel; Colossians. 

Col, Coir, Colla. (Ital.) With ; as. 
Col arco, with the bow. (Mus.) 

Cold-sla^y. A dish peculiar to the 
United States, and derived, as is the 
name, from the early Dutch settlers, 
who called it kool-slaa. 

Coldstream Guards are so named 
from the town of that name in Berwick- 
shire, where, in 1660, General Monk 
raised the regiment known at first as 



Monk's Regiment. When Parliament 
agreed to give Charles II. a brigade of 
guards, this corps, under the name of 
Coldstream Guards, was included in it. 
With the exception of the First Regi- 
ment of Foot, the Coldstream is the 
oldest corps in the British service. 

Cold Tea. In the early part of the 
last century this was a cant term for 
brandy. In the " Spectator," " Tatler," 
and " Guardian," mention is often made 
of a " keg of cold tea," as an appropri- 
ate present for a lady. At the present 
day in American legislative assemblies 
"cold tea" is a jocose phrase, meaning 
something a good deal stronger. 

Cold-water Ordeal. An ancient 
method of testing the guilt or innocence 
of the common sort of people. The ac- 
cused, being tied under the arms, was 
thrown into a river. If he sank to the 
bottom, he was held to be guiltless, and 
drawn up by the cord ; but if he floated, 
the water rejected him because of his 

Colia Ballantyne, R.N. (Pseud.) 
William Dunlop, M.D., in his sketches 
of East Indian life and character pub- 
lished in " Blackwood." 

Colin Clout. A name which Spenser 
assumes in "The Shepherd's Calen- 
dar," and in the pastoral entitled " Colin 
Clout 's come Home again," which rep- 
resents his return from a visit to Sir 
Walter Raleigh. 

Colin Tampon. The nickname of a 
Swiss, as " John Bull " is of an Eng- 
lishman, " Brother Jonathan " of a 
North American, " Monsieur Crapaud " 
of a Frenchman, etc. 

Coll. Collector ; colloquial ; college ; 

Colla parte. (Ital.) Signifies that 
the accompanist must follow the lead- 
ing part in regard to time. (Mus.) 

Colla pii forza e prestezza. (Ital.) 
As loudly and as quickly as possible. 

Colleen Ba'^n. The pet name of 
Eily O'Connor, the heroine of Gerald 
GriiEn's novel " The Collegians," and of 
Boucicault's play, " The Colleen Bawn," 
The story of both was founded on fact. 
"Eily O'Connor was the daughter of 
a ropemaker, who lived in Garryowen, 
a suburb of the city of Limerick, Ire- 
land. Scanlon, a gentleman of fortune, 
lived on his estate, near Glin, in County 
Kerry, adjoining Limerick. On one of 
his frequent visits to the city he saw 

the ropemaker's beautiful daughter, and 
was smitten by her charms. It was a 
case of love at first sight, sudden and 
decisive. He sought an introduction to 
her, and cultivated the acquaintance 
assiduously. Her simple armor was of 
the ' wild, sweet-briery-fence ' sort, — 
sweet, yet thorny ; so that while he 
was attracted, any rude advances were re- " 
pulsed. Finding her firm, he entrapped 
her into a private marriage, enjoin- 
ing the utmost secrecy. Not long after 
this secret marriage Scanlon won the 
affections of a lady of fortune in County 
Limerick, Miss Chute, of Castle Chute, 
and a day was appointed for their mar- 
riage. As that day approached, how 
to get rid of his lawful wife, Eily O'Con- 
nor, was a problem that worried him. 
He had her conveyed to a cottage in 
the mountains, and afterwards to a place 
near Glin, where he induced his hunch- 
back servant and foster-brother, Danny 
Mann, or Sullivan, to take her out boat- 
ing on the river Shannon and drown 
her. Danny's first attempt was a fail- 
ure. He returned to shore, and said to 
his unrelenting master, ' When I looked 
at her innocent face I had n't the heart 
to do it.' A second attempt was made, 
Scanlon himself accompanying them in 
the boat. This time she was thrown 
into the water, one hand grasping the 
boat-rail, the fingers of which were 
promptly chopped off by a hatchet in 
the hands of Danny Mann. Thus her 
struggle for life ended. Before many 
days elapsed her body was washed 
ashore on the opposite bank of the river, 
near Kilrush, in the County Clare. It 
was identified. Scanlon was arrested, 
tried, and convicted. Though a man of 
large influence with the Dublin Castle 
authorities, a bitter denunciation of the 
crime by Daniel O'Connell made them 
unwilling to interfere in granting a re- 
prieve. On the day of the execution a 
horse could not be procured for love or 
money from any of the citizens to con- 
vey him from the prison to ' Gallows 
Green,' the place of execution. When 
all hope of procuring one had vanished, 
two turf carts belonging to tenants on 
his estate were seen approaching on the 
street. The horses were immediately 
taken from the carts and harnessed to 
a carriage, Scanlon got in, and was 
driven to the foot of the bridge leading 
to Gallows Green, when the horses sud- 
denly stopped, and neither whips, spurs, 
kicks, nor the bayonet thrusts of the 



soldiers could induce them to go a step 
farther. Scanlon got out, amid the ex- 
ecrations and hootings of the multitude, 
who thought the action of the dumb 
animals a manifestation of the abhor- 
rence of Heaven at the crime. He 
walked to the place of execution be- 
tween files of soldiers, and was hanged. 
Danny Mann was apprehended, tried, 
and convicted at the following assizes 
for the city and county of Limerick, 
when he made a full confession of the 
facts and of the guilt of Scanlon, who 
protested his innocence of the crime, 
even on the scafEold." 

College Port. The worst species of 
red wine that can be manufactured and 
palmed off upon young men at college. 
It is chiefly made from potatoes, sloes, 
and logwood. 

Colley Cibber. (Pseud.) James 
Rees in the " Sunday Mercury " of 
Philadelphia, circa 1874. 

Collop Monday. The Monday be- 
fore Shrove Tuesday {q. v.). The name 
refers to th« dinner which in some parts 
of England is almost universal on that 
day. It is customary to have collops 
of oacon and eggs for dinner. Go into 
some districts in England at dinner-time 
on Collop Monday, and you will be sure 
to be saluted by the smell of fried slices 
of bacon and eggs. 

Colloquy of Foissy. A famous 
meeting of Catholics and Calvinists 
which assembled at Poissy in 1561 to 
settle the bitter religious warfare which 
then agitated France. It was, however, 
productive of no good result, and de- 
vastating religious wars followed. 

CoUyridians. A sect of Arabian 
Christians, chiefly women, which first 
appeared in 373. They worshipped the 
Virgin Mary, and made offerings to her 
in a twisted cake called a collyris. 

CoL Frederic Ingbam. The pen- 
name under which Edward E. Hale 
published " Ten Times One is Ten." 

Colonization. A form of political 
corruption peculiar to the cities of the 
United States, and by which bodies of 
voters from one district are domiciled 
in another just previous to election 
time for the purpose of influencing the 

Colophon. The end clause of a book, 
containing the names of the printer 
and publisher, and the place where the 
book was printed ; in former times the 
date and the edition were added also. 

Colophon was a city of lona, the inhab- 
itants of which were such excellent 
horsemen that they could turn the scale 
of battle ; hence the Greek proverb to 
'' add a colophon " meant to "put a fin- 
ishing stroke to an affair." 

Colorado. The name is derived from 
a Spanish word meaning " red," in allu- 
sion to the prevailing color of the soil 
or rocks in many localities. 

Colossus of Fairmount. The great 
wooden bridge across the Schuylkill at 
Philadelphia, erected in 181 2 by Lewis 
Wernwag, a famous engineer (1769- 
1 843). It consisted of a single arch with 
a span of three hundred and forty feet. 
Colston Day. The anniversary of 
the birthday (November 13) of Edward 
Colston, a citizen of Bristol, England. 
He founded various charities in the 
city, and his memory is kept green by 
an annual celebration on the day above 

Colubram in sinu fovere. (Lat.) 
" To cherish a snake in one's bosom." 
To have an enemy in your confidence. 
Columba (the Dove). A constel- 
lation of ten stars, only one of which 
is of the second magnitu4e ; situated 
about sixteen degrees south of the 
Hare, and nearly on the same meridian 
with the three stars in Orion's belt. It 
was named after Noah's dove sent out 
from the ark to find dry land. 

Columbia. The United States. De- 
rived from Columbus, the discoverer of- 
the New World, and applied to its great- 
est nation from a feeling of poetic jus- 
tice to the memory of the great explorer. 
Columella of New England. John 
Lowell, the political writer (b. in New- 
buryport, Mass., 1769; d. 1840). He 
inherited the love of his father (John 
Lowell, 1 743-1802) for horticulture, and 
received the above appellation. 

Com. Commerce ; Committee ; Com- 
missioner ; Commodore. 

Com. & Nav. Commerce and Nav- 

Com. Arr. Committee of Arrange- 

Comdg. Commanding. 
Come '1 primo tempo. (Ital.) In 
the same movement as at first. (Mus.) 
Come-outers. " This name has been 
applied to a considerable number of 
persons in various parts of the North- 
ern States, principally in New England, 
who have recently come out of the vari- 



ous religious denominations with which 
they have been connected; hence the 
name. They have not themselves as- 
sumed any distinctive organization. 
They have no creed, believing that ev- 
ery one should be left free to hold such 
opinions on religious subjects as he 
pleases, without being held accountable 
for the same to any human authority. 
They hold a diversity of opinions on 
many points, — some believing in the 
divine inspiration of the Scriptures, 
and others that they are but human com- 
positions. They believe Jesus Christ 
to have been a divinely inspired teacher, 
and his religion a revelation of eternal 
truth ; that, according to his teachings, 
true religion consists in purity of heart, 
holiness of life, and not in opinions ; that 
Christianity, as it existed in Christ, is a 
life rather than a belief." — Bartlett. 

Come tempo del tema. (Ital.) Same 
movement as the theme. (Mus.) 

Comet Wine. A term of praise to 
signify wine of superior quality. A 
notion prevails that the grapes in comet 
years are better in flavor than in other 
years, either because the weather is 
warmer and ripens them better, or be- 
cause the comets themselves exercise 
some chemical influence on them. Thus 
wine of the years 1811, 1826, 1839, 1845, 
1852, 1858, 1861, 1882, etc., has a 

Coming-out Sunday. The day on 
which a new-married couple made their 
first appearance at church, — usually 
the Sunday after the wedding. This 
custom continued more than a century 
after 1719 (when Mather mentioned it). 
It was termed " coming out groom 
and bride." It still remains in many 

Coming to the Scratch. This was 
originally a phrase used by boxers. In 
the prize-ring it was usual to make a 
distinct mark or scratch in the turf, di- 
viding the ring into two equal parts. 
" To come to the scratch " meant to 
walk to the boundary to meet the an- 

Comitas inter gentes. (Lat.) Cour- 
teousness between nations. 

Comm. Commentary. 

Commander of the Faithful. A title 
assumed by Omar I. (d. 644), and since 
retained by his successors in the Cali- 

Comme il faut. (Fr.) As it should 

Commencement. The contradictory 
title, in America, for the ceremonies at 
the close of a college year. 

Originally " commencement " was held at the 
beginning of the new college year, in the fall. 
Those who had passed the graduating examina- 
tions received their diplomas and spoke their 
pieces then. But as this custom proved incon- 
venient, it gradually became the practice of col- 
leges to unite the commencement with the final 
examinations. But the name of the function was 

Commencement de la fin. (Fr.) 
The beginning of the end. 

Commendation Ninepence. A bent 
silver ninepence, supposed to be lucky, 
and commonly used in the seventeenth 
century as a love-token; the giver or 
sender using these words, " From my 
love to my love. " Sometimes the coin 
was broken, and each kept a part. 

CommissEure de police. (Fr.) A 
commissioner of police. 

Commodity of Brown Paper. This 
phrase is very common among the old 
dramatists. It always has the meaning 
of a custom among young rakes of the 
period, when in want of money, of buy- 
ing merchandise upon credit, which they 
sold for ready money at a loss. Thus 
in Green's " Quip for an Upstart Count," 
we find, " So that if he borrow an hun- 
dred pounds, he shall have forty in sil- 
ver, and threescore in wares, as lute- 
strings, hobby-horses, or brown paper." 
So, in " Measure for Measure " (iv. 3), 
we have, " First here 's young Master 
Rash, he 's in for a commodity of brown 
paper and old ginger, ninescore and sev- 
enteen pounds ; " that is, he is charged 
£\()'] for a lot of stuff not worth more, 
probably, than half the money. Nares, 
from whom this article is quoted, well 
sajjs : "Such schemes have been heard 
of in later times." 

Commodo, Commodamente. (Ital.) 
Quietly and with composure. (Mus.) 

Commonwealth, Heart of the. See 
Heart of the Commonwealth. 

Commonwealth, Right Arm of the. 
See Right Arm of the Common- 

Commune bonum. (Lat.) A com- 
mon good. 

Communiapropriedioere. (Lat.) To 
express common things with propriety. 

Communibus aunis. (Lat.) One year 
with another. 

Commnnipaw. (Pseud.) Pliny Miles, 
foreign correspondent of several Amer- 
ican newspapers. 



Communists. An anarchical party in 
France who propose to divide France 
into about a thousand small thoroughly 
independent States, with councils elected 
by all the population, Paris to be tlie 
ruling head. They declare that cap- 
ital and its holders must be adapted 
to nobler uses, or cease to exist. Their 
creed is stated to be atheism and ma- 
terialism. They are intimately con- 
nected with the International Society of 
Workmen. A " communist " is often 
confounded with a " socialist," but the 
conjunction is very unjust to the latter. 
The communist is simply a destruction- 
ist, while the socialist is more or less of 
a reformer, proposing definite remedies 
for acknowledged political and social 

Comp. Compare; comparative; com- 
pound ; compounded. 

Compagnon de voyage. (Fr.) A 

Companions of Jehu. A nickname 
given to the Chouans from a supposed 
similarity between their self-imposed 
task and that assigned to Jehu. The 
latter was to cut off Ahab and all his 
house and the idolatrous priests of 
Baal ; the Chouans aimed to annihilate 
all who bore any part in the assassina- 
tion of Louis XVL, and to place his 
brother, the Comte de Provence, on the 

Competition Waller. (Pseud.) 
George Otto Trevelyan, M.P., English 
writer (b. 1831). 

Complutenaian Bible. Another name 
for the great Polyglot Bible printed at 
Complutum, the ancient name of Alcala 
de Henares, in Spain. 

Compos mentis. (Lat.) " Sound of 
mind." One who is not insane or weak 
in mind. 

Compromise of 1850. " For more 
than a year after the termination of the 
Mexican War, the territory acquired by 
that war had remained under military 
rule. But in 1850 California adopted 
a constitution prohibiting slavery, and 
then applied for admission. The slave 
States would not agree to admit her 
unless a new slave State were also 
formed. At the same time the organi- 
zation of the newly acquired territory 
came up for discussion. Henry Clay 
then proposed a compromise, which, 
having been referred to a select com- 
mittee of thirteen, of which he was 
chairman, was reported by them in sub- 

stantially the same shape as proposed. 
It provided for : (i) The postpone- 
ment of the admission of new States to 
be formed out of Texas until demanded 
by such State. (2) The admission of 
California as a free State. (3) The 
organization, without the Wilmot Pro- 
viso, of all territory acquired from Mex- 
ico, and not included in California, as 
the Territories of New Mexico and 
Utah. (4) The combination of the last 
two measures in one bill. (5) The 
establishment of the boundaries of 
Texas, and the payment to her of jSio- 
000,000 for the abandonment of her 
claim to New Mexico. (6) More ef- 
fectual laws for the return of fugitive 
slaves. (7) Abolishing the slave trade 
in the District of Columbia, but leav- 
ing slavery there undisturbed. These 
measures all became laws, and together 
were commonly known as the Omni- 
bus Bill. It IS charged that the in- 
demnity of $10,000,000, the payment of 
which raised the market value of Texas 
securities from twenty or thirty to nearly 
par, was not without influence in the 
passage of the bill. The Kansas-Ne- 
braska Bill, passed in 1854, virtually 
repealed this compromise." — Brown 
AND Strauss. 

Compte rendu. (Fr.) Account ren- 
dered; a report. 

ComuB. In classic mythology the 
god of festivity and mirth. 

Com. Ver. Common Version (of the 

Con. Contra. Against; in opposition. 

Con. (Ital.) With ; as, con espres- 
sione, with expression ; con brio, with 
brilliancy and spirit. (Mus.) 

Con abbandono ed espressione. 
(Ital.) With self-abandon and expres- 
sion. (Mus.) 

Con amore. (Ital.) "With love." 
From a love to the work; with great 
and earnest zeal. 

Con anima. (Ital.) With airiness 
and animation. 

Con brio ed animato. (Ital.) Ani- 
mated and brilliant. (Mus.) 

Concerning Snakes in Ireland. 
This phrase is constantly cropping out 
as a genuine quotation. It, however, 
does not refer to Ireland in any way, 
but to Iceland. In a translation of 
Horrebow's work, "The Natural His- 
tory of Iceland," London, 1758, chapter 
xlii. is headed " Concerning Owls," and 



is as follows: "There are no owls of 
any kind in the whole island." Chapter 
Ixxii. is entitled " Concerning Snakes," 
and the entire chapter is as follows : 
"No snakes of any kind are to be 
met with throughout the whole of the 
island." The application of the phrase 
to Ireland probably at first arose from 
a printer's error. 

Concetto, Concetti (plu.). (Ital.) A 
stroke of wit; a turn or point. 

Conch. Conchology. 

Concio ad clerum. A discourse to 
the clergy. 

Con commodo. (Ital.) In a con- 
venient degree of movement. (Mus.) 

Concordia discors. (Lat.) Dis- 
cordant harmony. 

Concord Mob. In August, 1835, a 
time when the anti-slavery leaders were 
decried and insulted even in New Eng- 
land, John Greenleaf Whittier accom- 
panied George Thompson, an English 
orator, to Concord, N. H., to make ar- 
rangements for an anti-slavery meeting. 
A mob of several hundred gathered, 
assailed Whittier with sticks and 
stones, injured him, and drove him 
into the house of an honorable man, 
though not an Abolitionist. Mean- 
while the house which held Thompson 
was also attacked. Whittier managed 
to join him. A cannon was actually 
brought to bombard the house ; but 
finally the rioters dispersed without 
doing serious damage, and Whittier and 
Thompson escaped from the town. 

Concoura comparatif. (Fr.) A com- 
petitive examination among selected 
candidates for government appoint- 

Concoura univerael. (Fr.) " Com- 
petition universal." A competitive ex- 
amination for all comers who aspire to 
government appointments. 

Con. Cr. Contra credit. 

Conde and Bartlett Line. The 
boundary between the United States 
and Mexico, Under the provisions of 
the treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, signed 
Feb. 2, 1848, Mr. John Russell Bartlett 
was sent to New Mexico as commis- 
sioner to lay out, with Mexican com- 
missioners, the boundary line. The 
Mexican commissioner was probably 
named Condd, though we do not find 
him mentioned in any history. Hence 
the line decided on was called for a 
time the " Condd and Bartlett Line ; " 

just as the famous " Mason and Dixon 
Line " was named after the surveyors 
who laid it out a hundred years ago and 
more. See Mason and Dixon's Line. 

Con diligenza. (Ital.) Diligently; 
in a studied manner. (Mus.) 

Conditio sine qua non. (Lat.) " Con- 
dition without which not." An indis- 
pensable or necessary condition. 

Con dolore. (Ital.) Mournfully; 
with grief and pathos. (Mus.) 

Condottieri. Leaders of military 
adventurers in the fifteenth century. 
The most noted of these brigand lead- 
ers in Italy were Guarnieri, Lando, 
Francesco of Carmagnola, and Fran- 
cesco Sforza. 

Conductor = Guard. The Amer- 
ican and English terms, respectively, 
for the ofiicer in charge of a passenger 

C. O. Nevers. (Pseud.) Charles 
Crozet Converse, American littdrateur 
(b. 1834). 

Confed. Confederate. 

Confederates, The Southerners dur- 
ing the late civil war were called " Con- 
federates," from the fact that the eleven 
seceding States were known as " the 
Confederate States of America." 

Confederate States. The eleven 
States which seceded from the Amer- 
ican Union in 1861 ; namely, Georgia, 
North and South Carolina, Virginia, 
Tennessee, Alabama, Louisiana, Arkan- 
sas, Mississippi, Florida, and Texas. 
See Secessia. 

Confession of Brandenburg. For- 
mula of faith drawn up by order of the 
Elector of Brandenburg, with a view to 
harmonizing the views of Luther and 
Calvin, and healing the controversy 
caused by the Augsburg Confession. 

Confidence Man. One who by 
plausible stories and falsehoods or by 
assurance obtains the confidence of 
kind-hearted people. This well-known 
phrase is said to have thus originated : 
A few years ago, a man in New York, 
well dressed and of exceedingly genteel 
manners, went about saying, in a very 
winning manner, to almost every gen- 
tleman he met, " Have you confidence 
enough in me, an entire stranger, to 
lend me five dollars for an hour or 
two ? " In this way he got a good deal 
of money, and came to be generally 
known in the courts and elsewhere as 
"the confidence man." 



Confrere. (Fr.) A brother of the 
same society; an associate or profes- 
sional companion. 

Cong. Congress. 

Cong6 d'^Ure. (Fr.) "Leave to 
elect." A writ by the sovereign grant- 
ing leave to elect a bishop. 

Congl. Congregational ; Conglomer- 

Congleton Bears. The men of 
Congleton. The story runs that a cer- 
tain parish clerk of Congleton sold the 
church Bible to buy a bear. 

Con grazia. (Ital.) With grace. (Mus.) 

Con gusto. (Ital.) With taste. 

Conj., or conj. Conjunction. 

Con moto. (Ital.) In an agitated 
style ; with spirit. (Mus.) 

Conn., or Ct. Connecticut. 

Connecticut. The name is derived 
from the Mohegan dialect; spelled 
phonetically Quon-eh-torcut, and signify- 
ing "a long river." 

Connecticut Reserve. See West- 
ern Reserve. 

Connoisseur. (Fr.) A good judge in 
matters of taste or the fine arts. 

Con 8va ad libitum. (Ital.) With 
octaves at pleasure. (Mus.) 

Conqueror, The. (i) Alfonso of 
Portugal (fl. 1094-1185). (2) Aurung- 
zebe the Great, most powerful of the 
Mogul emperors (fl. 1618-1707). (3) 
James I. of Aragon (fl. 1206-1276). (4) 
Othman, the founder of the Turkish 
power (fl. 1259-1326). (s) Francisco 
Pizarro, who conquered Peru (fl. 1475- 
1541). (6) William, Duke of Norman- 
dy, who subjugated England (fl. 1027- 

Conqueror of the World. Alexan- 
der the Great. 

Conscia mens recti famae mendacia 
ridet. (Lat.) A mind which is con- 
scious of rectitude treats with contempt 
lying rumors. 

Conscience, Courts of. In England, 
courts for the recovery of small debts. 
They were also called " Courts of Re- 
quests." On the establishment of county 
courts, they were mostly abolished. 

Conscience WTiigs. "In 1850 the 
Whigs in Congress had taken the posi- 
tion that the slavery question, which 
they regarded as settled by the Com- 
promise of 1850, should not be re- 
opened. This policy was approved by 

President Fillmore. Their attitude led 
to dissensions in the party in many of 
the States. In Massachusetts those 
opposed to the stand thus taken by the 
leaders were known as Conscience 
Whigs ; those that approved it, as Cot- 
ton Whigs. The reason of the name 
is obvious. In New York, Fillmore's 
State, the supporters of his view were 
known as Silver Grays, a name given 
to them because they were mostly the 
older members. They were also called 
Snuff-takers. Those opposing it, head- 
ed by William H. Seward, were called 
Woolly Heads, or Seward Whigs." — 
Brown and Strauss. 

Con scienza. (Ital.) " With knowl- 
edge." With a complete knowledge of 
the subject. 

Conscript Fathers {Patres Con- 
scriptii). The designation given to the 
Roman senators because their names 
were inscribed in the registers of the 

Con. Sec. Conic Sections. 

Conseil de famille. (Fr.) A family 

ConseU d'etat. (Fr.) "Council of 
State." A privy council. 

Conseiller d'etat. (Fr.) A privy 

Conseils de prud'hommes. (Fr.) 
" Councils of discreet men." A mixed 
council of masters and workmen for the 
settlement of trade disputes. 

Consensus facit legem. (Lat.) Con- 
sent makes the law. 

Consentes dii. The twelve chief 
Roman deities, — Jupiter, Apollo, Mars, 
Neptune, Mercury, Vulcan, Juno, Vesta, 
Minerva, Ceres, Diana, and Venus. 

Consenting Stars. Stars forming 
certain configurations for good or evil. 
Thus, we read in the Book of Judges 
(v. 20), " The stars in their courses 
fought against Sisera ; " i. e., formed 
configurations which were unlucky or 

. . . scourge the bad revolving stars. 
That have consented unto Henry's death I 
King Henry the Fifth, too famous to live long I 
Shakspeare, I Henry VI. 

Conservatives. The name given in 
recent times, or since 1830, in English 
political aflCairs to a political party 
whose leading principle is the preser- 
vation of national institutions. Con- 
servative, in popular language, is now 
opposed to Liberal. Sir Robert Peel 
acknowledged himself a Conservative 



when reproached by the Irish party in 
Parliament with being an Orangeman ; 
but the party that afterward separated 
from him called their principles con- 
servative in contradistinction to his pol- 
icy and measures. A great meeting of 
the National Union of Conservative 
Associations was held at the Crystal 
Palace, June 24, 1872. The party in 
the minority at the elections in 1868 ob- 
tained a majority at those in February, 
1874, and came into office. They re- 
signed April 22, 1880. The Marquis of 
Salisbury was elected leader of the party 
May 9, 1881, succeeding the Earl of Bea- 
consfield, who died April 19, previous. 

Consistency, thou art a Jewel. 
" This is one of those popular sayings, 
like 'Be good, and you will be happy,' 
or ' Virtue is its own reward ; ' that 
like Topsy 'never was born, only jist 

f rowed.' From the earliest times it 
as been the popular tendency to call 
this or that cardinal virtue or bright 
and shining excellence a jewel, by way 
of emphasis. For example, lago says : 
' Good name in man or woman, dear my lord. 
Is the immediate jewel of their souls.' 

Shakspeare elsewhere calls experience 
a jewel ; Miranda says her modesty is 
the jewel in her dower ; and in ' All 's 
Well that Ends Well,' Diana terms her 
chastity the jewel of her house." — 

Consistory. Any solemn assembly 
or council ; a religious court for the set- 
tlement of Church questions; the Col- 
lege of Cardinals at Rome. 

Consociation. A free-will confed- 
eracy of neighboring Congregational 
churches for mutual advice and co- 
operation in church matters, composed 
of lay members. 

Conspicuous by his Absence. 
Lord John Russell, alluding to this ex- 
pression used by hira in his address to 
the electors of the city of London, said, 
" It is not an original expression of 
mine, but is taken from one of the 
greatest historians of antiquity." 

Con spirito. (Ital.) With quickness 
and spirit (Mus.) 

Const. Constable; constitution. 

Constance. (Pseud.) Mrs. B. W. 
J. Williams, contributor to " Scott's 
Magazine " and the Mobile " Sundav 
Times." ^ 

Constance Murielle. The stage- 
name of Mr.s. Clement Bennett, for- 
merly Mrs. W. B. Price. 

Constantia. (Pseud.) Mrs. Judith 
Sargent Murray, in various New Eng- 
land publications. 

Constantia et virtute. (Lat.) By 
constancy and virtue. 

Constantine Tolmen. A great ob- 
long stone, 33 feet long, 18 wide, and 
14 thick, poised on the points of two 
upright rocks in Cornwall, England. 
This uplifted mass weighs 750 tons, and 
is a freak of Nature. 

Constitutional Union Party, The, 
consisted of moderate Southerners and 
some Webster Whigs. It claimed for 
its platform the Constitution of the 
United States and the enforcement of 
the laws. At its convention, held May, 
i860, it nominated John Bell for Pres- 
ident and Edward Everett for Vice- 

Consubstantiation. A Lutheran doc- 
trine that the actual, substantial presence 
of the body of Christ is with the bread 
and wine of the Lord's Supper. 

Consuelo. The impersonation of 
moral purity in the midst of tempta- 
tions. Consuelo is the heroine of a 
novel so-called by George Sand. 
Cont. Contra. Against. 
Continental System. A name given 
to Napoleon's plan for shutting out 
Great Britain from all commerce with 
the continent of Europe. He forbade, 
under pain of war, any nation of Europe 
to receive British exports or to send im- 
ports to any of the British dominions. 
The embargo began Nov. 21, 1806, but 
soon ended. 

Continent, The Dark. See Dark 

Continuator of Fordun. A title con- 
ferred on Robert Bower, or Bowmaker 
(b. 1385), because he completed the his- 
tory of Scotland known as " Scotichro- 
nicon," which was begun by Fordun. 
Like the latter, he wrote in Latin. 

Contraband of War, or Contra- 
bands. Gen. B. F. Butler so dubbed 
the negroes during the civil war. 

Contra bonos mores. (Lat.) Con- 
trary to good manners. 

Contrada dei nobUi. (Ital.) " The 
street of the nobles." The part of an 
Italian town where the nobles reside. 

Contra quoscunque. (Lat.) Against 
all persons whatever. 

Contre fortune bon coeur, (Fr.) 
" Against fortune good heart." Keep up 
the spirits in every case of misfortune. 



Contretemps. (Fr.) A mischance; a 

Con variazione. (Ital.) With vari- 
ations. (Mus.) 

Conversation Sharp. Richard Sharp, 
the critic (1759-1835). 

Convicts. A by-name conferred on th e 
Sixtieth Rifles in the English army, be- 
cause of the dingy color of its uniform. 

Convocation. A general assembly of 
clergymen of the Church of England to 
consult as to the affairs of the Church ; 
any called assemblage. 

Conway Cabal. In American his- 
tory the name given to a faction which 
arose in 1777, with the avowed object 
of elevating General Gates to the com- 
mand of the Continental troops. 

Coodies. The name of a political 
sect in the State of New York, which 
originated in the year 1814. At that 
time a series of well-written articles ap- 
peared in a New York paper, signed 
Abimelech Coody. He professed to be 
a mechanic. " He was a Federalist, and 
addressed himself principally to the 
party to which he belonged. He en- 
deavored to show the impropriety of op- 
posing the war, and urged them to come 
forward in defence of their country. He 
also attacked De Witt Clinton with 
great severity." The writer was ascer- 
tained to be Mr. Gulian C. Verplanck, 
then, as now, distinguished for his tal- 
ents. He was replied to by a writer 
under the signature of " A Traveller," 
said to be De Witt Clinton, who thus 
speaks of this party: "The political 
sect called the Coodies, of hybrid na- 
ture, is composed of the combined 
spawn of Federalism and Jacobinism, 
and generated in the venomous passions 
of disappointment and revenge, without 
any definite character ; neither fish nor 
flesh nor bird nor beast, but a nonde- 
script made up of 'all monstrous, all 
prodigious things.'" — Hammond, Po- 
liiiccu History of New York. 

Cooked Accounts. Said of a ledger, 
cash-book, etc., that have been tampered 
with, in order to show a false balance. 

The term was first used in reference to 
George Hudson, the railway king, under whose 
chairmanship the Eastern Counties Railway ac- 
counts were falsified. The allusion is to prepar- 
ing meat for table. 

Cooly. As generally used in this 
country, the word is applied to Chi- 
nese laborers of the lower classes who 
have come to this country. It obtained 

this broad meaning during the discus- 
sion of the Chinese question. Strictly, 
it includes only such laborers as have 
been imported under contract or by 
force or fraud. 

Coon, (i) A nickname for a negro. 
(2) Henry Clay was sneered at by the 
Democrats as " that same old coon," in 
retaliation for the Whigs calling Martin 
Van Buren an " old fox." 

Cop., or Copt. Coptic. 

Cope. (Pseud.) William P. Copeland, 
a well-known American newspaper cor- 
respondent (1843-1883). 

Copia. In classic mythology the god- 
dess of plenty. 

Copia fandL (Lat.) Copiousness of 

Copia verborum. (Lat.) Abundance 
of words ; copiousness of speech. 

Copper-Farthing Dean. Jonathan 
Swift was thus named. 

Copperheads. A popular nickname 
originating in the time of the great civil 
war in the United States, and applied 
to a faction in the North which was 
very generally considered to be in se- 
cret sympathy with the Rebellion, and 
to give it aid and comfort by attempt- 
ing to thwart the measures of the Gov- 
ernment. The name is derived from 
a poisonous serpent called the copper- 
head (7>TJ^(7«c«;>Ai3!/«j contortrix), whose 
bite is considered as deadly as that of 
the rattlesnake, and whose geograph- 
ical range extends from Florida to 45° 
north. The copperhead, unlike the rat- 
tlesnake, gives no warning of its at- 
tack, and is therefore the type of a 
concealed foe. 

Coppernose. Henry VIII. was so 
called, because he mixed so much cop- 
per with the silver coin that it showed 
after a little wear in the parts most pro- 
nounced, as the nose ; hence the sobri- 
quets " Coppernosed Harry," " Old Cop- 
pernose," etc. 

Coquina. (Pseud.) G. O. Shields, a 
sporting writer. 

Cor. Corinthians. 

Cora Ferris. The stage-name of Mrs. 
Herman Gruen. 

Cora Macy. The stage-name of Mrs. 
Charles E. McGeachy. 

Cora Neilson. The stage-name of 
Mrs. J. H. Carver. 

Cora Tanner. The stage-name of 
Mrs. William E. Sinn. 



Cora Van Tassell. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Edwin Young. 

Cora Vaughn. The stage-name of 
Mrs. J. R. Oakley. 

Cora Wilson. The stage-name of 
Mrs. J. W. Conner. 

Coram domino rege. (Lat.) In the 
presence of our lord the king. 

Coram nobis. (Lat.) " In the pres- 
ence of us." In our presence, — i. e., 
before the court of law. 

Coram non judice. (Lat.) Before 
one not the proper judge ; before an 
improper tribunal. 

Coram populo. (Lat.) Before the 

Cor cordium ("heart of hearts"). 
A poetical name applied to Shelley by 
Trelawney, and which was engraved on 
Shelley's tombstone. 

Cordelia Howard. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Edmond Macdonald. 

Cordeliers (lit. "cord-wearers"). Fran- 
ciscan friars who wore a knotted rope 
around the waist for a girdle. During 
the French Revolution a conspicuous 
party was so named because it held its 
meetings in the chapel of the Franciscan 
monastery. Danton, Hubert, Camille 
Desmoulins, Chaumette,and Marat were 
members of this club, which opposed 
the Jacobins. 

Cordidre, La Belle. See Beautiful 


Cordon bleu, (i) A knight of the 
ancient Order of the Holy Ghost. So 
called because the decoration is sus- 
pended on a blue ribbon. It was at one 
time the highest order in the kingdom. 
(2) A first-rate cook. The Commander 
de Souve, Comte d'Olonne, and some 
others, who were cordons bleus, met to- 
gether as a sort of club, and were noted 
for their well-appointed dinners. Hence, 
when any one had dined well, he said, 
"Bien, c'est un vrai repas de cordon- 
bleu ; " and a superior cook was one of 
the cordon bleu type, or, briefly, a cordon 

Cordon rouge. A chevalier of the 
Order of Saint Louis, the decoration be- 
ing suspended on a red ribbon. A 
" grand cordon " is a member of the Le- 
gion d'Honneur, whose cross is attached 
to a grand, or broad, ribbon. 

Corinthian. A licentious fellow. The 
immorality of Corinth was proverbial in 
the ancient world. 

Corinthian Brass. A mixture of 

fold, silver, and brass, which forms the 
est of all mixed metals. When Mum- 
mius set fire to Corinth, the heat of the 
conflagration was so great that it melted 
the metal, which ran down the streets 
in streams. The three mentioned above 
ran together, and obtained the name of 
" Corinthian brass." 

I think it may be of " Corinthian brass," 
Which was a inixtiire of all metals, but 
The brazen uppermost. 

Byron, Don Juan. 

Corinthian War. Begun 395 b. C. 
It received this name from the fact that 
it raged mostly in the neighborhood of 
Corinth by a confederacy of Athenians, 
Thebans, Argives, and Corinthians 
against the Lacedxmonians. Its two 
most famous battles were at Coronea 
and Leuctra. The peace of Antalcidas, 
387 B. C, closed the conflict. 

Corinth's Pedagogue. Dionysius 
the Younger. At his second banish- 
ment from Syracuse, he went to Corinth 
and became a schoolmaster. 

Corisande. (Pseud.) Mrs. Adolphe 
Jerrold Smith, in "The Graphic" (Lon- 
don) and the Liverpool " Courier." 

Cor. Mem. Corresponding Member. 

Com. Cornwall; Cornish. 

Corn = Wheat. In the United 
States the term " corn " is applied ex- 
clusively to maize, or " Indian corn." 
In England " corn" means wheat. 

Cornalba, Mile. The stage-name of 
Mme. Morelli. 

Corn City. Toledo, Ohio. 

Corncrackers. A colloquial nick- 
name for an inhabitant or a native of 

Corncracker State. Kentucky. See 

Comelie d'Anka. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Ingram. 

Cornelius O'Dowd. (Pseud.) Charles 
James Lever, Irish novelist (1806- 

Cornish Hug. A hug to overthrow 
one. The Cornish men were famous 
wrestlers, and tried to throttle their an- 
tagonists with a particular lock, called 
the Cornish hug. 

Cornish Wonder. John Opie, the 
painter (fl. 1761-1807), He was a lia- 
tive of Cornwall. 

Com-juice. The slang term current 
in the West for whiskey. 



Corn-law Rhymer. Ebenezer El- 
liott (fl. 1781-1849), who wrote largely 
against the corn-laws during the agita- 
tion for their repeal. 

Corol. Corollary. 

Corporal's Guard. A colloquial term 
for an insignificant force. In American 
political nomenclature the term denotes 
the small body of Whigs in Congress 
who stood by President Tyler after he 
had vetoed the tariff bill of his party. 

Corporealist. One who denies the 
existence of spiritual beings. 

Corps d'arm^e. (Fr.) A division of 
a military force. 

Corps diplomatique. (Fr.) " Body 
diplomatic." All the ambassadors from 
the several countries. 

Corps d'observation. (Fr.) A body 
of soldiers for watching the movements 
of the enemy. 

Corps dramatique. (Fr.) " Body 
dramatic." The whole company of ac- 
tors or of a theatre. 

Corpse Candle, (i) The ignis fatuus 
is so called by the Welsh, because it is 
supposed to forbode death, and to show 
the road that the corpse would take. 
(2) A large candle used at wakes. 

Corpus Christi. (Lat.) " The body 
of Christ." The most splendid festival 
of the Roman Catholic Church. It 
was instituted in 1264 in honor of the 
Consecrated Host, and with a view to 
its adoration by Pope Urban IV., who 
appointed for its celebration the Thurs- 
day after the festival of the Trinity, and 
promised to all the penitent who took 
part in it indulgence for a period of 
from forty to one hundred days. The 
festival is chiefly distinguished by mag- 
nificent processions. In France it is 
known as the Fife Dieu. 

Corpus delictL (Lat.) "The body 
of the crime." The substance or foun- 
dation of the defence. 

Corpus ezsangue. (Lat.) The life- 
less body. 

Corpus juris. (Lat.) " The body of 
the law." The whole mass of the law. 

Corpus sine pectore. (Lat.) The 
body without a mind or soul. 

Corrector of the People. See Al- 
exander THE Corrector. 

Corregglo. One of the pen-names 
usually attributed to Junius (q. v.). 

Correggio of Sculptors. Jean Gou- 
jon (fl. 1510-1572). See also French 

Corrigenda. (Lat.) Corrections to 
be made. 

Corsair. (Pseud.) James Wood Da- 
vidson in Southern newspaper press. 

Cor. Sec. Corresponding Secretary. 

Corsica Paoli. Pasquale de Paoli 
(fl. 1 726-1807), a Corsican patriot, and 
leader of his people in their struggle 
against Genoa. 

Cortez of Africa. Henry M. Stan- 
ley, the dauntless explorer of the Dark 
Continent, has been so named. 

Corvinus(" raven"). Janos Hunyady, 
governor of Hungary, was so named on 
account of the raven on his shield. 

Coryphaeus. A model man or leader. 
From the Kopnx^aios, or leader of the 
chorus in the Greek drama. 

Coryphaeus of German Literature. 

The Polish poet called upon . . . the great 
Coryphaeus of German literature. — W. R. MOR- 
FELL, Notes and Queries. 

Coryphaeus of Grammarians. Aris- 
tarchus of Samothrace, the most cele- 
brated grammarian of antiquity. 

Cos. Cosine. 

Cosas de Espana. (Span.) " Things 
of Spain." Spanish doings ; strange or 
unintelligible actions. 

Coss. Consules. Consuls. 

Cossack Marlinski. (Pseud.) Alex- 
ander Bestuschew, a Russian novelist 
(l 795-1837), author of "Marlinski's 
Tales," St. Petersburg, 1840. 

Coster's Friend, The. Anthony Ash- 
ley Cooper, Earl Shaftesbury, the Eng- 
lish philanthropist (d. 1885), was so 
named. Though his active benevolence 
was extended to all classes, it was 
among the London "barrow-men" that 
he achieved the greatest good. He often 
said it was the proudest moment of his 
life when the handsomest donkey in the 
East End of London was publicly pre- 
sented by a delegation from the class he 
loved to befriend. 

Costumier. (Fr.) A dealer in cos- 
tumes or dresses, particularly of a the- 
atrical character. 

Cotillon. A lively dance. 

Cots'wold Iiion. A sheep. The 
Cotswold hills are famous for their 
flocks of sheep ; and there is a local 
ironical saying, " Fierce as a Cotswold 

Cottage orn6. (Fr.) A cottage villa. 

Cotton Famine, so called. A fearful 
time of suffering in Great Britain in 




1 861 and foUowiing years, occasioned by 
the war of secession in the United 
States. The yearaS42S9 ^"d i860, un- 
paralleled for the ij^nitude of the 
cotton manufacture, T^Jd much to do 
with the collapse that followed. The 
fact that of 1,390,000,000 lbs. of cotton 
imported in 1860 no less a weight than 
1,120,000,000 came from the United 
States, shows the tremendous effect to 
be expected from any stoppage in the 
American cotton-trade. Irrespective of 
this, however, there would have been 
stagnation in British manufacturing dis- 
tricts in 1861, even if raw cotton had 
been plentiful and cheap. The manu- 
facturers had glutted all the markets by 
the wholly unprecedented extent of their 
operations in i860. The English ware- 
houses, as well as those elsewhere, were 
full, and time was needed to carry off 
the immense stock. There were cotton 
goods on hand in Great Britain at the 
end of the year valued at ;£2o,ooo,ooo ; 
while in India British merchants con- 
tinued to pour in goods even when the 
consignments of i860 exceeded £iT,- 
000,000. Fort Sumter was bombarded 
April, 1861. This was virtually the be- 
ginning of the war of secession and of 
the rise in the price of cotton. A block- 
ade was early established by the Federal 
Government ; and it was only by " run- 
ning" this blockade that cotton-laden 
ships could clear from the Southern or 
Confederate ports. The price of Mid- 
dling Orleans (the kind of cotton mostly 
used, and that which governs the price 
of all other kinds) rose fron T^id. to gaT., 
lod., and I2i^., as the year advanced. 
There was thus a twofold motive for 
lessening the operations of the Lanca- 
shire mills, — the markets were so fully 
supplied with manufactured goods that 
no immediate augmentation was neces- 
sary ; while the increase in the price of 
the raw material rendered manufactur- 
ing less profitable than before. The 
Liverpool dealers made colossal fortunes 
by the enormous rise in price of every 
bale of cotton which could reach the 
country from any quarter; while the 
manufacturers were also prosperous, be- 
cause they could sell their accumulated 
stocks of calicoes and yarns at much 
higher prices than had been obtainable 
in i860. It was the operatives who 
suffered. One by one the mills were 
put upon half-time, because the mill- 
owners had not much inducement to 
spin and weave under the extraordinary 

double influence above adverted to. It 
was not until autumn, however, that 
these effects were heavily felt, when 
there was the enormous quantity of 
1,000,000,000 lbs. of cotton, raw and 
manufactured, on hand in Great Britain. 
In November there were 49 mills 
stopped, throwing out 8,063 hands, 
while 119 were working half-time, plac- 
ing something like 20,000 persons on 
half their usual wages. So singular 
was the state of things, and so unlike 
what would be called a " famine " under 
other circumstances, that the actual 
quantity of raw cotton in Great Britain 
at the end of the year (280,000,000 lbs.) 
was greater than ever before known in 
the history of the trade; but as the 
market price of yarns and piece goods 
at that time scarcely equalled that of raw 
cotton plus wages, the manufacturer 
could scarcely operate without a loss; 
and therefore he either closed his mill 
or placed his hands on half-time. It was 
not so much a famine of cotton as a 
famine of employment. The first relief 
was from the United States. During 
the autumn and early winter of 1862 the 
citizens of the United States, though 
with hearts and hands full with the 
agonies and necessities of war, contrib- 
uted sufficient food and clothing to Iqad 
three vessels, the " George Griswold," 
"Achilles," and "Hope," which has- 
tened to the relief of their suffering 
cousins, and reached Liverpool in Feb- 
ruary, 1863. The year 1862 opened 
very gloomily. Relief committees be- 
gan to be formed in Manchester, Wigan, 
Blackburn, Preston, and other towns, 
to distribute subscribed funds to such 
of the hands as were totally out of work. 
The streets were thronged with the 
unemployed ; but there was no disturb- 
ance, and scarcely any begging. Sewing- 
schools were established by ladies in 
the several districts, to teach the factory 
girls useful domestic needle-work, of 
which they are generally very ignorant; 
to get them to make clothes for them- 
selves and others ; and to shield them 
from the vicious temptations which 
would beset them during a period of 
idleness. The ladies also won upon the 
affections of the girls by reading to 
them and sympathizing in many ways 
with their sorrows. Many of the man- 
ufacturers set apart large rooms as 
school-rooms and soup-kitchens for the 
boys and men, and abundant stores of 
soup were provided at id. per basin. In 


April, Blackburn had only i8 mills on 
full-time out of 84, the rest being either 
on half-time or closed ; and there were 
9,000 of the inhabitants receiving paro- 
chial relief. Preston had 10,000 oper- 
atives out of work, and Blackburn had 
about half employment for 27,000. Mid- 
dling Orleans rose in price to 151/., and 
manufacturers had more inducement to 
speculate in cotton than to spin it. 
Meanwhile great efforts were made to 
assist the distressed operatives. The 
letters of a " Lancashire Lad " in the 
"Times," with the text "Con yo help 
us a bit?" made a great impression. 
The " Daily Telegraph " raised a fund 
of ;^S,ooo Dy its own exertions. The 
Lancashire landowners established a 
" cotton district relief fund " in London, 
to which they subscribed ;^i 1,000 in 
one day; the Lord Mayor established 
a " Mansion-House Committee," which 
received subscriptions from all parts of 
the world; Manchester established a 
" central relief committee," as a nucleus 
for various local funds; while a great 
county meeting brought in ;£ 130,000, of 
which _;^7o,ooo was subscribed in one 
day in one room. Notwithstanding all 
these sources of assistance, the work- 
people became reduced to great distress. 
"The pawnbrokers' stores," said an 
eyewitness, "were glutted with the 
heirlooms of many an honest family. 
Little hoards were drained to meet the 
exigencies of the time. Rents were 
falling in arrears, and many a house 
which had held only one family was now 
occupied by three or four, in order to 
economize rent, fuel, and furniture." 
Nevertheless, none died of privation, 
and the average sickness was even less 
than usual. It was a gloomy winter, 
that of 1862-1863, for the mill hands. 
The imports of cotton fell to 524,000,000 
lbs., against 1,257,000,000 in 1861, and 
1,391,000,000 in i860. In October the 
loss of wages was estimated at ;£ 136,000 
per week. Vast sums were sent from 
various parts of the world to be spent 
in winter clothing only ; and prodigious 
stores of second-hand clothing were 
contributed by private families. As the 
money relief seldom exceeded 2s. or 
2s. 6d. per week per applicant, to pur- 
chase clothing out of this was of course 
impracticable. The small shopkeepers 
also suffered greatly ; for. there was only 
one third the amount of wages received 
by their customers per week that had 
been received two years before. Emi- 

gration schemes wen 
but were not carrj^ 
because Lancashj^ 
that trade woui 
Meanwhile th g 

lowered ; few ^BPSwriers proposed it, 
and the operatives were immovably 
against it ; however small the quantity 
of work, it was paid for at the old rate. 
In 1863 the average number of persons 
out of work was 189,000, and that of 
those only partially employed, 129,000; 
in 1864 the figures were 134,000 and 
97,000 respectively; and those for the 
first five months of 1865, 107,000 and 
68,000. No date can be named for the 
actual cessation of the distress ; it died 
out by degrees. When the manufac- 
turers had sold off their old stocks, they 
recommenced buying more to spin and 
weave ; because, though the price of 
raw cotton was enormously high, the 
selling price for calicoes and muslins 
was proportionably high, and therefore 
they could manufacture at a profit. 

Cotton Lord. A wealthy Manches- 
ter cotton-spinner, rich in money, houses, 
lands, and dependants. 

Cotton States. South Carolina, 
Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, and Texas. 

Cotton, To. "To cotton," meaning 
"to agree with, to take to," is now a 
common colloquial expression. As the 
poet says in the " Ingoldsby Legends : " 
" For when once Madame Fortune deals out her 
hard raps. 
It 's amazing to think 
How one cottons to drink I " 

This use of the word, however, was 
common several centuries ago. It is' 
found occasionally in the Elizabethan 
writers ; but perhaps the earliest known 
example is the following, from Thomas 
Drant's translation of Horace, published 
in 1567: — 
" So feyneth he, things true and false 

So alwayes mingleth he. 
That first with midst, and midst with laste, 

Maye Gotten and agree." 

The word is entered in Bartlett's " Dic- 
tionary of Americanisms ; " but, as this 
quotation shows, "to cotton," like so 
many other so-called Americanisms, is 
simply a survival, in vulgar use on both 
sides of the Atlantic, of a respectable 
old English word. It may be noted, by 
the way, as regards its etymology, that 
it has no connection with the plant cot- 
ton, but is derived from a Welsh verb 
meaning " to agree, to consent." 



Cotylto. In classic mythology the 
goddess of licentiousness. 

Couleur de rose. (Fr.) " Color of 
rose." Rose-color ; an aspect of beauty 
and attractiveness ; too highly colored ; 
overdrawn with embellishments. 

Council of the Vatican. The twenty- 
first General or CEcumenical Council. 
It commenced in 1869, Pius IX. being 

Counter-jumper. A nickname for a 
draper's assistant, " who jumps over the 
counter to go from one part of the es- 
tablishment to another." 

Counties Palatine. Certain counties 
in England where the earl exercised 
jura regalia, or independent jurisdiction, 
corresponding to the Comes Palatii. 
They were three in number, — Cheshire, 
Durham, and Lancashire, — all frontier 
counties. The Palatine jurisdiction of 
Chester was abolished in 1830, and of 
Durham in 1836. Lancaster alone re- 
tains the custom or right. 

Counting Out. It sometimes hap- 
pens that the political candidate who 
has received the largest number of 
votes is, by fraud in the canvass, de- 
prived of the ofifice to which he has 
been elected, the vote of his opponent 
being made to appear larger than his. 
He is then said to have been " counted 

Country of Paradoxes. Holland, 
where houses are built on the sand, 
where the ocean is higher than the land, 
and where the keels of ships are often 
higher than the housetops. 

A land that rides at anchor and is moored, 

In which they do not live, but go aboard. 

Butler, Hudibras. 

Country Parson. (Pseud.) Rev. A. 
K. H. Boyd, Scottish writer (b. 1825.) 

Coup-d'etat. (Fr.) " Stroke of State." 
A sudden and decisive blow; violent 
measures taken by the Government 
when the State is supposed to be in 

Coup-de-grace. (Fr.) "Stroke of 
mercy." The finishing stroke ; the 
death-stroke which ended the sufferings 
of criminals broken on the wheel. 

Coup-de-main. (Fr.) " Stroke of 
hand." A bold effort ; a sudden or 
unexpected attack ; a surprise. 

Coup-de-pied. (Fr.) A kick. 

Coup-de-plume. (Fr.) An attack 
in writing. 

Coup-d'essai. (Fr.) First trial or 

Coup-de-soleil. (Fr.) "Stroke of 
the sun." Sunstroke ; the disease pro- 
duced by undue exposure of the head 
to the rays of the sun. 

Coup-de-th^dtre. (Fr.) An unfore- 
seen event. 

Coup-d'oeil. (Fr.) " Stroke or glance 
of the eye." A rapid glance of the 

Courtney Melmoth. (Pseud.) Sam- 
uel Jackson Pratt, English poet and 
novelist (1749-18 14). 

Court of Cassation, in France, is the 
court which can casser (or quash) the 
judgment of other courts. 

Court of Love. See Parliament 
OF Love. 

Cousin Alice. (Pseud.) Mrs. Alice 
B. (Bradley) Haven, American writer 

Cousin Clara. (Pseud.) Rev. Daniel 
Wise, D.D., author of the " Lindendale 

Cousin Kate. (Pseud.) (i) Maria J. 
Mcintosh. (2) Mrs. Catherine M. Ed- 
wards. (3) Kate M. T. Cozans, an 
American writer. (4) Catherine D. Bell, 
an American littirateur. 

Cousin May Carleton. (Pseud.) Mrs. 
May Agnes Fleming. 

Cousin Michael. The Germans are 
so called, as the Americans are called 
"Brother Jonathan," and the English 
"John Bull." Michel, in Old German, 
means "gross." Cousin Michael means 
" Cousin Gourmand," or gross feeder ; 
and indicates a slow, heavy, simple, un- 
refined, coarse-feeding people. 

Cousin Virginia. (Pseud.) (l) Vir- 
ginia W. Johnson, an American author; 
she wrote "The Calderwood Secret." 
(2) Virginia Frances Townsend. 

Coflte que co&te, or coflte qu'il 
coiite. (Fr.) "Cost what it may." 
Come what may ; at whatever cost. 

Cove. Slang for "a man." This 
word has so bad a reputation that it is 
not admitted into modern dictionaries. 
It appears always to have been slang; 
for Bailey defines it thus : "a little har- 
bor for boats ; also a man (can/)." He 
also has it in the compound "Abram- 
cove, a naked or poor man {cant)." 

Coventry Antiquary. (Pseud.) 
Thomas Sharp, English ecclesiastical 
writer (1693-1758). 

Coventry Mysteries. Certain mir- 
acle plays acted at Coventry till ISQ'- 
They were published in 1841 for the 



Shakspeare Society, under the care of 
J. O. HaUiwell. 

Covode Investigation. An inquiry 
made at the instance of John Covode, a 
Republican Congressman from Penn- 
sylvania, in i860, into the alleged cor- 
ruption and unconstitutionality of the 
pro-slavery convention which met at 
Lecompton, Kan., and is known by that 
, Cowdray, Curse of. See Curse of 


Co-vtrkiller, The. So Brant named 
the famous Indian chieftain, Red Jacket 
(1751-1830), in allusion to his lack of 
physical courage. 

Cowper Lav7 is trying a man after 
execution. Similar expressions are Jed- 
wood, Jeddart, and Jedburgh Justice. 

Co2comb, The. (i) Richard II. of 
England. (2) Henry III. of France {le 

Coyote. See Prairie Wolf. 

C. P. Common Pleas ; Court of Pro- 

C. P. S. Custos Srivati Sigilli. 
Keeper of the Privy Seal. 

C. R. {\) Custos Rotulorum. Keeper 
of the Rolls. (2) Carolus Rex. King 

Cr. Chromium; creditor; credit. 

Cradle of Liberty. The familiar ap- 
pellative bestowed on Faneuil Hall, 
Boston, Mass., erected in 1742 by Peter 
Faneuil (i 700-1 743), ai^d presented by 
him to the town. In 1761 it was de- 
stroyed by fire, and was rebuilt. Dur- 
ing the Revolutionary struggle the hall 
was so often used for political meetings 
that it became known as the " cradle of 
American liberty." 

Cradle of S-wiss Freedom. The town 
of Schuytz, in the canton of the same 

Cradle of the Reformation. The 
Castle Church (Schlosskirche), in Wit- 
tenberg, erected in 1499, has been so 
named. Here Martin Luther preached, 
and here rest his ashes. See Luther 

Crag, The King's. See King's Crag. 

Crank. A name first bestowed on 
Charles J. Guiteau, the assassin of Pres- 
ident Garfield. It was felt that he was 
neither insane nor wholly sane, but that 
he was a monomaniac on one idea. 
Since then the word has passed into 
popular phraseology to denote one who 
is slightly unbalanced. 

Cranmer's Bible. An edition of the 
Scriptures, a revision of the Great Bible 
(g. v.), which appeared in England in the 
year 1540. 

Cream City. Milwaukee. 
Credat Judaeus. (Lat.) A Jew may 
believe it. 

Credit Mobilier. On the 18th of No- 
vember, 1852, the French Government 
sanctioned the statutes of a new bank 
under the name of the " Socidt^ G6n6- 
ral de Crddit Mobilier." The name was 
intended as a contrast to the Soci^t^s de 
Credit Foncier, which are of the nature 
of land banks, and advance money on 
the security of real or immovable prop- 
erty; while the Credit Mobilier proposed 
to give similar aid to the owners of 
movable property. The declared object 
of this bank is especially to promote in- 
dustrial enterprises of all kinds, such as 
the construction of railways, sinking of 
mines, etc. The operations of the soci- 
ety were conducted upon a very extensive 
scale. In 1854 it subscribed largely to 
the Government loan on account of^the 
Russian war, to the Grand Central Rail- 
way Company, to the General Omnibus 
Company of Paris, and to various other 
important undertakings. In 1855 it lent 
two sums to the Government, — the one 
of 250,000,000 and the other of 375,000,- 
000 francs. Its operations were vast 
during this year. The directors had 
not hitherto availed themselves of their 
privilege of issuing their own obliga- 
tions, but this they now resolved on 
doing. They proposed to issue two 
kinds, the one at short dates, the other 
at long dates, and redeemable by instal- 
ments. The proposed issue was to 
amount to 240,000,000 francs ; but the 
public became alarmed at the prospect 
of so vast an issue of paper money, so 
that in March, 1856, the French Govern- 
ment deemed it necessary to prohibit 
the carrying out of the proposed scheme. 
This was a severe blow to the institu- 
tion. In 1856 its dividends did not ex- 
ceed twenty-two per cent; in 1857 they 
were only five per cent; in i860 they 
were ten per cent. In 1867 stock fell 
greatly, and the company had to go into 
liquidation. The managers, however, re- 
tired with large fortunes. — "The Credit 
Mobilier of America" was chartered in 
Pennsylvania in 1859 as a corporation 
for a general loan and contract business, 
and was reorganized in 1864 for en- 
abling, as it would appear, the share- 
holders of the Union Pacific Railroad 



to build their line .without incurring any 
pecuniary loss in case the enterprise 
failed. The honesty of the management 
having been impeached, the af&irs of 
the organization were investigated by 
Congress in 1872-1873, when some of 
those connected with it were highly 

Credula res amor est. (Lat.) Love 
is a credulous thing. 

Cremera, English. See English 

Creole. One born in the Southern 
States or the West Indies of European 
ancestors. It is from the Spanish cri- 
ollo. In Louisiana alone an admixture 
of French blood makes the true Creole ; 
and his patois, consisting of a mixture 
of English, French, and a few real Afri- 
can words, is called " Creole French." 

Creole State. Louisiana. In this 
State the direct descendants of the 
original French and Spanish colonists 
form an important element in the social 

Crepin. (Pseud.) Charles Wolcott 
Balestier, in the columns of the Roches- 
ter (N. Y.) " Post-Express." 

Crescendo. (Ital.) A gradual increase 
of tone. (Mus.) 

Crescent City. A name by which 
New Orleans is widely known, though 
at the present time it is no longer en- 
tirely appropriate. The older portion 
is built around a semicircular bend of 
the Mississippi ; but in its recent growth 
the city has spread around another bend 
farther up stream, and is now nearly 

Crescit amor uummi quantum ipsa 
pecunla crescit. (Lat.) The love of 
money increases as rapidly as the money 
itself increases. 

Crescite et multiplicamini. (Lat.) 
Increase and multiply. 

Crescit eundo. (Lat.) It increases 
by going. 

Crevasse. A break in an embank- 
ment confining a river or canal. It is 
of French origin, and was originally 
applied by the voyageurs to a break in 
a levee {g. v.). See also Wash-out. 

Cribro aquam haurire. (Lat.) " To 
draw water with a sieve." To lose one's 
time in vain labor. 

Crim. con. Criminal conversation ; 

Crime against Kansas is the name 
by which the speech of Charles Sumner, 

delivered in the Senate May 19 and 20, 
1856, is known. It was directed against 
the acts of the slavery faction in the 
United States in its endeavors to secure 
the admission of Kansas as a slave 
State. Senator Butler had attacked 
Sumner in debate, and in this .speech 
Sumner retorted. For this he was 
brutally assaulted by Butler's nephew, 
Preston S. Brooks. See Border 
War ; John Brown ; Lecompton 

Crimen falsi. (Lat.) Falsehood or 

Crimen laesae majestatis. (Lat.) 
The crime of high treason. 

Crimps. See Spirits and Crimps. 

Crispin Catiline. An opprobrious 
nickname bestowed by Mirabeau on 
D'Espremesnil, in ridicule of his con- 

Crispin's Day. The 25th of October, 
the day of the battle of Agincourt. 

Crispin's Holiday. Every Monday. 
Shoemakers in some parts begin the 
working week on Tuesday. Saint Cris- 
pin was a shoemaker, and the patron 
saint of the craft. 

Crispus. (Pseud.) Major C. C. 
Wheeler, a frequent contributor to the 
Brooklyn " Daily Eagle." 

Criss-cross Row. The alphabet, 
either from the fact that in the old 
hornbooks the sign of the cross pre- 
ceded the letter A, or because the let- 
ters were arranged in the form of a 

The assertion that the alphabet was written 
or printed in hornbooks in the form of a cross is 
one that may be moralized on to advantage by 
explainers of old stories and would-be etymolo- 
gists. Christ's cross was cruciform, the alpha- 
bet was called Christ's cross, — the word "row" 
being of no consequence when it stops a theory, 
— therefore the alphabet was in a cruciform 
shape. Imagination further asks, " How could 
this be done ? " The answer comes readily, even 
from one of the meanest capacity, — the conso- 
nants formed the perpendicular, the vowels the 
shorter transverse. Q. E. D. Yet all is imag- 
ination, and the fact that the cross commenced 
the alphabetic row is wholly ignored. I say 
"imagination," for I doubt extremely whether 
such an eccentric arrangement as a cruciform 
one can be found in any hornbook. Our ances- 
tors had various faults, but they were practical, 
and not faddists ; they seldom, too, moved out of 
a groove. In addition to the examples of horn- 
books quoted, or representations that I have 
seen, I would give these: Minsheu (1617) has, 
" The Chrisse-cross (and Christ's cross) Row, or 
A B C;" Cotgrave, "Le croix de par Dieu, 
The Christ's-cross row, or the hornbook wherein 
a child learns it ; " while Sherwood synonymizes 
the cross-row with "Le croix," etc., and with 



"1' Alphabet," this last work being omitted by 
Cotgrave. Again, Th. Cooper (1574) and Holy- 
oke's " Rider," speak, under " Alphabetum" and 
•' Abecedarius," not of the " cross-rows " nor of 
the " cross," but of " the cross " as synonymous 
with the alphabet; and Thomasius (1594) says, 
" The cross row, or A B C." — Notes and 

Criticus. (Pseud.) Thomas Barnes, 
sometime editor of the London " Times." 

Crito. (Pseud.) (l) One of the pseu- 
donyms attributed to Junius {q. v.). 
(2) Rev. John Duncombe, a contributor 
to the "Gentleman's Magazine," 1765- 

Crittenden Compromise. "In i860, 
when secession of the Southern States 
was threatening, John J. Crittenden, of 
Kentucky, offered a resolution that the 
Constitution be amended as follows : 
In all territory north of thirty-six de- 
grees thirty minutes slavery was to be 
prohibited ; in all territory south of that 
line it was to be protected. New States 
in either section were to determine for 
themselves. The resolution further de- 
clared that Congress had no power to 
abolish slavery in the District of Co- 
lumbia as long as it existed in either 
Virginia or Maryland, nor without the 
consent of the inhabitants and compen- 
sation to non-assenting owners. Fur- 
ther provisions concerned slaves held 
by federal officers in the District, and 
damages for slaves freed by violence ; 
while still others prohibited Congress 
from abolishing the inter-State slave 
trade, and forbade future amendments 
to the Constitution changing any of 
these provisions, or Article I, section 2, 
clause 3, and Article 4, section 2, 
clause 3, of the Constitution, or abol- 
ishing slavery in any State. Then 
followed resolutions which declared 
the fugitive slave laws to be consti- 
tutional, recommending some slight 
changes in them, and requesting the 
State legislatures to repeal or modify 
the 'personal-liberty laws,' and con- 
cluded by a denunciation of the African 
slave trade. It was not adopted." — 
Brown and Strauss. 

Croaker. (Pseud.) Joseph Rodman 
Drake in the "Evening Post," New 
York (1819). 

Crocodile's Tears. Hypocritical 
tears. The tale is, that crocodiles 
moan and sigh like a person in deep 
distress, to allure travellers to the spot, 
and even shed tears over their prey 
while in the act of devouring it. 

Crocus. In classic mythology a 
youth who, suffering from unrequited 
affection for the nymph Smilax, was 
changed by the gods into a saffron 

Croesus of English Abbeys. See 
Ramsay the Rich. 

Crom-wellian Board of Aldermen. 
A name given to a small body of men 
who in 1874-187J claimed that they 
had been elected aldermen in New 
York. The newspapers dubbed them 
the Cromwellian Board, because they 
strove to get possession of the council- 

Cronian Sea. The Frozen Ocean. 
The Cimbri called it "the dead sea." 

As when two polar winds, blowing adverse, 

Upon the Cronian Sea. 

Milton, Paradise Lost. 

Cronos. In classic mythology the 
youngest of the Titans. 

Crook. A slang term for a sharper, 
— a chevalier eP industrie. 

Croppies. An opprobrious name ap- 
plied to Catholic Irishmen. Previous 
to and during the rebellion of 1 798 in Ire- 
land many brutal massacres and house- 
burnings were perpetrated by Orange- 
men. By the connivance of the English 
Government they were formed into yeo- 
manry companies and battalions, whose 
privilege it was to ravage and destroy 
the lives, homes, and lands of all Irish- 
men suspected of the slightest hostility 
to English rule. The patriots formed 
themselves into an organization called 
the "United Irishmen." Theobald 
Wolfe Tone was the founder and di- 
rector. He, though an Irishman, held 
a commission of high rank in the French 
army, and introduced into Ireland some 
of the customs of the French soldiery. 
One of these was cropping the hair 
closely. The United Irishmen adopted 
it, and they were dubbed Croppies. 
Hence the Orange tune, "Down, Crop- 
pies, lie down." 

Croquis, Alfred. Daniel Maclise, 
R. A. This pseudonym was attached 
to a series of character-portraits in 
" Eraser's Magazine " between the years 
1830 and 1838. Maclise was born 181 1, 
and died 1870. 

Crotona's Sage. Pythagoras. 

Crow. From very early times — in- 
deed, from the time of Noah — the crow 
has been looked upon as an unclean 
bird, not fit to serve as food for man. 
Hence the expression " to have to eat 



crow" is synonymous with the perform- 
ance of any distasteful gastronomic feat, 
mental or physical, but is particularly ap- 
plied to an enforced diet of metaphorical 
carrion, such as eating one's words, and 
the like. 

The sentiment of the phrase " eating crow " 
has been recognized in all ages ; but the origin 
of this particular form may have arisen from the 
old tale of the poacher who compelled his captor 
to finish the bird, or from the kindred story of 
the ofBcer and private. A soldier, having shot a 
tame crow belonging to one of the officers, was 
discovered by its owner with the dead bird in his 
hand. Seizing the private's gun, the officer de- 
clared that, having killed the bird, he must eat 
it ; but no sooner had he returned the gun than 
the soldier, pointing it at his companion's head, 
vowed that he should finish the bird. The next 
day the soldier was court-martialled ; and when 
asked by the examiners what had occurred the 
day before to lead to his arrest, he coolly replied, 
" Nothing, except that Captain Blank and 1 
dined together." Many anecdotes of the crow 
have grown gray in the service of their country, 
for one rarely hears or reads a political speech 
that does not make use of the expression. 

Crow, The. Mrs. Aitken (d. 1888), a 
sister of Thomas Carlyle, was so known 
among her family intimates and in cor- 
respondence on account of her swarthy 

Crown of the East. The city of An- 
tioch, capital of Syria, which was com- 
posed of four distinct walled quarters, 
the whole encompassed by a common 
rampart, which "surrounded them like 
a coronet." 

Cruda viridisque senectus. (Lat.) 
A vigorous and green old age. 

Cruel, The. (l) Pedro, king of Cas- 
tile (fl. 1334-1369). (2) Pedro I. of 
Portugal (fl. 1320-1367). 

Cruz criticorum, (Lat.) The cross 
or puzzle of critics. 

Cry of Haro {Clameur lie Hard). An 
appeal for justice. It is said that Raoul, 
or RoUo, of Normandy, administered 
justice so impartially that injured per- 
sons cried "k Raoul !" 

Cryptograms. Crypt or cipher writ- 
ing is of very ancient origin, having 
been used from time immemorial in 
State or diplomatic correspondence 
where secrecy was indispensable to 
success or safety. Cryptograms or 
private alphabets have been devised 
which absolutely defy detection by 
those not in possession of the key, 
and to this class belong the modern 
commercial and cable "codes," many 
thousands of which are in use through- 
out the civilized and business world. 

In recent years a series of novel con- 
tests raged in England which were based 
on the selection of a given sentence and 
the endeavor to make as many new 
words therefrom as possible. Numer- 
ous prizes were offered to the persons 
building up the largest list of names, 
and the plan was also tried in the United 
States to raise funds for a worthy public 
object. In connection with these English 
word-juggles a lady in London offered 
thirty pounds for the translation of the 
following ingenious cryptogram: "If the 
B m t put : but if the B. putting : " The 
answer is, " If the grate be empty, put 
coal on ; but if the grate be full, stop 
putting coal on." 

A cryptogram once did good service in one 
of the greatest astronomical discoveries of mod- 
ern times, and the incident is thus related by 
Mr. Langley in one of his " New Astronomy " 
articles : " When Galileo first turned his glass 
on Saturn he saw, as he thought, that it con- 
sisted of three spheres close together, the middle 
one being the largest. He was not quite sure of 
the fact, and was in a dilemma between his desire 
to wait longer for further observation and his fear 
that some other observer might announce the dis- 
covery if he hesitated. To combine these incom- 
patibles — to announce it so as to secure the pri- 
ority and yet not announce it till he was ready 
— might seem to present as great a difficulty as 
the discovery itself; but Galileo solved this by 
writing it in the sentence, * Altissimum planetam 
tergeminum observavi' ('I have observed the 
highest planet to be triple '), and then jumbling 
the letters, which made tlie sentence into the 
monstrous word, 


and publishing this, which contained his discov- 
ery, but under lock and key. He had reason to 
congratulate himself on his prudence, for within 
two years two of the supposed bodies disap- 
peared, leaving only one. This was in 1612, and 
for nearly fifty years Saturn continued to all 
astronomers the enigma which it was to Galileo, 
till in 1656 it was finally made clear that it was 
surrounded by a thin, flat ring which, when seen 
fully, gave rise to the first appearance in Gali- 
leo's small telescope, and when seen edgewise 
disappeared from its view altogether." This is 
probably the only instance on record where crypt 
writing became handmaid to science, though its 
importance in the affairs of the present time can 
scarcely be overrated. 

Crystal Hills, (i) On the coast of 
the Caspian, near Badku, is a mountain 
which sparkles like diamonds, from the 
sea-glass and crystals with which it 
abounds. (2) An old poetical name for the 
White Mountains in New Hampshire. 

C. S. (i) Court of Sessions. {2)Custos 
Sigilli. Keeper of the Seal. 

Cs. Cases. 

C. S. A. Confederate States of 



Csk. Cask. 

C. S. N. Confederate States Navy. 

C. T. Certificated Teacher. 

Ct. Court. 

C. Theod. Codice Theodosiano, In 
the Theodosian Code. 

Ctl. Central. 

Cts. Cents. 

Cu. Cuprum. Copper. 

Cub. Cubic. 

Cubben Noaoh (" Old Noah "). The 
pen-name of the Swedish novelist, Carl 
Ekstrom (1836-1886). 

Cub. ft. Cubic foot. 

Cubittopolis. See Mesopotamia. 

Cuckold King. Mark of Cornwall. 
" His wife, Yseult, intrigued with Sir 
Tristram, one of the Knights of the 
Round Table." 

Cuckold's Point. A very old name 
for a spot on the bank of the Thames 
near Deptford. It is traditionally 
related that here King John made 
successful love to a buxom farmer's 

Cucumber Time. The dull season 
in the tailoring trade. The Germans 
call it Die saure Gurken Zeit (pickled- 
gherkin time). Hence the expres- 
sion : "Tailors are vegetarians, because 
they live on ' cucumber ' when without 
work, and on ' cabbage ' when in full 

Cuffey. Among spurious American- 
isms cuffey stands foremost. Constantly 
spoken of as a negro term, it is nothing 
more than a corruption of the slang term 

Cuibono? (Lat.) "For whose good?" 
For whose benefit is it? What good 
will it do? 

Cuilibet in arte sua credendum 
est. (Lat.) Every man should be 
trusted in his own art or profession. 

Cui malo ? (Lat.) To whose harm ? 

Cul de sac. (Fr.) The bottom of the 
bag ; a difficulty ; a street or lane that 
has no outlet. 

Cultivator Mary. Mrs. Mary Ase- 
nath Short, a well-known writer on agf-i- 
cultural and household topics in the 
"Ohio Cultivator." 

Cumberland Poet. William Words- 
worth, who was born at Cockermouth. 

Cum grano salis. (Lat.) "With a 
grain of salt." With some allowance or 

Cum multis aliis. (Lat.) With many 
other things. 

Cum notis variorum. (Lat.) With 
notes of various authors. 

Cum privilegio. (Lat.) With privi- 

Cunning. A colloquial word signify- 
ing attractiveness, ingenuity, playful- 
ness ; generally said of children. 

Cunobelin's Gold Mines. Some 
caverns in the chalk cliffs of Little 
Thurrock, Essex, England, are so 
named on account of a legend that in 
them King Cunobelin hid his treasures. 
They are also called Dane Holes, from 
the fact that the Danish invaders used 
to lurk therein. 

Cupboard Love. Love from inter- 
ested motives. The allusion is to the 
love of children for some indulgent per- 
son who gives them something nice from 
her cupboard. 

Cupid. The son of Mars and Venus, 
and the god of love. 

Cup-tOBser. A juggler. The old 
symbol for a juggler was a goblet. The 
phrase and symbol are derived from the 
practice of jugglers, who toss in the air, 
twist on a stick, and play all sorts of 
tricks with goblets or cups. 

Cur. Currency. 

Curse secundse. (Lat.) Additional 
improvements, as in literary work. 

Curate of Meudon. Rabelais (fl. 
1483-1553). During the latter part of 
his life he was parish priest of Meudon. 

Curator bonis. (Lat.) " One who 
cares for the goods." A guardian or 
trustee over property. 

Curia advisari vult. The court 
wishes to be advised. 

Curiosa felicitas. (Lat.) " Pains- 
taking felicity " (of expression). A 
lucky hit; a happy idea. 

Currente calamo. (Lat.) "With a 
running pen." Off-hand; with great 

Currer Bell. (Pseud.) Charlotte 
Bronte (Mrs. Nichols), 1816-1855. 

Currer Lyle. (Pseud.) Mrs. M. L. R. 
Crossley, in the " Literary Companion," 
Newnan, Ga. 

Curry favor. To curry a horse was 
to rub him down, comb him, and dress 
him. Favel was a general name for a 
chestnut horse, derived from the French 
faveau, the color of fallow land or chest- 
nut. The phrase was originally " to curry 



Favel," but it has been corrupted. The 
saying no doubt originated in the case 
of a favorite horse Favel, to curry whom 
well was a sure passport to the favor of 
his master. 

Curse of Co'wdray. Cowdray, near 
Midhurst, in England, was, until its de- 
struction by fire on Sept. 24, 1793,006 
of the largest and finest of the great 
Tudor houses, of which Hatfield and 
Audley End are, though much later in 
date, perhaps the two best-known sur- 
viving examples. The " curse of fire 
and water" had been invoked on the 
family by the despoiled monks, and it 
required but little superstition to believe 
that such a frightful double disaster was 
the fulfilment of it. "The curse of Cow- 
dray " has become a well-known phrase 
since the curse was apparently fulfilled 
in 1793. In that year, almost on the 
same day, the young owner, the 
eighth Lord Montague, was drowned 
in the Rhine, and the beautiful 
house w^as totally destroyed by fire. 

Curse of Scotland. The nine of 
diamonds is so named. There are a 
number of explanations of the origin of 
this allusion. In the distracted state of 
the country during the reign of Mary, a 
man named George Campbell attempted 
to steal the crown out of Edinburgh Cas- 
tle. He did not succeed in getting 
away with the crown itself, but did man- 
age to abstract nine valuable diamonds, 
and to get off with them out of the coun- 
try. To replace these a heavy tax was 
laid upon the people, which, being found 
burdensome and oppressive, was by 
them termed the Curse of Scotland; 
and until quite recently, in certain dis- 
tricts o'f Scotland, the card itself was 
called "George Campbell." Another 
explanation relates to the massacre of 
Glencoe, which is well remembered. 
The order for this cruel deed was signed 
by the eldest son of the Earl of Stair, 
who was at that time Secretary of State 
for Scotland. The coat-of-arms of this 
family bears nine diamonds on its shield; 
and the indignant people, not daring to 
stigmatize the Lord of Stair as the 
Curse of Scotland, applied the term to 
his shield. Still another solution, and 
equally good, relates to the battle of 
CuUoden, the result of which extin- 
guished the hopes of the Stuarts, and 
was at the time regarded as a national 
curse. The Duke of Cumberland, who 
was known to be very fond of cards, 

and who always carried a pack in his 
pocket, when he had made his victory 
of CuUoden complete, took a card from 
his pocket, and wrote thereon a de- 
spatch announcing his victory, and that 
card proved to be the nine of dia- 
monds. Another authority says tliere 
are " two most plausible suggestions 
to account for the phrase: (i) The 
nine of diamonds in the game of ' Pope 
Joan' is called the Pope, the Antichrist 
of the Scotch Reformers. (2) In the 
game of ' Commette,' introduced by 
Queen Mary, it is the winning card; 
and the game was the curse of Scot- 
land because it was the ruin of so many 

Curt Curtis's Supreme Court Re- 

Curtain Lecture. These words oc- 
cur as a marginal reference in Sir R. 
Stapleton's "Translation of Juvenal's 
Sixth Satire," A. d. 1647, lines 267, 
268, which he renders as follows : — 

Debates, alternate brawlings, ever 

LECTURE. I'th' marriage bed; there is no 
sleeping there. 

Curthose. Robert II., Duke of Nor- 
mandy (fl. 1087-1134). 

Curtius. (Pseud.) Dr. William Jack- 
son in the Philadelphia " Ledger." 

Curtmantle. The surname of Henry 
II. (1133-1189.) He introduced the An- 
jou mande, which was shorter than the 
robe worn by his predecessors. 

Cush. Cushing's Massachusetts Re- 

CuBtos rotulorum, (Lat.) "The 
keeper of the rolls." The officer in 
charge of the rolls or records of sessions 
of the peace, a county title usually 
borne by the Lord Lieutenant. 

Cut Blocks 'With a Bazor. Oliver 
Goldsmith said of Edmund Burke, the 
statesman, — 

Too deep for his hearers, he went on refining, 
And thought of convincing, while they thought 

of dining ; 
Tho' equal to all things, to all things unfit : 
Too nice for a statesman, too proud for a wit ; 
For a patriot too cool ; for a drudge disobedient ; 
Aijd too fond of the right to pursue the exfedi- 

In short, 't was his fate, unemployed or in place, 

sir, • 

To eat mutton cold, and cut blocks with a razor. 

Cuthbert Bede. (Pseud.) Rev. Ed- 
mund Bradley, English poet (b. 1827). 

Cute, Cuteness. This so-called 
Americanism appears to be older than 



Goldsmith's " Good-Natured Man." In 
the " Percy Anecdotes : Benevolence " 
there is a story of an old woman who 
addressed Arbuthnot as " a cute doc- 
tor." No reference is given ; but if it is 
a genuine contemporary anecdote, it 
brings "cute "up to the time of Queen 
Anne. Foote uses " cute " in " The Com- 
missary" (1765), act iii. : "I did not 
know but they might be apter, more 
cuterer now in catching their larning." 
He has also the adverb in " The Ora- 
tors" (1762), act i. : "I did speechify 
once at a vestry concerning new letter- 
ing the church buckets, and came ofE 
cutely enough." " Cute, a low word, 
used instead of acute," is given in B. 
Martin's "English Dictionary "(1754). 
— Notes and Queries. 

Cut of his Jib. The foremost sail of 
a ship is called the jib ; and its shape 
indicates, to some extent, the class of 
vessel bearing it. At sea, particularly 
in war-time, every vessel coming in 
sight is carefully scanned; and if the 
strange craft looks suspicious, the man 
on the lookout expresses his opinion 
by saying, " I don't like the cut of her 
jib." The expression is easily trans- 
ferred by Jack to the personal appear- 
ance of any person to whom he may 
feel a dislike. 

Cutting o£E -with a Shilling. Black- 
stone says that "the Romans were 
wont to set aside testaments as being 
inofficiosa, deficient in natural duty, if 
they disinherited or totally passed by 
any of the children of the testator. But 
if the child had any legacy, however 
small, it was a proof that the testator 
had not lost his reason or his memory, 
which otherwise the law presumed. 
Hence, probably, has arisen that ground- 
less error of the necessity of leaving 
the heir a shilling, or some express leg- 
acy, in order to disinherit him effectu- 
ally. Whereas the law of England 
makes no such constrained suppositions 
of forgetfulness or insanity, and there- 
fore, though the heir or next of kin be 
totally omitted, it admits no querela in- 
officiosa to set aside such a testament." 

Cut your Stick. A writer in " Notes 
and Queries," who dates from Glasgow, 
says this phrase originated as follows : 
"About the year 1820 a song was sung 
in the Salt Market, Glasgow, beginning, 
" Oh, I creished my brogues, and I cut my stick." 
The song related the adventures of an 
Irishman; and of course the 'cutting 

of the stick ' referred to the common 
practice in Ireland of procuring a sap- 
ling before going off. It afterwards be- 
came the practice, when any one ran off 
or absconded, to say, ' That chap has 
cut his stick too;' and thus the phrase 
originated and spread over the country. 
Americans claim the origin of this 
phrase. They say it arose from the fact 
that runaway slaves usually cut a great 
stick before starting, to help them on 
their way. Advertisements of runaway 
slaves were headed with woodcuts of a 
negro with a stick and bundle over his 
shoulder. Some have thought that the 
phrase may have originated in a print- 
ing-office, where a compositor who 
wanted a holiday, said " I shall cut the 
stick [composing-stick] for to day, and 
have a walk instead." 

C. "W. Canada West. 

Cwt. Hundredweight. 

Cybele. In classic mythology the 
daughter of Coelus and Terra, and wife 
of Saturn. She was called the Mother 
of the Gods. 

Cyo. Cyclopaedia. 

Cyclic Poets. " Inferior epic poets. 
On the death of Homer a host of min- 
strels caught the contagion of his 
poems, and wrote continuations, illus- 
trations, or additions thereto. These 
poets were called cyclic because they 
confined themselves to the cycle of the 
Trojan war. The chief were Strasinos, 
Arctinos, Lesches, Agias, and Euga- 

Cyclopean Masonry. Generally 
applied to the old Pelasgic ruins of 
Greece, such as the Gallery of Tiryns, 
the Gate of Lions, the Treasury of Ath- 
ens, and the Tombs of Phoroneus and 
Danaos. They are said to have been 
the work of the Cyclops. 

Cyclops. In classic mythology a gi- 
ant race, having only one eye, who 
peopled the sea-coasts of Sicily. 

Cynosure. In classic mythology a 
nymph of Idaea, the nurse of Jupiter, 
who placed her in the constellation 
Ursa Minor as the pole-star. 

Cynthia. A surname of Diana, de- 
rived from Mount Cynthus, her birth- 

Cynthius. A surname of Apollo, from 
Mount Cynthus, his birthplace. 

Cyparissus. In classic mythology a 
beautiful youth, the favorite of Apollo, 
whose pet stag he accidentally killed. 



Immoderate grief seized him on account 
of this mishap, and he was changed into 
a cypress. 

Cyprian. A woman of easy virtue, 
so named from the island of Cyprus, 
where was one of the chief temples of 

Cyrenaio School. Founded by 
Aristippos of Cyrene, in Africa. The 
chief dogma of this philosopher was 
that pleasure and pain are the criterions 
of what is good and bad. 

Cyrenians. Philosophers of a school 
founded by Aristippos of Cyrene, a 

Grecian colony on the northern coast 
of Africa. They were an offshoot of 
the Epicureans. 

Cyrus. (Pseud.) Another pen-name 
of George John Stevenson, M.A. See 

Cythera. In classic mythology a 
surname of Venus, derived from the 
town of the name in Crete, where the 
goddess was said to have first set foot 
on earth, and where she had a temple. 

Czar of Pennsylvania Politics. Si- 
mon Cameron, the statesman (1799- 
1889), has been so named. 


D. (i) Denarius or Denarii. Penny 
or pence. (2) Died. (3) Five hundred. 
Dabney, Isle de. See Isle de Dab- 


Da capo, or D. C. (Ital.) " From the 
beginning." A musical expression often 
written at the end of a movement to in- 
dicate that the performer must return to 
the beginning and finish with the first 

Da capo senza repetitione, e poi la 
coda. (Ital.) Begin again, but with any 
repetition of the strain, and then pro- 
ceed to the coda. (Mus.) 

Da deztram misero. (Lat.) "Give 
the right hand to the unfortunate." Give 
a helping hand to the unfortunate. 

Daedalus. In classic m}rthology an 
artist of Athens, who arranged the Cre- 
tan labyrinth, and who, by the aid of a 
pair of wings he constructed, fled from 
Crete across the yEgean Sea to escape 
the anger of Minerva.' 

D. A. G. Deputy Adjutant-General. 

Dagger Scene in the House of 
Commons. It is well known that dur- 
ing the French Revolution Burke created 
a great sensation by suddenly throw- 
ing a dagger upon the floor of the 
House of Commons, vociferating, 
" There is French fraternity for you ! 
Such is the poniard which French Ja- 
cobins would plunge in the heart of our 
Sovereign." It is said that Sheridan 
threw great ridicule upon this theatrical 
exhibition by saying, " The gentleman 
has brought his knife with him, but 

where 'j the fork f " At any rate, the 
matter created great amusement at 
Burke's expense. 

Dago. A nickname for a Spaniard; 
a corruption of hidalgo. 

Dagon. A Phoenician divinity, with 
the face and hands of a man and the 
tail of a fish. 

Dagonet. (Pseud.) George Robert 
Sims, in the London " Referee " from 
1877 on. 

Dahak. The Satan of the Persian 

Daikokn. In Japanese mythology 
the god of artisans. 

Dai-niz-no-Rai. In Japanese mythol- 
ogy the god of the sun. 

Daisy Eyesbright. The pseudonym 
of Mrs. S. O. Johnson, a writer on 
women's topics of the present day. 

Daisy Howard. (Pseud.) Myra 
Daisy McCrum. 

Daisy Oakley. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Roger Harding. 

Dak. Dakota. 

Dakota. This is a Sioux word, mean- 
ing " many-headed," or many in one gov- 
ernment, referring to a confederation of 
Sioux tribes under one chief. 

Dal. (Ital.) By; 2S, Dal segno, irom 
the sign ; a mark of repetition. (Mus.) 

Dall. Dallas's Pennsylvania Reports. 

Da locum melioribus. (Lat.) Give 
way to your betters. 



Dames quSteuses. (Fr.) " Lady col- 
lectors; money-gathering or collecting 
ladies." Ladies who collect privately for 
convents or to relieve certain poor under 
their care. 

Daiaiens's Attempt. Louis XV. of 
France was stabbed in the right side 
with a knife by Damiens, a native of 
Arras, Jan. 5, 1757; the would-be as- 
sassin was broken on the wheel March 
28 of the same year. 

Damiena's Bed of Steel. An instru- 
ment of torture to inflict punishment on 
R. F. Damiens (see supra), consisting 
of a sort of bed or reclining chair in 
which the culprit was confined by 
chains. The phrase is liSed to denote 
hardship, terror, or pain. 

Damnant quod non intelligunt. 
(Lat.) They condemn what they do 
not understand. 

Damning with Faint Praise. This 
phrase is from Pope's epistle to Dr. 
Arbuthnot : — 
" Damn with faint praise, assent with civil leer, 

And, without sneering, teach the rest to sneer." 

Damocles's Sword. See Sword of 

Damon and Pythias. Two noble 
youths (Pythagoreans) of Syracuse, 
whose friendship has caused them to 
be quoted to posterity as models of 
faithful friendship. 

Pythias, having been condemned to death by 
Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse, begged to be 
allowed to go home, for the purpose of arranging 
his affairs ; Damon pledging his own life for the 
reappearance of his friend. Dionysius consented, 
and Pythias returned just in time to save Damon 
from death. Struck by so noble an example of 
mutual affection, the tyrant pardoned Pythias, 
and desired to be admitted to their sacred fellow- 
ship. — Chambers. 

Damsel of Brittany. Eleanora, 
daughter of Geoffrey, second son of 
Henry II. of England, and Duke of 
Brittany. She was confined by King 
John in Bristol Castle until her death in 
1 241. 

Dan. Daniel; Danish. 

Danae. In classic mythology the 
daughter of Acrisius and mother of 
Perseus by Jupiter, who visited her in 
the form of a golden shower when she 
was imprisoned by her father. 

Danai. An ancient name for the 
Greeks, derived from Danaus, king of 
Argos, 1474 B. c. 

Danaidea. In classic mytholoCT the 
fifty daughters of Danaus, king of Ar- 

gos, betrothed to fifty sons of ^Egyptus, 
all of whom save one, Lynceus, they 
killed on the first night after marriage. 
They were punished for their crime in 
Hades by being compelled everlastingly 
to draw water out of a well and pour it 
into a vessel full of holes. 

Dance of Death. The name given to 
a species of allegorical exhibitions illus- 
trating the universal sway of death, and 
originating in the fourteenth century. 

When the introduction of Christianity first 
banished the ancient Germanic conception of a 
future state, a new description of death-mythology 
arose, partly out of Biblical sources, partly out 
of the popular character itself, wherein the Last 
Enemy was represented under simple and ma- 
jestic images, such as that of the husbandman 
watering the ground with blood, ploughing it with 
swords, rooting out weeds, plucking up flowers, 
felling trees, or sowing it with corpses ; or of a 
monarch assembling his armies, making war, 
taking prisoners, inviting his subjects to a fes- 
tival, or citing them to judgment. But with a 
gradual change in national manners came a 
change in the mode of treating the subject, and 
it was associated with every-day images, such as 
the confessional, chess-playing, and above all, 
with the adjuncts of a festival, namely, music 
and dancing. This tendency to familiarize the 
theme increased during the confusion and tur- 
moil of the fourteenth century, when the na- 
tional mind alternated between fits of devotion 
and license, or blent both elements in satire and 
humor. Such a mood as this naturally occupied 
itself with personifying death, and adopted by 
preference the most startling and grotesque im- 
ages it could find : that of a musician playing to 
dancing-men, or a dancer leading them on ; and 
as the dance and the drama were then intimately 
connected, and employed on religious occasions, 
this particular idea soon assumed a dramatic 
form. — Chambers. 

Dancing Chancellor. Sir Christo- 
pher Hatton (d. 1 591), who was bred a 
lawyer, but became a courtier, having 
attracted the notice of Queen Eliza- 
beth by his graceful dancing at a court 
masque. She created him Lord Chan- 
cellor and a K. G. 

Dan de le Dooley. (Pseud.) James 
Burke, who wrote "Pictures of New 
York Boy Life "(1883). 

Dandeprat, or Dandyprat. A nick- 
name for a small, inconsequential man. 
A dandeprat was a very small coin issued 
in the reign of Henry VII. 

Dandy "Wayne. A sobriquet applied 
to the famous Anthony Wayne (i 745- 
1796), because of his fastidious atten- 
tion to dress. See Mad Anthony. 

Dane Holes. See Cunobelin's Gold 

Daniel Shelby. The stage-name of 
Daniel J. Macher. 



Daniel Stern. (Pseud.) Marie de 
Flavigny, Comtesse d'Agoult, French 
authoress (b. rSoo). 

Daphne. In classic mjrthology a 
lovely maiden adored by Apollo, 
changed into a laurel tree while trying 
to elude him. 

Darby and Joan. A loving, old- 
fashioned, virtuous couple. The names 
belong to a ballad written by Henry 
Woodfall, and the characters are those 
of John Darby of Bartholomew Close, 
who died 1730, and his wife, "as chaste 
as a picture cut in alabaster. You might 
sooner move a Scythian rock than shoot 
fire into her bosom." 

Darbyites. The Plymouth Brethren 
are so called after Mr. Darby, a barris- 
ter, who abandoned himself to the work, 
and was for years the " organ " of the 

Dark Ages. A term synonymous 
with " Middle Ages " — a period of 
about one thousand years, from the 
invasion of France by Clovis (486), to 
that of Naples by Charles VIII. — 
throughout which learning was at a 
very low ebb. 

Dark and Bloody Ground. A name 
frequently applied to the State of Ken- 
tucky. It is said to be a translation of 
the Indian words " Kain-tuk-ee," though 
some authorities claim that they signify 
" at the head of the river." The epithet 
was originally bestowed because the re- 
gion was the scene of many sanguinary 
conflicts between the red men of the 
Northern and Southern tribes. Later, 
the constant feuds between white set- 
tlers and the aborigines rendered the 
phrase peculiarly appropriate to this 

Dark Continent, The. Africa, in 
allusion to the almost total ignorance 
concerning the people and geography of 
its interior which until quite recently 
prevailed in Europe and America. 

Dark Days. Occasions chronicled 
in history when the light of the sun has 
been so bedimmed as to cause serious 
inconvenience, if not terror, to mankind. 
The principal ones are given below. A 
dark day occurred in New England, 
May 19, 1780, during the session of the 
Connecticut Legislature at Hartford, 
which occasioned a proposition to ad- 
journ. Remarkable dark days occurred 
B. C..295, A. D. 252, 746, and 775; and 
the darkness which was " over all the 
earth " during the three hours of the 

Crucifixion is familiar to all. There was 
a dark day in England, January, 1807, 
and another Oct. 21, 1816. The 19th 
of October, 1762, was a dark day in De- 
troit ; a remarkable instance of darkness 
of brief duration occurred in Canada, 
Oct. 16, 1863. London, for the greater 
part of the time enveloped in fog and 
smoke, has been greatly subject to dark 
days, among which may be mentioned 
May 10, 1812; Dec. 27, 28, and 29, 1813; 
and Nov. 27, 1816. " Several hypotheses 
have been suggested to account for these 
phenomena, the smoke of burning for- 
ests, volcanic smoke and ashes, vapors 
generated by internal heat, smoke from 
meteors, cosmical dust drifting from 
outer space into the atmosphere, terres- 
trial dust from deserts, and ordinary 
clouds reinforced by smoke from fur- 
naces and factories, being among the 

Dark Horse. A frequent phrase in 
sporting and political parlance, and in- 
dicating one who, up to a certain time 
kept in the background, suddenly comes 
to the front, and snatches victory from 
the hands of others. The phrase, in its 
most recent sense, was used by Thack- 
eray in his "Adventures of Philip." 
Said Philip, referring to some talk 
about a candidate for Parliament: 
"Well, bless my soul, he can't mean 
me. Who is the dark horse he has in 
his stable.?" It also occurred in Lord 
Beaconsfield's " Young Duke." This 
brilliant novel had great vogue in this 
country fifty years ago ; and May Dacre, 
the heroine, who gave her name to the 
" dark horse," had many namesakes in 
the racing calendars of that time. Here 
is the paragraph : — 

" The first favorite was never heard of, the 
second favorite was never seen after the distance 
post, all the ten-to-ones were in the rear, and a 
dark horse which had never been thought of 
rushed past the grand stand in sweeping 

Darley Arabians. A breed of Eng- 
lish racers, from an Arab stallion intro- 
duced by a Mr. Darley. This stallion 
was the sire of " Flying Childers," and 
great-grandsire of " Eclipse." 

Darnell's Case. A noted case in 
English constitutional law (1627), in 
which the imprisonment of Sir Thomas 
Darnell and four others, for refusing to 
subscribe to a forced loan, was sanc- 
tioned, the agitation resulting from 
which was followed by the granting of 
the Petition of Right. 



Dartmoor Massacre. " During the 
war of 1812 many of the American 
prisoners captured by the British were 
confined in a prison at Dartmoor, Devon- 
shire. At the close of the war there 
were several thousands of these, be- 
sides twenty-five hundred impressed 
sailors who claimed to be American 
seamen and refused to fight in the 
British navy against the United States. 
Some of these seamen had been impris- 
oned for years before the war broke out. 
The prisoners, not being released im- 
mediately on their hearing of the treaty 
of peace, grew impatient. Rigorous dis- 
cipline and lack of satisfactory food fur- 
ther excited them, and there were signs 
of insubordination. On April 6, 1815, 
the guard fired on them, killing several 
and wounding more. This occurrence 
was, probably, the result of a mistake ; 
but when the news of it reached this 
country it was called the ' Dartmoor 
Massacre,' and excited bitter feel- 
ings against England." — Brown and 

Dartmouth College Case. The lead- 
ing American case (1819) on the vested 
rights of corporations, reported as Trus- 
tees of Dartmouth College v. Wood- 
ward (4 Wheaton, 518), deciding that a 
corporate charter, even though it be a 
British charter granted before the Revo- 
lution, cannot be materially altered by 
a State legislature, it being a contract 
within the meaning of the provision of 
the United States Constitution which 
deprives the States of the power to 
impair the obligation of a contract. 

Dart of Abaris. Abaris, the Scythian, 
a priest of Apollo ; the god gave him a 
golden arrow on which to ride through 
the air. This dart rendered him invisi- 
ble; it also cured diseases, and gave 

The dart of Abaris carried the philosopher 
wheresoever he desired it. — Willmott. 

Dat. Dative. 

David Goodman. The name under 
which David G. Croly (d. 1889) edited 
"The Modern Thinker," published in 
New York, 1870-1873. 

Davy Jones. The sailor-man's syno- 
nym for death. " Davy Jones's locker " 
is a euphony for the ocean grave which 
so often proves his last resting-place. 

Day of Barricades. Several days in 
French history have been thus named : 
(i) May 12, 1588, when the populace 
rose against Henry III. (2) August 27, 

1688, the beginning of the Fronde war. 
(3) June 27, 1830, the beginning of the 
uprising which drove Charles X. from 
the throne. (4) Feb. 24, 1848, when 
Louis Philippe was driven to abdicate. 
(5) June 23, 1848, when Abb6 Afire, 
Archbishop of Paris, was shot in at- 
tempting to quell an uprising. (6) Dec. 
2, 1 85 1, the occasion of Louis Napo- 
leon's coup (titat. 

Day of Cornsacks. Jan. 3, 1 591 : so 
named on account of an attempt to sur- 
prise Paris made by Henry IV. on that 
date. Some of his adherents, disguised 
as corndealers, with meal-bags on their 
shoulders, tried to get possession of the 
St. Honord Gate, but were detected and 

Day of Dupes, (i) Nov. 11, 1630, so 
named in reference to the defeat which 
overtook the opponents of Richelieu, 
headed by Marie de' Medici, and Anne 
of Austria, in an effort to effect his re- 
moval and disgrace. (2) August 4, 1789, 
received this name because it witnessed 
the renunciation by the French nobles 
and clergy of all their peculiar privi- 

Day of Gold Spurs. Another name 
for Battle of Spurs (2) {q. v.). 

Day of Ne-w Clothes. Christmas 
Day; from an old French custom of 
giving those who belonged to the court 
new cloaks on that day. 

On Christmas Eve, 1245, the king [Louis XI.] 
bade all his court be present at early morning 
Mass. At the chapel door each man received his 
new cloak, put it on, and went in. . . . As the 
day rose, each man saw on his neighbor's shoul- 
der betokened " the crusading vow." — Kitchin, 
History of France. 

Day of the Annunciation. The 

25th of March, also called Lady Day, 
on which the angel announced to the 
Virgin Mary that she would be the 
mother of the Messiah. 

Day of the Camel. Nov. 4, 656 (or, 
according to some, 658 or 659), when 
Talha and Zobehr, rebellious Arab 
chieftains, were roasted to death by 
the Caliph Ali. Ayesha, the widow of 
Mohammed, viewed the conflict from 
the back of a camel, whence the name. 

Day of the Sections. Oct. 4, 1793 ; 
so named because of an affray which 
occurred between the troops directed 
by the Convention and the National 
Guard acting for the sections of Paris. 
The soldiery .of the Convention were 



Daysman. An old English word for 
an arbitrator or umpire. It is used in 
Job ix. 33, " Neither is there any days- 
man betwixt us." Also it is used in an 
old play quoted by Nares : — 
If neighbours were at variance they ran not 

streight to law, 
Daiesmen took up the matter and cost them 

not a straw. 

Newe Cusiome. 

Spenser has " dayes man " in the 
"Faerie Queene," viii. 28. It is also 
used by some of the old Puritan writers 
in reference to Christ, who is called the 
Daysman between God and man. The 
origin is not accurately known. Nares 
says, "from his fixing a day for deci- 
sion ; " but this is hardly satisfactory. 

Day, Saint Distaff's. See Distaff's 
Day, Saint. 

D. B., or Domesd. B. Domesday 

D. C. (i) Da Capo. Again. (2) Dis- 
trict of Columbia. 

D. C. L. Doctor of Civil Law. 

D. C. S. Deputy Clerk of Session. 

D. D. Divinitatis doctor. Doctor of 

D. D. S. Doctor of Dental Surgery. 

Dea. Deacon. 

Deacon. (Pseud.) Hiram Calkins, 
sometime Albany correspondent of the 
" Spectator," New York. 

Deacon of a Trade. In Scotland, 
the president, for the time being, of an 
incorporated trade, formerly represent- 
ing his trade or crjift in the town coun- 
cil. In Edinburgh and Glasgow the 
deacon-convener of the trades is still a 
member of the town council. One of the 
duties of the office in former times was 
to essay, or try, the work of appren- 
tices previous to their admission to the 
freedom of the trade. 

Deacon off. " To give the cue. De- 
rived from a custom, once universal but 
now extinct, in the New England Con- 
gregational churches. An important 
part of the office of deacon was to read 
aloud the hymns given out by the min- 
ister, one line at a time, the congrega- 
tion singing each line as soon as read." 
— Lowell. 

" In some of the interior parts of New Eng- 
land the custom of ' deaconing off ' hymns is still 
continued. It used to be called ' lining out the 
psalm.' The custom is nearly as old as the 
Reformation, and long antedates early colonial 
days in New England. It was recommended to 
churches not supplied with books, by the West- 
minster Assembly, in 1664; and Dr. Watts com- 

plained of its prevalence in congregations and 
private families in England, — in the preface to 
an early edition of his psalms." — Bartlett. 

Dead as a Doornail. This seemingly 
odd simile is at least as old as the time 
of Shakspeare; for Pistol remarks to 
Falstaff that the king is as dead " as the 
nail in a door." Doors of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries were fur- 
nished with nails upon which the knock- 
ers fell; hence the phrase is used to 
denote one irrecoverably dead, — death 
such as reiterated strokes on the head 
would naturally produce. 

Dead as a Herring. It is a rare 
thing, even for fishermen, to see a 
really live herring. The fish dies the 
instant it is taken out of the water. 

Dead as Chelsea. To get Chelsea; 
to obtain the benefit of that hospital. 
" Dead as Chelsea, by G — d ! " — an ex- 
clamation uttered by a grenadier at 
Fontenoy, on having his leg carried 
away by a cannon-ball. 

Dead Beat. (Pseud.) Joseph How- 
ard, Jr., in Brooklyn " Eagle." 

Dead-broke. See Broke. 

Dead Rabbit Riots. On Saturday, 
July 4, 1857, a fierce combat took place 
in Mulberry and Bayard and the Bowery, 
New York, between two desperate fac- 
tions known as " Dead Rabbits " and 
"Bowery Boys." No particular cause 
was assigned for this outbreak except 
the disorganized condition of the poUce 
department of the city, following the 
change from the Municipal to the Met- 
ropolitan force, and the absence of the 
usual police restraint, which afforded 
a favorable opportunity for the denizens 
of the Sixth Ward and the neighboring 
districts to settle their old grudges and 
disputes by force of arms. Stones, 
clubs, and firearms were employed in- 
discriminately ; the police failed to re- 
store order, and the fight ended by 
mutual consent or from physical ex- 
haustion. On Sunday, July 5, the 
conflict was renewed with increased vi- 
olence, the locality known as the Five 
Points being the scene of the riot. 
Firearms were freely and effectually 
used. At four o'clock in the afternoon 
orders were issued for the military to 
assemble, and at eight o'clock the Sev- 
enth Regiment marched to the City 
Arsenal in Elm Street. But the rioters 
had either completed the performances 
of the day to their mutual satisfaction, 
or had taken advantage of a timely 



notice to curtail their amusements ; for 
when the troops reached their destina- 
tion the "Dead Rabbits" had disap- 
peared, and the streets assumed their 
usual quiet appearance. 

Dead Sea. See Cronian Sea. 

Dead-'weight Loan. In 1823 the 
Bank of England loaned ;£i 1,000,000 to 
the English Government, to construct 
new ordnance, etc. It acquired its 
name from the locking up of the bank's 
capital which thus ensued. 

Dean of St. Patrick's. A title by 
which Jonathan Swift (fl. 1667-1745), 
the famous satirist, is often alluded to. 
He was appointed to the post (in Dub- 
lin) in 1 713, and filled it until his death. 

"Dear Beaver: Don't Talk." This 
famous phrase originated in 1882 in 
this way : Col. William Rodearmel, the 
well-known Harrisburg newspaper cor- 
respondent, on the day that Beaver was 
nominated for Governor, remarked that 
he intended to get an interview out of 
him. The remark was heard by Quay, 
who had his reasons for keeping Beaver 
quiet. He asked Colonel Rodearmel if 
he would take a note to Beaver from him 
(Quay). The Colonel readily consented 
to bear the message, and Quay wrote it, 
sealed it, and the Colonel took it. Bea- 
ver opened the note, read it, and laid it 
on the table in his room, face upward, 
so that Colonel Rodearmel could not 
help seeing it. It contained only these 
words: "Dear Beaver: Don't talk. 
— Quay." Dear Beaver did not talk, 
and Colonel Rodearmel is still waiting 
for his interview. 

Death, Hour of. See Hour of 

Death-or-Glory Boys. A by-name 
for the Seventh Lancers (English), on 
account of the device of a death's head 
and cross-bones with the legend " Or 
Glory," which adorns their caps. 

Death Ride. The charge of the 
Light Brigade at Balaklava, Oct. 25, 
1854. In this action six hundred Eng- 
lish horsemen, under the command of 
the Earl of Cardigan, charged a Russian 
force of five thousand cavalry and six 
battalions of infantry. They galloped 
through the battery of thirty guns, cut- 
ting down the artillerymen, and through 
the cavalry; but then discovered the 
battalions, and cut their way back again. 
Of the six hundred and seventy who ad- 
vanced to this daring charge, not two 
hundred returned. This reckless exploit 

was the result of some misunderstanding 
in an order from the commander-in-chief. 
Tennyson has a poem on the subject, 
called "The Charge of the Light Bri- 

For chivalrous devotion and daring, "the 
Death Ride " of the Light Brigade will not ea- 
sily be paralleled. — Sir Edward Creasy, 
Fifteen Decisive Battles. 

Debatable Land, The. On the west- 
ern frontier of England and Scotland, 
between the rivers Esk and Sark, there 
formerly existed a strip of territory ju- 
risdiction over which was claimed by 
both countries. As a consequence, no 
settled authority could long make itself 
felt, and the locality became a haven of 
refuge for robbers and criminals, who 
preyed alike on English and Scots. In 
1542 "it was divided by royal commis- 
sions appointed by the two crowns." 
By their award this land of contention 
was separated by a line drawn from east 
to west between the two rivers. The 
upper half was adjudged to Scotland, 
and the more eastern part to England. 
The Graemes, a troublesome clan of 
freebooters who inhabited the Debat- 
able Land, were transported to Ireland 
at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, and prohibited from returning 
on pain of death. 

Debito justitiss. (Lat.) By a debt 
of justice. 

Debitum naturee. (Lat.) "The debt 
of nature." Death. 

De bonis non. (Lat.) Of the goods 
not yet administered on. 

D^bonnaire, Le. Louis I. of France 
(fl. 778-840). He was called by the 
English " The Meek." 

De bonne grace. (Fr.) "With good 
grace." Willingly. 

Deborah Dunn. (Pseud.) Mrs. Frank 
R. Stockton, in various journals. 

Debt of Nature. The origin of this 
phrase is probably the following from 
"Quarles's Emblems," 12, 13: — 
"The slender debt to Nature 's quickly paid. 

Discharged perchance writh greater ease than 

Debts of Honor, i. e., losses at gam- 
bling, are so termed because the law 
cannot be relied on to enforce their 
liquidation, and the winner must trust 
to the "honor" of the loser for pay- 

D^but. (Fr.) First appearance ; the 
beginning of an enterprise. 

Deo. December; declination. 


1 62 


Deceptio visus. (Lat.) An illusion 
of the sight. 

Decius. (Pseud.) Samuel Jackson 
Gardner, sometime editor of the New- 
ark " Daily Advertiser." 

Deo. of Ind. Declaration of Inde- 

Decoration Day. See Memorial 

De Couroy's Privilege. In 1203 
John de Courcy, baron of Kingsale, was 
granted the privilege by King John of 
standing covered before royalty, and 
the right was also extended to his suc- 
cessors. The ancient privilege is still 
in force. 

Decree of Fontainebleau. An edict 
dated Oct. 18, 1800, by which Napoleon 
directed that all English goods should 
be burned. 

Decrescendo, or Diminuendo. (Ital.) 
Gradual diminution of tone (Mus.) 

Decretals, False. A collection of 
Papal letters, etc., chiefly forgeries, as- 
cribed to Isidorus Mercator, and dating 
from the first half of the ninth century. 
The object of the deception, which was 
first detected by German Protestant 
critics in the sixteenth century, was to 
exalt the ecclesiastical system above 
the civil ; and upon it, as some Protes- 
tant historians assert, is based the 
claims to supremacy of the Catholic 

Decua et tutamen. (Lat.) Honor 
and defence. 

Decus summum virtus. (Lat.) Vir- 
tue the highest honor. 

De die in diem. (Lat.) From day 
to day. 

Dedimus potestatem. (Lat.) We 
have given power. 

Deer-meat. Venison. 

Def. Definition. 

Def., or Deft Defendant. 

De facto. (Lat.) « From the fact." 
Actually, because it is so. 

Defence Government. The name 
of the government established in France, 
Sept. 4, 1870, after Napoleon III. was 
deposed, and of which General Trochu 
was president. It resigned when Paris 
capitulated, Feb. 5 and 6, 1871. Gam- 
betta and Simon were included in it. 

Defender of the Faith. Henry VI II. 
of England received this title at the 
hands of Pope Leo X. in 1521, for a 

Latin treatise on the Seven Sacraments. 
See Catholic Majesty and Most 
Christian King. 

Defender of Tbermopyl88. 



Defenders. See Peep-o'-day Boys. 

Defenders' Day. September 12 in 
Baltimore. In 1842 one thousand men 
formed the Old Defenders' Associa- 
tion of Baltimore, and on September 12 
of each year celebrated the battle of 
North Point, fought in 1812. 

Defend me from my Friends. The 

French assign to Mardchal Villars tak- 
ing leave of Louis XIV., this aphorism : 
" Defend me from my friends ; I can de- 
fend myself from my enemies." 

But of all plagues, good Heaven, thy wrath can 

Save, save, oh, save me from the candid friend I 
Canning, The New Morality. 

Deficit. A want or deficiency. 

De fumo in flammam. (Lat.) " From 
the smoke into the flame." Out of 
the frying-pan into the fire." 

Deg. Degree; degrees. 

De gaiety du cceur. (Fr.) " From 
gayety of heart." Sportively; with- 
out motive. 

De Gtolyer Contract. A famous 
episode in American politics. In the 
forty-third Congress there was an in- 
vestigation into the conduct of the 
government of the District of Colum- 
bia, which revealed startling frauds in 
the matter of paving streets. The facts 
would seem to be as follows : — 

In May, 1872, Richard C. Parsons, a Cleve- 
land attorney, then marshal of the Supreme 
Court in Washington, having the interests of 
the patents owned by De Golyer in charge, was 
called away. He brought all his material to 
James A. Garfield, and asked him to prepare the 
brief. This brief was to show the superiority of 
the pavement (the subject of patent) over forty 
other kinds, and did not otherwise concern the 
contract, or have anything to do with its terms. 
The fraud, as is generally understood, was in the 
contract, not in the quality of the pavement. 
Garfield prepared the brief, and delivered it to 
Parsons, but did not himself make an argument. 
Parsons sent Garfield subsequently ^5, 000, which 
was part of the fee Parsons had received for 
his own services. The matter was brought up 
against Garfield during the Presidential canvass 
of 1880, and corrupt motives alleged against 
him'; but as thoughtful people reviewed the case 
there was no harsher criticism than that sug- 
gested by Garfield's own lofty standard of avoid- 
ing even the appearance of evil, — that he had 
not shown his usual prudence in avoiding con- 
nection with any matter that could possibly come 
up for Congressional review. — Appleton. 



De gUBtibua non est disputandum. 
(Lat.) About tastes there is no dis- 

De haute lutte. (Fr.) By main force. 

Dei gratia. (Lat.) By the grace of 

Deiphobua. One of the sons of 
Priam, and, next to Hector, the bravest 
and boldest of all the Trojans. On the 
death of his brother Paris, he married 
Helen ; but Helen betrayed him to her 
first husband, Menelaus.who slew him. 

Dejanira. In classic mythology 
daughter of CEneus and wife of Her- 
cules, whose death she unwittingly 
caused by sending him a poisoned 
shirt, which had been steeped in the 
blood of Nessus, who told her that the 
one to whom she presented it would 
love her with undying love. When she 
heard that Hercules had put an end to 
his life to escape the torture it in- 
flicted, she killed herself in remorse and 

Dejeuner i la fourchette. (Fr.) A 
meat breakfast ; " a breakfast with 

Dejeuner dinatoire. (Fr.) A break- 
fast serving as a dinner. 

De jure. (Lat.) " From the law." Le- 

De Kalb. (Pseud.) Mrs. Kate Cross 
in the " Canadian Press." 

Del. Delaware; delegate. 

Del. Delineavit. He (or she) drew it. 

Delafield. (Pseud.) Mrs. M. L. Child 
in " Arthur's Magazine." 

Delaware. This State derives its 
name from Thomas West, Lord De la 
Ware, governor of Virginia in colonial 

Delayer, The. (Lat., Cunctator.) An 
honorable surname given to the Roman 
general Quintus Fabius Maximus Ver- 
rucosus (d. 203 B. C), " because of his 
cautious but salutory measures in op- 
posing the progress of Hannibal." 

Dele. Erase. 

Delenda est Carthago. (Lat.) "Car- 
thage must be destroyed." Used to 
signify a war of extermination. 

DeUan King. Apollo, or the Sun, is 
so called in the Orphic hymn. 

Oft as the Delian king with Sirius holds 
The central heavens. , „ . j 

Akenside, Hymn to the Nataas. 

Delicate Investigation, The. An 
inquiry into the conduct of the Pnncess 
of Wales (afterward queen of England 

as consort of George IV.) commenced 
by a Committee of the Privy Council 
May 29, 1806. The charges were dis- 

Delioatezza. (Ital.) Delicacy of ex- 
pression. (Mus.) 
DeUcato. (Ital.) Delicately. (Mus.) 
Delightful = Delicious. This use 
of "delightful" for "delicious " in such 
a sentence as " The ice-cream is delight- 
ful," is very common in the Southern 

Delight of Mankind. Titus, the 
Roman emperor (a. d. 40-81). 
Titus indeed gave one short evening gleam, 
More cordial felt, as in the midst it spread 
Of storm and horror : " The Delight of Men." 
Thomson, Liberty. 

Delia Crusca. (Pseud.) Robert Mer- 
ry, English poet and dramatist (1755- 

Della-CruBoan School. So called 
from Crusca, the Florentine academy. 
The name is applied to a school of 
poetry started by some young English- 
men at Florence in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century. Their silly, senti- 
mental affectations, which appeared in 
the " World " and the " Oracle," crea- 
ted for a time quite a furor. The 
whole affair was mercilessly gibbeted 
in the " Baviad " and " Maeviad^' of Mr. 

Delphi of New England. Concord, 
Mass., is so named. Ralph Waldo 
Emerson lived there from 1835 till his 
death, and through his wise sayings the 
village became famous as "the Delphi 
of New England." 

Delphic Oracle. See Oracle. 

Delphin Classics. An edition of the 
Greek and Roman classics prepared by 
thirty of the leading scholars of the day, 
edited by Bossuet and Huet, tutors to 
the Dauphin, son of Louis XIV. The 
titlepages bear the words "In usum 
Serenissimi Delphini," whence the 
name. They are lightly regarded by 
scholars of the present day. 

Delta. (Pseud.) (i) Edward Den- 
ham in " Good Literature," New York. 
(2) Henry W. Domett, sometime New 
York correspondent of the "Boston 
Transcript." (3) Rev. Moses Harvey, 
Canadian correspondent. (4) David 
MacBeth Moir, Scottish writer and 
physician (1778-1851). 

Delta City. Alexandria in Egypt. 

Dem. Democrat; Democratic. 

1 64 


Demens Egomet. (Pseud.) Thomas 
Williams, a New England clergyman 
(i 779-1876), published several sermons 
over this signature. 

Demeter. One of the fabulous divi- 
nities of the Greeks, akin to the Ceres 
of the Romans. 

Demijohn. (Pseud.) F. Alcott Pratt, 
an American littirateur oi the present 

Demi-monde. Women of easy vir- 
tue, as opposed to le beau monde, fash- 
ionable society. 

Demi-rep. A woman whose reputa- 
tion will not bear scrutiny. 

Democratic Federals. An English 
political party proposed by Joseph 
Cowen, M. P. for Newcastle, and op- 
posed to the policy of Mr. Gladstone, 

Democrats. Advocates for govern- 
ment by the people themselves (S^/uor, 
"people," and Kparelv, "to govern"), a 
term adopted by the French republicans 
in 1790 (who termed their opponents 
" aristocrats," from apurros, " bravest or 
best"). The name Democrat was 
adopted by one of the two great politi- 
cal parties of the United States before 
the present and recent questions en- 
tered into politics, and was at its prime 
during the Jacksonian ascendancy. The 
political features of Jackson's adminis- 
tration were the opposition to the 
United States Bank, the denial of the 
right of any State to nullify the laws of 
Congress, and the excitement over the 
tariff question. In 1836, through the 
influence of Jackson, Martin Van Buren 
was elected President, and during his 
administration the prestige of the De- 
mocratic party began to wane. In 1837 
the country went through a severe com- 
mercial panic. Credit, speculation, and 
banking had been carried to extreme 
limits, and disaster followed. For this 
state of affairs the administration was 
held responsible. The election of 1840 
was a revolution ; and in the choice of 
General Harrison by the electoral vote 
of 234 to 60 the Democratic party, after 
forty years of power, was forced to re- 
tire. But the Whig triumph was short- 
lived. General Harrison died one 
month after his inauguration, and John 
Tyler, who had been nominated for 
Vice-President to conciliate Virginia, 
succeeded to the presidential chair. All 
his life he had held and advocated 
Democratic doctrines, especially the 

opposition to the United States Bank, 
a protective tariff, and internal improve- 
ments by the General Government. On 
his accession he continued the cabinet 
of his predecessor, Daniel Webster be- 
ing Secretary of State But after two 
successive vetoes of the " Fiscal Bank 
of the United States " bill his cabinet 
left him, Mr. Webster remaining only 
till the conclusion of the Webster- 
Ashburton treaty, and his administra- 
tion became essentially Democratic. In 
1844 James K. Polk was elected Presi- 
dent, after a bitter and exciting contest, 
over Henry Clay. The annexation of 
Texas, which was urged by the Demo- 
cratic party, was the great question in 
determining this election, and was ac- 
complished March I, 1845, three days 
before the inauguration of Mr. Polk. 
This led to a war with Mexico, which 
was declared May 13, 1846. At its suc- 
cessful conclusion, not only was the Rio 
Grande established as the boundary of 
Texas, but all New Mexico and Upper 
California were relinquished to the 
United States. In March, 1820, an act, 
known as the Missouri Compromise, 
had been passed, forbidding the intro- 
duction of slavery in any of the States 
formed from the Louisiana cession north 
of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes. 
On August 8, 1846, the rejection of the 
so-called Wilmot Proviso by the Sen- 
ate — which provided " That, as an ex- 
press and fundamental condition to the 
acquisition of any territory from the 
Republic of Mexico by the United 
States, . . . neither slavery nor invol- 
untary servitude shall ever exist in any 
part of said territory " — became the 
starting-point of the Free Soil party in 
1848. Mr. Wilmot, the mover, was a 
Democrat The popularity of General 
Taylor caused the defeat of Lewis Cass 
in the election of 1848, and the Demo- 
cratic party went out of power till 1853, 
when Franklin Pierce became Presi- 
dent. In 1856 it elected James Buchanan 
President, and John C. Breckenridge 
Vice-President. At the convention held 
in Charleston, S. C, April, 1856, the 
slavery issue caused a disruption of the 
party, — the slave section nominating 
John C. Breckenridge, and the free- 
soilers Stephen A. Douglas, — and, on 
Mr. Lincoln's election, it lost the su- 
premacy which it had held with little 
interruption for sixty years. It had, 
however, a vigorous life, and contested 
hotly every Presidential election, its 



unsuccessful candidates being George 
B. McClellan, in 1864; Horatio Sey- 
mour, in 1868 ; Horace Greeley, in 1872; 
Samuel J. Tilden, in 1876; and Winfield 
S. Hancock, in 1880. In 1884, how- 
ever, with the help of independent Re- 
publican votes, the party elected its 
candidate for the Presidency, Grover 
Cleveland, who was in his turn defeated 
in an effort at re-election by Benjamin 
Harrison in 1888. 

Democritus Junior. (Pseud.) Rob- 
ert Burton, English philosopher and 
humorist (i 576-1640). 

Demogorgon. A terrible deity, whose 
name alone was capable of producing 
most horrible effects. Milton speaks 
of " the dreaded name of Demogorgon." 
This tyrant-king of the elves and fays 
lived on the Himalayas, and once in 
five years summoned all his subjects 
before him. 

Demon of Matrimonial Unhappi- 
ness. Asmodeus. He slew the seven 
husbands of Sara, as recorded in the 
Book of Tobit. 

Demophoon. In classic myth a son 
of Theseus and Phaedra, who, m return- 
ing from the siege of Troy, was ship- 
wrecked on the coast of Thrace, where 
then reigned the beautiful Phyllis. The 
young queen graciously received the 
prince, fell in love with him, and became 
his wife. When recalled to Athens by 
his father's death, Demophoon promised 
to return in a month, and fixed the day. 
The affectionate Phyllis counted the 
hours of his absence, and at last the 
appointed day arrived. Nine times 
she repaired to the shore, but losing 
all hope of his return, she dropped 
down dead with grief, and was turned 
into an almond-tree. Three months af- 
terward Demophoon returned. Over- 
whelmed with sorrow, he offered a 
sacrifice at the seaside to appease the 
manes of his bride. She seemed to 
sympathize with his repentance, for the 
almond-tree into which she had been 
transformed instantly put forth its flow- 
ers, and proved by this last effort that 
true love, strong as death, is incapable 
of change. 

De mortuia nil nisi bonum. (Lat.) 
Let nothing but good be said of the 

De nihilo, nihil fit. (Lat.) Out of 
nothing, nothing is made. 

Denmark, Orchard of. See Orchard 
OF Denmark. 

D6nouement. (Fr.) An unravelling 
or winding up. 

De novo, (Lat.) Anew ; over again 
from the beginning. 

Deo adjuvante, nou timendum. 
(Lat.) God helping, nothing need be 

Deo favente. (Lat.) With God's 

Deo gratias. (Lat.) Thanks to God. 
Deo juvante. (Lat.) God helping. 
De omnibus rebus. (Lat.) " Con- 
cerning all things." About everything. 
Deo, non fortuna. (Lat.) From God, 
not from fortune. 

Deo volente. (Lat.) "God being 
willing." By God's will. Abbreviated 
into D. V. 

Dep. Deputy. 

Depot = Station. See Railroad. 
De profundis. (Lat.) Out of the 
Dept. Department, 
Derby Day is the second day of the 
great Spring Meeting, which takes place 
at Epsom, in Surrey, England, the week 
preceding Whitsunday. Upon this day 
the famous Derby stakes, instituted by 
the Earl of Derby in 1780, and which 
consist of fifty sovereigns each entry, 
are contended for. The Derby Day is a 
great English holiday. To be present 
at Epsom on that occasion London al- 
most empties itself, and proceeds to the 
Downs by modes of locomotion the most 
heterogeneous. For hours a continuous 
stream of carriages, gigs, dog-carts, 
vans, and vehicles of every description 
move tumultuously along the road to 
Epsom. Shopkeepers on that day shut 
up their shops ; the benches of Parlia- 
ment are deserted ; one half of the aris- 
tocracy appear on the ground ; people 
of every condition come in countless 
numbers from all districts'; and huge 
trains arrive every few minutes at the 
station, bringing their thousands, until 
the entire downs are covered with a 
vast moving mass. So great is the de- 
mand for conveyances on this day, that 
scarcely a horse can be had either in 
London or within forty miles of it. The 
occasion is by common custom made 
a holiday in London and its vicinity ; 
royalty is usually present ; and the 
greatest interest is manifested in the 
contest for the " blue ribbon of the Eng- 
lish turf," as Benjamin Disraeli nick- 
named the Derby Stakes. 

1 66 


Deritend Martyr. John Rogers 
(1500-1555), the editor of Matthew's 
Bible {g. v.), and coadjutor of Tyndale 
in translating the Scriptures into Eng- 
lish. He was a leader of the noble 
army of martyrs in Mary's reign, and 
was burned at Smithfield, 1555. 

Dernier ressort. (Fr.) The last 

Derrydown Triangle. A nickname 
given to Lord Castlereagh (fl. 1769-1822) 
by William Hone. 

D^Bagr6ment. (Fr.) Something dis- 
agreeable or unpleasant. 

Descender, The. A title by which 
the Jordan is known, — indeed, it is a 
translation of its name. It is a swiftly 
flowing stream, very crooked in its 
course and very rapid in its descent, — 
" a river that has never been navigable, 
flowing into a sea that never had a 
port." It rises in the northern part of 
Palestine, passes through Lake Merom 
and the Sea of Galilee, and at last emp- 
ties into the Dead Sea. Its mouth is 
3,000 feet lower than its source, and it 
has a descent of about fifteen feet for 
every mile. It is thus truly " The 

Deseret. The Mormon name for 
Utah, signifying " virtue and industry." 

Desert, Gem of the. See Gem of 
THE Desert. 

Desideratum. (Lat.) Something 
desired or wanted. 

D^sird Hazard. (Pseud.) Octave 
Feuillet, in "Le Nationale," Paris, 

Despard's Conspiracy. Col. Ed- 
ward Marcus Despard (an Irishman), 
Broughton, Francis, Graham, Macna- 
mara. Wood, and Wratten conspired 
to kill the king and establish a repub- 
lic Nov. 16, 1802. More than thirty per- 
sons were apprehended, and Despard 
and six others were executed, Feb. 21, 

De Speciosa Villa. (Pseud.) Ed- 
mund Gayton, English humorous writer 

Destinies. See Varcm. 

Destra. (Ital.) The right hand. 

Desunt caetera. (Lat.) The remain- 
der is wanting. 

Detached Badger. (Pseud.) J. H. 
Walford, author of angling and fly- 
fishing in' the London " Field." 

Detective's Daughter. (Pseud.) Mrs. 
Robert P. Porter, in the Philadelphia 
" Press." 

Detenu. (Fr.) " Detained." A pris- 
oner. Detenus, prisoners. 

Detour. (Fr.) A circuitous march. 

De trop. (Fr.) Out of place; one 
too many. 

Detur digniori. (Lat.) Let it be 
given to the more worthy. 

Deucalion. In classic mythology the 
son of Prometheus ; with his wife, 
Pyrrha, he was preserved from a del- 
uge sent by Jupiter, and became the 
founder of a new race of men by throw- 
ing stones behind him as directed by an 
oracle. From stones thrown by Pyrrha 
there sprung up women. 

Deus ex machina. A god from the 
clouds ; unexpected aid in an emer- 
gency. In ancient dramas, at the cri- 
sis in the play a god would be let down 
from the air by machinery. Hence the 
intervention of a god or some unlikely 
event, in order to extricate a clumsy 
author from the difficulties in which 
he has involved himself ; any forced 
incident, such as the arrival of a rich 
uncle from the Indies to help a young 
couple in their pecuniary embarrass- 

Deut. Deuteronomy. 

Deva's Vale. The valley of the Dee 
(or Deva) in Cheshire, England. 
He chose a farm in Deva's vale, 
Where his long alleys peeped upon the main. 
Thomson, Casile of Indolence. 

Devil, The. Oliver Ledain, the pan- 
der and tool of Louis XI. of France, 
who was equally feared and hated. He 
was hanged in 1484. 

Devil among the Tailors. This 
phrase arose in connection with a riot 
at the Haymarket on an occasion when 
Dowton announced the performance for 
his benefit of a burlesque entitled " The 
Tailors : a Tragedy for Warm Weather." 
At night many thousands of journeymen 
tailors congregated in and around the 
theatre, and by riotous proceedings in- 
terrupted the performances. Thirty- 
three of the rioters were brought up at 
Bow Street the next day. A full ac- 
count of the proceedings will be found 
in " Biographica Dramatica " under the 
heading " Tailors." 

Devil's Advocate. A person who 
makes baseless accusations against an- 
other. It is the usage of the Roman 



Catholic Church, when it is proposed 
to canonize any person, to appoint two 
champions or advocates, one to defend 
and one to oppose the motion. The 
former, the Advocaius Dei, praises the 
personage whom it is proposed to honor ; 
the latter, the Advocatus Diaboli, does 
all he can to defame him. 

Devil's Arrcws, A fanciful name 
appended to three Druidical stone obe- 
lisks near Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, 
England. They were probably set up 
as landmarks. 

Devil's Bones. Dice, which are 
made of bones, and lead to ruin. 

Devil's Books. Playing-cards. A 
Presbyterian phrase, used in opposition 
to the term " King's Book," applied to 
a pack of cards ; from the French livre 
des quatre rois, "the book of the four 
kings " {q. v.). 

Devil's Bridge. Over the falls of 
the Reuss, in the canton of Uri. 

Devil's Candle. So the Arabs call 
the mandrake, from its shining appear- 
ance at night. 

Devil's Courts. Three huge stones 
near Kennel, in Wiltshire, England. 

Devil's Den. A cromlech in a val- 
ley, near Marlborough, England. It 
now consists of two large uprights and 
an impost. The third upright has fallen. 
Some farm laborers a few years ago 
fastened a team of horses to the impost, 
and tried, but without efEect, to drag it 

Devil's Dust. The dust and sweep- 
ings of cloth, made into a fabric by 
gum and pressure. The subject was 
introduced to the attention of Parlia- 
ment, March 4, 1842. The material is 
so called from the dishonesty and false- 
hood which it covers. About the same 
as the American shoddy. 

Devil's Frying-pan. A Cornish 
mine worked by the ancient Romans. 
According to a very primitive notion, 
precious stones are produced from con- 
densed dew hardened by the sun. This 
mine was the frying-pan where dew was 
thus converted and hardened. 

Devil's Own. (l) The Eighty-eighth 
Foot Regiment, " Connaught Boys," who 
were so named by General Picton on 
account of their daring, devil-may-care 
behavior in the Peninsula War (1809- 
1814). (2) The nickname has been 
since applied to the English volunteers 
recruited among the members of the 

four Inns of Court, most of them being 

Devil's Parliament. The Parliament 
assembled by Henry VI. at Coventry, 
in 1459, because it passed attainders 
against the Duke of York and his 

Devil's Royals.. See Dirty Half- 

Devil's Throat. A name popularly 
bestowed on Cromer Bay, on the coast 
of Norfolk, England, owing to the dan- 
gerous and tortuous character of its 

Devil's Wall. In superstitious times 
a name given to the Roman wall (Ha- 
drian's) separating Scotland from Eng- 
land. The peasantry firmly believed 
that, on account of the firmness of the 
mortar and the imperishability of the 
stones, Satan had a hand in its con- 
struction. It is even related that, in 
order to impart to their own cottages a 
corresponding durability, they incorpo- 
rated in their walls fragments of the old 
Roman barricades. 

De Vive voiz. (Fr.) By word of 
mouth ; orally ; viva voce. 

Devoir. (Fr.) Duty. 

Devoirs of Calais. The customs 
due to the king of England for mer- 
chandise brought to or carried out of 
Calais while the English staple was 

Merchants of the west may buy merchan- 
dises, so that they find sureties to carry them 
to the west or to Calais. — 2 Rich. 11. st. i, c. 3. 

Devonshire Poet. O. Jones, a work- 
ing wool-comber, who flourished in the 
latter half of the eighteenth century. 

D.F. Deanof the Faculty; Defender 
of the Faith. 

D. G. DeigratiA. By the grace of 

D. G. Deo gratias. Thanks to God. 

D. H. Dead-head. 

Di. Didymium. 

Diam. Diameter. 

Diamond Duke. Duke Charles of 
Brunswick (d. 1874), the cellars of whose 
hotel in the Champs filysdes, Paris, 
were found at his death to be crammed 
with gold and precious stones. 

Diamond Joe. On the front of each 
locomotive on the Hot Springs (Ark.) 
Railroad is the coat-of-arms of the 
owner, Joseph Reynolds. It is a large 
diamond, inside of which is the letter 
"J." To the Southwestern public, and 

1 68 


over a large portion of the West, Mr. 
Reynolds is known as " Diamond Joe," 
on account of his coat-of-arms, or, as he 
calls it, his trade-mark. 

Diamond Necklace Affair. A won- 
derful piece of jewelry was made by 
Boehmer, the court jeweller of Paris, 
intended for Madame du Barry, the 
favorite of Louis XV. On the death 
of the monarch, however, she was ex- 
cluded from court, and the bawble was 
left on the jeweller's hands. Its im- 
mense value, 1,800,000 livres ($400,000), 
precluded any one from becoming its 
purchaser ; but in 1 785 Boehmer offered 
it to Marie Antoinette for $320,000, a 
considerable reduction. The queen 
much desired the necklace, but was 
deterred from its purchase by the great 
expense. Learning this, the Comtesse 
de la Motte forged the queen's signa- 
ture, and by pretending that her Majesty 
had an attachment for him, persuaded 
the queen's almoner, the Cardinal de 
Rohan, to conclude a bargain with the 
jeweller for $280,000. De la Motte thus 
obtained possession of the necklace, and 
made off with it. For this she was tried 
in 1786, and sentenced to be branded on 
both shoulders and imprisoned for life, 
but she subsequently escaped and fled 
to London. The cardinal was tried and 
acquitted the same year. The French 
public at that time believed that the 
queen was a party to the fraud, but no 
conclusive evidence was ever adduced 
to support the charge. Talleyrand 
wrote at that time : " I shall not be 
surprised if this miserable affair over- 
turn the throne." His prediction was, 
to a great extent, fulfilled. 

Diamond State. Delaware ; so named 
on account of its size and its central 

Diana. Originally an Italian divinity; 
afterward regarded as identical with the 
Greek Artemis, the daughter of Jupiter 
and Latona, and the twin sister of 
Apollo. She was the goddess of hunt- 
ing, chastity, marriage, and nocturnal in- 
cantations. She was also regarded as 
the goddess of the moon. Her temple 
at Ephesus was one of the Seven Won- 
ders of the World {g. v.). 

Diana. (Pseud.) Mrs. Abigail Smith 

Di£in'B 'Worshippers. Nocturnal rev- 
ellers, because they travel homeward 
by the light of the moon, — Diana, or 

Diarist. (Pseud.) Alexander Whee- 
loclc Thayer, in " Dwight's Journal of 

Dick Distich. (Pseud.) Alexander 
Pope, in the " Guardian." 

Dick Ditson. (Pseud.) M. L. Saley, 
of Rockford, 111., correspondent of vari- 
ous journals. 

Dick Tinto. (Pseud.) The pen-name 
of Frank B. Goodrich (b. in Boston, 
1826), for some time Paris correspond- 
ent of the New York " Times." 

Dickens's Dutchman. Charles Lang- 
heimer, a jail-bird immortalized by the 
novelist in his " American Notes." He 
died in Philadelphia in 1883, seventy- 
seven years old, fifty of which he had 
spent behind prison bars. 

Dickey- Lingard. (Pseud.) Harriet 
Sarah Dunning. 

Dickie Lingard. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Dalziel. 

Dicky Sam. A nickname for a 
native or resident of Liverpool, — a 

Diet. Dictionary; Dictator. 

Dictator of Letters. Voltaire was 
so named. See also Great Fan. 

Dictum de dicta. (Lat.) Report 
upon hearsay. 

Diedrich Knickerbocker. (Pseud.) 
Washington Irving, American author 

Die-hards. The Fifty-seventh Eng- 
lish Foot Regiment ; so nicknamed be- 
cause of their bravery at Albuera in 

Die in the Last Ditch. " To William 
of Orange may be ascribed this saying. 
When Buckingham urged the inevitable 
destruction which hung over the United 
Provinces, and asked him whether he 
did not see that the Commonwealth was 
ruined, 'There is one certain means,' 
replied the Prince, ' by which I can be 
sure never to see my country's ruin, — 
I will die in the last ditch.' " — Hume. 

Die-no-mores. A nickname con- 
ferred on the Forty-eighth Regiment N. 
G. S. N. Y., during the late civil war. 

Diesdatus. (Lat.) " The day given." 
The day or time appointed. 

Dies faustuB. (Lat.) A lucky day. 

Dies irae. (Lat.) " Day of wrath ; " 
the name of a Latin hymn. 

Dies non. (Lat.) " A day not." A 
day on which the judges do not sit, or 
on which business is not transacted. 



Dietrich of Bern. The name under 
which the Ostrogoth king, Theodoric 
the Great, appears in the German he- 
roic legends ; in which by Bern, his 
capital, Verona is to be understood. 
As early as the seventh century, he 
would seem to have become the centre 
of a distinct cycle of legends. A little 
later, he was, with a not unusual disre- 
gard of all historical truth, brought into 
connection with the traditions of Attila, 
or Etzel. According to these legends, 
Dietrich is said to have fled from Italy 
before Ottacher (Odoacer), or Ermana- 
rich ; to have met, along with his attend- 
ant vassals, with a hospitable reception 
from Etzel ; but after many years, to 
have again got possession of his king- 
dom. The extermination of the royal 
House of Burgundy by Attila, which is 
an historical event, was the cause that 
Dietrich, as well as Etzel himself, was 
woven into the Burgundian and Prank- 
ish Siegfriedssage; and thus he appears, 
in the second part of the " Nibelungen," 
at Etzel's court, and is handled by the 
poet with special predilection. There 
have been numerous poems, besides, of 
which Dietrich was the centre and 
principal hero. 

Dieu defend le droit. (Fr.) God 
defend the right. 

Dieu-donn^ (" Gift of God "). (i) The 
name given in infancy to Louis le 
Grand, king of France ; the queen, his 
mother, having been barren for twenty- 
three years previously (1638). (2) The 
Comte de Chambord (1820-1884), son 
of the Duchesse de Berri, was also so 

Dieu et mon droit. (Fr.) God and 
my right. 

Dieu vous garde. (Fr.) God guard 

Digby Chicken. A colloquial euphu- 
ism for red herring. 

Diggings. The word " diggings " has 
become familiar to English ears from 
its use in the gold-mines of Australia. 
There it generally denotes only a place 
where precious metals are dug for, but 
as an Americanism it serves to designate 
any special locality. 

Dignus vindice nodus. (Lat.) A 
knot worthy to be untied; a difficulty 
calling for the highest interposition for 
its unravelment. 

Dii majores et minorea. (Lat.) The 
gods greater and less. 

Dii msijorum gentium. (Lat.) The 
gods of the superior class ; the twelve 
superior gods. 

Dii penates. (Lat.) The household 
gods ; objects of love or affection. 

Dilettanti. (Ital.) Persons who de- 
vote themselves to science merely as a 

Dill. Dillon's Reports. 

Dim. Diminutive. 

Dimanche, M. (lit., " Mr. Sunday "). 
A name given in France to a creditor or 
dun, in Elusion to the fact that trades- 
men and artisans have no other holiday, 
and usually take Sunday for collecting 
their debts. 

Di molto. (Ital.) An expression 
which seems to increase the significance 
of the word to which it is attached; as, 
Allegro di molto, very quick. (Mus.) 

Dine with Duke Humphrey. A 
correspondent of the " Gentleman's 
Magazine," March, 1794, p. 210, says : 
" This proverb originated from the acci- 
dental circumstance of a wit in the sev- 
enteenth century being shut up in the 
Abbey of St. Albans, where the remains 
of Humphrey, the good Duke regent, 
are yet to be seen, while a party of his 
friends who came down to that borough 
on an excursion were enjoying a con- 
vivial dinner at the White Hart Inn." 
The proverb, however, seems to have 
been known at an earlier period than 
this story refers to, and it meant "to 
have no dinner to eat." The phrase, 
perhaps, arose from the custom of mak- 
ing a part of Old St. Paul's Cathedral, 
which was called Duke Humphrey's 
Walk, a common place of meeting. 
People short of a dinner used to prom- 
enade this spot in the hope of meeting 
some one who would invite them. 

Diner k la carte. (Fr.) To dine by 
the bill-of-fare prices. 

Dinna Kens. A nickname of the Sev- 
enty-first Regiment in the English army. 

Dinner-bell. A nickname conferred 
on Edmund Burke because of his long 
speeches, which were often interrupted 
by the members of Parliament leaving 
for dinner. 

Diocletian Era, or Era of Martyrs. 
From the proclamation of Diocletian 
as emperor, at Chalcedon, A. d. 284, 
until his abdication, in 305. His reign 
was notorious for a determined and 
sanguinary persecution of the Chris- 



Diogenes. A surname conferred on 
Romanus IV., Emperor of the East, 
who reigned 1067-1071. 

Diogenes. (Pseud.) John Trenchard 
in the " London Times" and the " Brit- 
ish Journal." 

Diomed. In classic mythology son of 
Tydasus, king of ^tolia. He was one 
of the most valiant of the Greeks at the 
siege of Troy. He and Ulysses carried 
off the Palladium, on which the. safety 
of Troy depended. 

Dlomedean S'wap. An exchange 
in which all the profit is on one side. 
The expression is founded on an inci- 
dent related by Homer in the Iliad. 
Glaucus recognizes Diomed on the 
battle-field, and the friends change 

Dion. (Pseud.) Joseph Leonard Til- 
linghast, American jurist, in the Prov- 
idence "Gazette" (i 790-1840). He also 
used the signature " Carroll." 

Dione. Venus, who sprang from the 
froth of the sea after the mutilated 
body of Uranus had been thrown there 
by Saturn. 

Dionysius, Ear of. See Ear of 


Diosc. Dioscorides. 

Dioscuri. (Gr., " Sons of Zeus." ) 
Another name for Castor and Pollux. 

Dircsean Swan. The poet Pindar; 
so named after Dirce, a fountain near 
Thebes, his place of birth. 

Dire des fleurettes. (Fr.) To say 
pretty things. 

Dirigo. (Lat.) " I direct or guide." 
The motto of the State of Maine. See 

Dirigoes. A sobriquet for the in- 
habitants of Maine, in allusion to the 
motto Dirigo, " I direct," on its coat-of- 

Dirty Half- Acre. The upper castle- 
yard_ in Dublin Castle ; so named from 
the jobs perpetrated within its enclo- 
sure during the traitorous times immedi- 
ately preceding the Union. 

Dirty Half-Hundred. The Fiftieth 
Foot Regiment in the English army. 
The story goes that on a certain sultry 
day the men wiped their sweaty faces 
with the black cuffs of their coats, and 
the dye came off. 

Dirty Shirts. The English Cold- 
stream Guards are thus nicknamed 
throughout the service. 

Disastrous Peace. That which fol- 
lowed the battle of Gravelines, 1559, 
signed at Ch4teau-Cambr&is. By it 
Henry II. gave up Genoa, Milan, Na- 
ples, and Corsica. 

Disc. Discount. 

Disguised as a Gentleman. This 
phrase originated in a play of the poet 
Cowley, in 1661. In the comedy 
of "The Cutter of Coleman Street," 
act i., sc. 5, Colonel Jolly and Captain 
Worms are chafiing Cutter, who boasts 
that he, " like the king himself, and all 
the great ones, got away in a disguise ; " 
to which Jolly replies, " Take one more 
disguise, and put thyself into the habit 
of a gentleman." 

Dished, in the sense of "ruined or 
frustrated," is a contraction of the old 
English word "disherit" for "disin- 
herit." A person is said to be dished 
when property he expected to inherit is 
left to some one else. Byron, in " Don 
Juan," asks, — 

" Where 's Brummel ? Dished I " 

Disjecta membra. (Lat) "Dis- 
jointed members." Scattered limbs or 

Dismal Science. The name given 
by Carlyle to the science of political 

Dissenters. The modern name for 
the Puritans and Nonconformists in 

Diss. Dissertation. 

Dissenters, Campo Santo of. See 
Campo Santo of Dissenters. 

Dist. District. 

Distaffs Day. January 7. So 
called because the Christmas festival 
terminates on Twelfth Day, and on the 
following day women return to their 
distaffs or daily occupations. 

Dist.-Atty. District-Attorney. 

Distingu6. (Fr.) " Distinguished." 
Eminent : gentlemanly. 

Distrait. (Fr.) "Absent." Ab- 
sent in thought. Distraite (fem.). 

Distringas. (Lat.) A writ for dis- 

Dito. (Ital.) The finger. (Mus.) 

Div. Division. 

Divertimento. (Ital.) A short com- 
position, written in a light and pleasing 
manner. (Mus.) 

Divertissement. (Fr.) (i) Certain 
airs- and dances introduced between the 
acts of Italian opera ; also a piece light 



and airy in style. (2) Amusement ; 
entertainment ; diversion. 

Divide. Long ridges, forming a 

Divide et impera. (Lat.) Divide 
and govern. 

Dividing Fence, The. See PiCTS' 

Divine, The. (l) Ferdinand de Her- 
rara, Spanish poet (fl. 1516-1595). (2) 
Raphael, the painter (fl. 1483- 1520). (3) 
Luis Morales, Spanish painter (fl. 1509- 

Divine Doctor. Jean de Ruysbroek, 
the mystic (fl. 1294-1381). 

Divine Speaker. Tyrtamos was so 
named by Aristotle, whereupon he 
assumed the name Theophrastos. He 
lived 370-287 B. c. 

Divoto. (Ital.) Devoutly; in a solemn 
style. (Mus.) 

Dixie, (i) The States and Territo- 
ries south of Mason and Dixon's line, 
the former boundary of slavedom. (2) A 
fabulous realm of peace, plenty, and in- 
dolence, whose charms form the burden 
of many a negro melody. Brewer says 
that a Mr. Dixie was a slaveholder of 
Manhattan Island, compelled by public 
opinion to remove his human chattels to 
the South. In their new abode they 
had to toil ceaselessly, and often sighed 
for their old home at the North, which 
lapse of time and distance invested with 
a halo of paradisaic pleasures. Thus 
" Dixie Land " became to the entire col- 
ored race in the South a species of 
Utopia, similar to the Scottish " Land 
o' the Leal " or the Fortunate Islands 
of the ancients. 

Dixie. (Pseud.) J. Dixie Doyle, 
Washington correspondent of the " Spirit 
of the Times," New York. 

Dixon. (Pseud.) Mme. Cldmence 
Harding Masson, author of "Stories 
and Sketches." 

Dizzy. " Punch " thus nicknamed 
Benjamin Disraeli, Lord Beaconsfield 
(fl. 1805-1881). 

D. Ii. O. Dead-Letter Office. 

D. M. Doctor of Music. 

Do. Ditto. The same. 
Doc. Document. 

Docendo dicimus. (Lat.) We learn 
by teaching. 

Docetas. (From the Greek hoKslv, to 
appear.) The name given to a set of 
ancient heretics who maintained that 

Christ acted and suffered in appearance 

Doce ut discas. (Lat.) Teach that 
you may learn. 

Doctor, The. A nickname for the 
first Lord Sidmouth (fl. 1757-1844), in 
allusion to the fact that he was the son 
of Dr. Anthony Addington of Reading. 

Dr. Bonham's Case. An important 
decision upon English constitutional law, 
rendered in 1609, in the case of Thomas 
Bonham v. tlie College of Physicians for 
false imprisonment. It was held that 
an act of Parliament which is against 
common right and reason, or is impos- 
sible to be performed, is void by the 
common law ; also that where the power 
to commit to prison is vested by patent 
or act of Parliament in parties not being 
a court, their proceedings ought to be of 
record, and the facts upon which such 
power is exercised are traversable. 

Doctor Mirabilis. Roger Bacon (fl. 

Doctor My-Book. A nickname given 
to Dr. John Abernethy (fl. 1765-1830), 
because he used to advise his patients 
to " read my book," that on " Surgical 

Doctor of the Incarnation. An hon- 
orable title bestowed on Saint Cyril of 
Alexandria, because of his champion- 
ship of the Virgin. 

Dr. Oldham of Greystones. (Pseud.) 
Caleb Sprague Henry, LL.D., American 
author (b. 1804). 

Doctor Scholasticus. Anselm the 
schoolman (fl. 1050-1117). 

Doctor Singularis. William of Ac- 
cam (a Surrey hamlet), fl. 1270-1347. 
See also Invincible Doctor. 

Doctor Slop. A nickname given to 
Sir John Stoddart, M.D. (fl. 1773-1856), 
a hot-tempered physician, who bitterly 
assailed Napoleon in the "Times," of 
which he was for a time editor. 

Doctor Squintum. (i) George White- 
field (fl. 1714-1770) was so named by 
Foote in his farce "The Minor." 
(2) Edward Irving was also so nick- 
named by Theodore Hook. 

Doctor Syntax. A simple, unso- 
phisticated, pious, henpecked clergy- 
man, of excellent taste and scholarship, 
who left home in search of the pic- 
turesque. His adventures are told in 
eight-syllable verse in " The Tour of Dr. 
Syntax," by William Combe, English 
satirical writer (i 741 -1823). 



Doctor :nrith Good Foundations. 
Giles, archbishop of Bourges. 

Doctrinaires. A name given since 
1814 to a class of politicians in France 
(Guizot, Mold, the Due de Broglie, and 
others), who upheld constitutional prin- 
ciples, in opposition to arbitrary mo- 
narchical power. The party came into 
office in 1830 under Louis Philippe, and 
fell with bim in 1848. 

Dodona. A famous oracle in Do- 
dona, in Epirus, and the most ancient 
of Greece. It was dedicated to Zeus. 

Do don't. See To GET to go. 

Doeface. See Doughface. 

Doeg, in Dryden and Tate's " Absa- 
lom and Achitophel," is meant for Elka- 
nah Settle, a poet who wrote ineffective 
satires upon Dryden. Doeg was Saul's 
herdsman, who had charge of his mules 
and asses. He told Saul that the priests 
of Nob had provided David with food ; 
whereupon Saul sent him to put them to 
death, and eighty-five were ruthlessly 

Dog Days. From July 3 to August 11. 
Dog Days have a more classic name, — 
" Canicular Days." Canicula was the 
old name of Canus Minor, and so came 
to be used to denote Sirius, or the Dog 
Star, the largest and the brightest of 
the stars situated in the mouth of Canus 
Major. The ancients counted the Dies 
Canicular, or Dog Days, from the helia- 
cal rising of Sirius, and made them forty 
in number, — twenty before and twenty 
after the rising of the star. The helia- 
cal rising means the time when the star, 
after being practically in conjunction 
with the sun and invisible, emerges 
from the light so as to be visible in the 
morning before sunrise. 

There was a superstition in old times that the 
rising of the Dog Star with the sun would pro- 
duce pestilential heat. The Egyptians thought 
it produced either the rising of the Nile or de- 
structive droughts. The date has been changing 
at the rate of about one day in seventy years, on 
account of the precession of the equinoxes ; so at 
the present time Dog Days in general commence 
in the latter part of July, and end in the begin- 
ning of September. Practically, they do not in 
our time have any connection with the rising of 
any star. Many of the most curious ideas pre- 
vail on this subject. We have heard a man sup- 
posed to possess considerable general informa- 
tion announce gravely and in good faith that 
Dog Days were so called because during those 
days the atmosphere was in a peculiar condition 
of humidity, which, together with the heat, in- 
duced hydrophobia in dogs. We class him with 
the brother who said that vaccination was named 
after Dr. Vacca, the inventor I — Rev. J. M. 
Buckley, D.D. 

Dog Derby. The name given in Eng- 
land to the coursing by greyhounds for 
the Waterloo Cup, every Ash-Wednes- 
day, on Altcar Meadows, near Liver- 

Dogget's Coat and Badge. Prize at 
a rowing-match on the Thames, from 
London Bridge to the Old Swan at 
Chelsea, yearly, August i. Beside the 
original prize (the bequest of Thomas 
Dogget, actor at Drury Lane, 1715), 
other prizes are competed for. The 
competition is by six young watermen 
whose apprenticeships have expired the 
previous year, each in a boat by him- 
self, with short oars or sculls ; and the 
race is at the hour when the current of 
the Thames, by recession of the tide, is 
strongest against the rowers. 

Dog-'vratch. A corruption of " dodge- 
watch." Two short turns of deck duty, 
or " watches," at sea, — one from four to 
six, and the other from six to eight in 
the evening. Time on shipboard is di- 
vided into periods of four hours' dura- 
tion (see Bells), the crew being divided 
into two portions, or watches, and being 
on duty alternately. But to prevent the 
same men from being on duty at the 
same hours every day, the dog-watches 
were introduced in order to change, or 
" dodge," the watch. But there is an- 
other theory as to the origin of the 
phrase : " In the Celtic language — 
spoken in the British Isles before the 
irruption of the Teutonic races, the 
Danes, the Saxons, the Dutch, and the 
Flemish — ' dog' signified 'common, in- 
ferior, imperfect,' etc. Many examples 
of its use in this sense are still existent 
in the vernacular. ' Dog bolt ' is an in- 
ferior or blunt arrow ; ' dog rose,' a wild, 
common, or hedge rose; 'doggerel' 
means common and inferior verse or 
rhyme; 'dog Latin,' the inferior and 
corrupt Latm spoken or written in the 
Middle Ages ; and 'dog watch,' the short 
or inferior watch, only half the length of 
the ordinary watch kept on ship-board. 
In like manner, 'dog cheap' does not 
mean ' cheap as a dog,' for dogs are 
not invariably cheap ; but ' cheap to 
commonness or almost to worthless- 
ness.' Many more examples of 'dog' 
as an adjective might be cited." 

Dog Whip. (Pseud.) L. D. Smith. 

Dolce. (Ital.) Sweet, soft, or agree- 

Dolce, Dolcemente, or Del. (Ital.) 
With sweetness. 



Dolce e piacevolmente espressivo. 

(Ital.) Soft, and with pleasing expres- 
sion. (Mus.) 

Dolce far niente. (Ital.) "This is 
a clear translation from the Latin. It 
describes the ' summum bonum ' of an 
Italian, and the idea was thrown into 
an expression at a very early period. 
In Cicero, De Oratore, ii., s. 24, is the 
following : ' Nihil agere delectat.' The 
same idea is in Pliny's Letters, viii. 9 : 
' Illud jucundum nil agere.' These ex- 
press the same idea precisely, — the 
'sweet to do nothing' of a life in a 
country where the climate would natu- 
rally produce a lassitude that would 
make labor a doubly hard task." — 
Olive Oldschool. 

Doldrums. (A. S. dol-drunc, foolish 
— from dol, erring; druncuian, to have 
the mind submerged by drinking : Gael. 
dol-dream, a state of sulking; dolirum, 
grief, vexation.) A sailor's term for the 
tropical zones of calms and variable 
winds. " To be in the doldrums," to be 
in low spirits, dejected, or melancholy. 

Doleute, Con dolore, or Con duolo. 
(Ital.) Sorrowfully; pathetically. (Mus.) 

Doli incapaz. (Lat.) Incapable of 

Dolly Dawdle. (Pseud.) Mrs. Mary 
C. P. Lukens. 

Dolly Mitchell. The stage-name of 
Mrs. William Melton. 

Dolores. (Pseud.) Miss Dickson, 
composer of musical settings for various 

Doloroso. (Ital.) In a soft and 
pathetic style. (Mus.) 

Dols. Dollars. 

D. O. M. Deo Optimo Maximo. To 
God, the best, the greatest. 

Domat omnia virtus. (Lat.) Valor 
subdues all things. 

Dome of the Rock. A name con- 
ferred on the Mosque of Omar, Jerusa- 
lem. It stands on Mount Moriah, on 
the site once occupied by the Temple of 
Solomon. Immediately under its dome 
an irregular-shaped rock projects above 
the pavement. This rock was the scene 
of many Scriptural events, and has been 
greatly revered for ages. 

Domestic Poet of England. William 
Cowper, author of " The Task.'' 

Domestic Poultry, in Dryden's epic 
of the " Hind and Panther," means the 
Roman Catholic clergy. 

Domestics. A term used to distin- 
guish native from imported wares. 

Domine, dirige nos. (Lat.) O Lord, 
direct us. 

Dominick Murray. The stage-name 
of Dominick Morogh. 

Dominie Sampson of Germany. 
Carlyle so named John Henry Stilling, 
the mystic (fl. 1 740-181 7), as being 
"awkward, honest, irascible, in old- 
fashioned clothes and bag-wig." 

Dominion Day. A Canadian na- 
tional holiday, occurring on July l in 
each year. 

Dominus vobiscum. (Lat.) The 
Lord be with you. 

Domitian. Oiie of the signatures of 
Junius {g. v.). 

Donald Campbell. (Pseud.) Stephen 
Cullen Carpenter, American journalist 

Donatello. (Pseud.) Francis Julius 
Le Moyne Burleigh, a well-known 
American journalist and editor. 

Donation-party. A gathering of 
church-members who supplement the 
pastor's often inadequate salary by 
presents of goods in kind. 

Don Carlos. (Pseud.) Henry T. 
Cheever, in the " Sunday Mercury." 

Do-nothing Kings. See Faineants. 

Don't care a Fig is properly " Don't 
care a.Jico." Fico means a contemptu- 
ous snapping of the fingers. Shak- 
speare has " A fico for the phrase." 

Don't give up the Ship. The au- 
thor of this historic phrase, which de- 
serves to rank with Nelson's " England 
expects every man to do his duty,' was 
Capt. James Lawrence, commanding the 
United States frigate " Chesapeake." 
He had accepted a challenge from 
Commander Brooke of the British frig- 
ate " Shannon," to a duel between the 
two vessels. The engagement took 
place just outside of Boston harbor, 
and lasted only a few minutes. Captain 
Lawrence was wounded, and, as he was 
carried below, exclaimed, "Don't give 
up the ship." The " Chesapeake " nad 
to surrender, however. Lawrence died 
on the voyage to Halifax, and is buried 
there. He was not quite twenty-six 
years old. 

Doomsday Sedgwick. William 
Sedgwick, a fanatic exhorter during 
the Commonwealth. He professed to 
have had a vision foretelling that the 



day of doom was at hand, and went 
about the country calling upon all to 
prepare for that event. 

Door-opener. A nickname given to 
Crates, the Theban, by the people of 
Athens, because every morning he used 
to perambulate the city berating the late 

Doppel. (Ger.) Double. 

Dora d' Istria. (Pseud.) Princess 
Koltzoff Massalsky, nde Helen Ghika 
(b. 1829). 

Dora Roberta. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Paige. 

Dora Stuart. The stage-name of 
Mrs. J. O. Bradford, n^e Haines. 

Dora Wiley. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Richard Golden. 

Dorer la pilule. (Fr.) To gild the 

Doric Land. Greece ; Doris being an 
important part of it. 

Through all the bounds 
Of Doric land. 

Milton, Paradise Lost, 

Doric Muse. Pastoral poetry. Every- 
thing Doric was very plain, but cheer- 
ful, chaste, and solid. The Dorians 
were the pastoral people of Greece, and 
their dialect was that of the country 

Doris. In classic mythology daughter 
of Oceanus and Tethys, and mother of 
the Nereids. 

Dorr's Rebellion. In 1843 a con- 
troversy arose in Rhode Island out of 
a desire to change the old Constitution, 
which dated from the time of Charles II. 
Rival factions were formed, named the 
" Suffrage " and the " Law and Order " 
parties. Each elected a set of State 
officers, and each was determined to 
secure control of the government. 
Thomas W. Dorr was chosen Gover- 
nor by the "Suffrage" party, and at- 
tempted to seize the government, for 
which he was sentenced to imprison- 
ment for life, but was subsequently 

Doraetian Downs. The uplands of 
Dorsetshire, England. 

Spread the pure Dorsetian downs 
In boundless prospect. 

Thomson, The Seasons. 

Dositheana. A religious sect which 
sprang up in the first century ; so 
called because they believed that Dosi- 
theus had a divine mission, superior to 
that of prophets and apostles. 

Doson. A promise-maker and a 
promise-breaker. Antigonus, grandson 
of Demetrius the besieger, was so 

Dot HEu-riaon. The stage-name of 
Mrs. John M. Cook. 

Dotted Bible. A folio edition of the 
Scriptures published in London in 1578 ; 
so named by bibliographers because it 
is a perfect fac-simile of that of 1574. 

Dotti, Mile. The stage-name of Mrs. 

Douay Bible. A translation of the 
Scriptures made by English Romanists 
from the Latin Vulgate. It was given 
to the world in 1610. See RosiN 

Double Dutch. Nonsense, outland- 
ish jargon, or a foreign tongue not un- 
derstood by the hearer. " Double " is 
simply "excessive, in a twofold degree." 

Double entendre. (Corrupt Fr.) 
" Double meaning." A play on words, 
in which the word or phrase is capable 
of more than one sense. The correct 
French form is double entente, of which 
the full expression is mot d double en- 
tente, " a word with a double meaning " 
— used generally in a bad sense. 

Double X or XX. A corruption of 
" duplex." It is a frequent sign in front 
of liquor shops, both in the United 
States and England, and signifies that 
the ales and beers are of "double 
strength." So of course the triple X 
(XXX) and quadruple X (XXXX) in- 
dicate that the strength is proportion- 
ately increased. 

Douceur. (Fr.) A present or bribe. 

Doughface. In 1838 the Democratic 
Congressmen from the Northern States 
decided in caucus in favor of a resolu- 
tion requiring all petitions relating to 
slavery to be laid upon the table with- 
out debate. This identified the party 
as it then existed with the slaveholding 
interest, and its Northern representa- 
tives were stigmatized as " Dough- 
faces." Says Mr. W. P. Garrison: 
" George Bradburn, of Massachusetts, 
in a political speech in Ohio said, of 
'the baser sort of Northern dema- 
gogues,' that John Randolph, 'the 
caustic Virginian,' in his Congressional 
seat branded them as ' doughfaces.' I 
am not sure but we have dulled the 
point of that pungent epithet by chang- 
ing its original orthography. Randolph 
spelled the word, ' D-O-E face,' in allu- 



sion to the timid, startled look of that 
animal, which is said to shrink from 
the reflection of its own face in the 

Doughnuts. A name as distinctively 
American as the edible it stands for. 
It is the English corruption of the Dutch 

Douglas Larder. In 1307, at the 
siege of Douglas Castle, the Good (!) 
Earl, James Douglas, on sacking the 
place, caused the barrels of flour, grain, 
wine, ale, etc., to be smashed, and al- 
lowed their contents to run out and min- 
gle on the floor of the storeroom. Into 
this mess he caused to be flung the dead 
bodies of the slaughtered garrison. The 
whole, to signify their contempt for the 
English, his men called " The Douglas 

Dow, Jr. (Pseud.) Eldridge Paige. 

Down East, Down-Easter. The 
New England States and the New- 

Downright. One of the signatures 
attributed to Junius {q. v.) 

Doz. Dozen. 

D. P. Doctor of Philosophy. 

D. P. O. Distributing Post-Ofiice. 

Dpt Department. 

Dr. Debtor ; Doctor ; dram ; 

Draconian Laws. In modern par- 
lance, statutes of unusual severity. The 
laws of Draco, enacted by him when 
archon of Athens (b. c. 621), on account 
of their rigor were said to be written 
in blood. This code was set aside by 
Solon's, B. C. 594. 

Draft Riots. A brutal and frantic 
protest in New York in the summer of 
1863 against the conscriptions for the 
Union army. Four hundred lives were 
lost, and much property was destroyed. 

Dragonnades. The name given to the 
fierce persecutions of the Protestants 
in the reign of Louis XIV. in France 
by dragoons at the instigation of Lou- 
vois. They culminated in the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes {g. v.). 

Dragon of Wanttey. A monster 
slain by More of More Hill, Yorkshire, 
who " procured a suit of armor studded 
with spikes, and, proceeding to the well 
where the dragon had his lair, kicked 
it in the mouth, where alone it was 

Dragon's Teeth. Sources of inter- 
necine strife. The allusion is to the 

dragon that guarded the well of Ares. 
Cadmus slew it, and sowed some of the 
teeth, from which sprang up the men 
called Spartans, who all killed each 
other except five, who were the ances- 
tors of the Thebans. 

Dramatis personae. (Lat.) The 
characters or persons represented on 
the stage in a play. 

Drapier's Letters. Famous epistles 
written by Dean Swift under the pseu- 
donym of " M. B. Drapier," were pub- 
lished in 1 724 against Wood's Halfpence 
{q. v.). 

Drat 'em and Od rot 'em. " These 
colloquial terms, used so frequently by 
old playwriters and by modern scolds, 
are probably contractions of ' May 
the gods outroot them.'" — Notes and 

Dred Scott Decision. This was a 
case brought for final decision before 
the Supreme Court of the United States 
in 1856, which excited much interest in 
this country and in Europe. The plain- 
tiff was a negro named Dred Scott, who 
with his wife and two children had been 
held as slaves by a Dr. Emerson in the 
State of Missouri. After the death of 
Emerson, Dred Scott and his family 
claimed to be free, on the ground that 
they had resided for some time with 
their late proprietor in a free territory; 
so that having, as Scott alleged, been 
free in that territory, they could not 
now be held to slavery. The case was 
carried to the United States Supreme 
Court, and on March 6, 1857, Chief- 
Justice Roger Brooke Taney, of Mary- 
land, announced the decision. " The 
court held that Scott had no right to 
sue, because, even if he were free, no 
colored person was regarded by the 
Constitution as, a citizen. He says 
" they had for more than a century be- 
fore been regarded as ... so far infe- 
rior that they had no rights which the 
white man was bound to respect." 
After deciding this, the question at 
issue, the court went out of its way to 
declare the Missouri Compromise void, 
and to deny the right of Congress to 
exclude slavery from any territory. Of 
the associate justices, six supported the 
Chief-Justice, and two, McLean of Ohio 
and Curtis of Massachusetts, dissented. 
The opinion was for a time withheld 
from publication, in order not to increase 
the excitement of the Presidential elec- 
tion then pending." 



Dress -improver. See New Dress- 

Drink. Synonymous with the Eng- 
lish " dram." 

Drisheen City. Cork, Ireland. The 
name arises from a favorite dish, native 
to the place, composed of cows' milk 
and the blood serum of sheep in equal 
quantities, flavored with pepper, salt, 
and tansy, served hot, and eaten at 

Droit d'Aubaine. A peculiar right of 
the king of France, who by the old cus- 
tom of the kingdom was entitled, on the 
death of a foreigner who had taken up 
his fixed residence there, to claim his 
movable estate, notwithstanding any tes- 
tamentary settlement which he might 
have left. But when a foreigner went to 
France as a traveller, merchant, or for- 
eign minister, without any intention of 
fixing his residence there, the droit 
cPaubaine was excluded. The Swiss, 
Savoyards, Scotch, and Portuguese were 
exempted. This antiquated piece of 
injustice was abolished in 18 19. 

Drop Shot. (Pseud.) George Wash- 
ington Cable, the famous novelist (b. 
1844), began writing for the New Orleans 
" Picayune " over the above signature. 

Drown the Miller is to put too much 
water to the flour in making bread. It 
is doubtless an English expression. At 
all events, Wright says that putitne; the 
miller's eye out is a phrase used when 
too much liquid is put to any dry or 
powdery substance. The latter is also 
used in New England. 

Druid. (Pseud.) (i) Henry M. Flint 
in the New York " World." (2) John 

Druid Money. A promise to pay on 
the Greek Kalends. Patricius says : 
" Druida^ pecuniam mutuo accipiebant 
in posteriore vita reddituri." 

Like money by the Druids borrowed. 
In th' other world to be restorM. 

Butler, Hudibras, iii. i. 

Drum Ecclesiastic. The pulpit cush- 
ion, often vigorously thumped by what 
are termed " rousing preachers." 

Drum-head Court-martial. A mili- 
tary tribunal convened in haste, as on 
the battle-field, to deal summarily with 
some culprit, when a big drum is used 
as a table. 

Drummer. In America, a commer- 
cial traveller is called a "drummer," 

and travelling in search of business is 
called "drumming." 

The expenses of " drumming " amount to no 
small sum. Besides employing extra clerks, and 
paying the extra price for theii board at the 
hotels, the merchant has to be very liberal with 
his money in paying for wine, oyster suppers, 
theatre tickets, and such other means of concili- 
ating the favor of the country merchant as are 
usually resorted to by " drummers." — Perils of 
Pearl Street^ ix. 

Drummer-boy of Mission Ridge. 
John S. Kountz, a gallant soldier in the 
civil war (b. 1846). At the battle of 
Mission Ridge, Tenn., Nov. 25, 1863, 
when the drum-corps was ordered to 
the rear, he threw away his drum, 
seized a musket, and was severely- 
wounded in the first assault, being left 
on the field. The episode is the sub- 
ject of a poem by Kate B. Sherwood, 
which is widely known. 

Drunk as Blazes. This vulgar ex- 
pression is a corruption of "drunk as 
Blaizers." Bishop Blaize is the patron 
saint of wool-combers, who at Leicester 
and elsewhere celebrate his festival with 
marchings and great convivialities. In 
Sir Thomas Wyse's "Impressions of 
Greece," he mentions this custom, and 
says : " Those who took part in the pro- 
cession were called ' Blaizers,' and the 
phrase ' as drunk as Blaizers ' originated 
in the convivialities common on these 

Drunk as Chloe. This saying prob- 
ably refers to the lady of that name, 
notorious for her drinking habits, so 
often mentioned by Matthew Prior in 
his poems. 

Drunken Parliament. That which 
assembled at Edinburgh, Jan. i, 1661. 
Burnet says the members were " almost 
perpetually drunk." 

Dryads. In classic myth nymphs 
who presided over the forests, and who 
were thought to perish with the trees 
in which they abode. 

Dryasdust, Rev. Dr. A pseudonym 
employed by Sir Walter Scott in the 
prefatory matter of some of his novels. 

Dry Bobs, Wet Bobs. Names ap- 
plied to rival parties or sets at Eton 
College, — the former going in for land 
sports, as cricket and football ; the latter 
•for boating, swimming, fishing, etc. 

Dry-goods. This word is univer- 
sally used in the United States for the 
wares known in England as linen-dra- 
pery or haberdashery. Dry-goods for 



men's use are called "men's furnish- 

Dryope. In classic myth a daughter 
of King Dryops and wif e of Andraemon; 
turned into a poplar or a lotus by the 

Drys. See Wets and Drys. 

D. S. Dal segno. From the sign. 

D. So. Doctor of Science. 

D. S. P. Decessit sine prole. He died 
without issue. 

D. T. Doctor theologies. Doctor of 
Theology ; Doctor of Divinity. 

Dualists. A name given in Hungary, 
in 1867, to the advocates of a separate 
form of government under the Emperor 
of Austria, which was carried in the 
year named. 

Dub. Dublin. 

Dubbs, Goose. See Goose Dubbs. 

Duchesne. Jacques Rdnd Hubert 
(fl. 1755-1794), the chief of the Corde- 
liers {q. v.\ was nicknamed " Pfere 
Duchesne " from the name of his scur- 
rilous journal. 

Ducit amor patriae. (Lat.) The love 
of my country leads me on. 

Ducks and Drakes. To "make 
ducks and drakes " with one's money is 
an allusion to a game played by boys, 
who take oyster-shells or flat stones, 
and throw them horizontally along the 
surface of a piece of water in such a 
manner that the missiles skim along the 
surface, touching it many times and 
again emerging. The first time the 
stone emerges it is a duci, the second 
a drake; and so on, according to the 
old doggerel — 

" A duck and a drake, 
And a halfpenny cake, 
And a penny to pay the baker," etc. 
The meaning, in the case of money, is, 
that the spendthrift metaphorically uses 
coins, as boys use stones, to make 
"ducks and drakes." 

Dudder. See Duffer. 

Dude. A languid, conceited, vapid 
dandy, dressed in the extreme of the 
prevailing fashion, distinguished alike 
for the inanity of his talk and an inor- 
dinate craving for the cheap notoriety 
to be gained by late hours and fast liv- 
ing. The remote origin of the word 
is probably to be found in the Scotch 
"duddies," or "duds," both meaning 
" clothes." The application of the idea 
in the form with which we are familiar is 
said to have originated with a prominent 

New-Yorker, who described one of 
the now familiar tailor's manikins as a 
" dude." So far back as 1870 we find in 
"Putnam's Magazine" the expression, 
" She is dressed like a dud," etc. 

Duff. A sailor-man's name for pud- 
ding of any kind, but meaning especially 
a stiff flour pudding, with a few handfuls 
of raisins or currants or prunes thrown 
in, boiled in a bag, in the cook's coppers, 
in the same greasy water in which salt 
beef and pork have been cooked. 

Duffer. A slang name for a pretended 
smuggler, — one who goes around sell- 
ing cheap cigars, brass watches, com- 
mon silks, etc., at ostensibly cheap 
prices, on the pretence that the same 
have been smuggled and have evaded 
the payment of the legal duty. " Dud- 
der" means the same as "duffer." 

Dugald Dalgetty. (Pseud.) Maj.- 
Gen. Sir A. M. TuUoch, K. C. B., in the 
Indian press. 

Duke of Exeter's Daughter. A tor- 
ture rack, erected by the Duke of Exeter 
in the reign of Henry VI., was so named. 
See Rack. 

Dulce domum. (Lat.) Sweet home. 

Dulce est desipere in loco. (Lat.) 
It is pleasant to jest at the proper time. 

Dulce et decorum est pro patria 
morl. (Lat.) It is pleasant and honor- 
able to die in behalf of one's country. 

Dulce quod utile. (Lat.) What is 
useful is agreeable. 

Dulcifluous Doctor. A name given 
to Antony Andreas (d. 1320), a Spanish 
minorite and a famous theologian. 

Dulia. An inferior kind of worship. 

Dumb Ox. Saint Thomas Aquinas, 
said to have been so dubbed by his 
fellow-pupils, at Cologne, " on account 
of his silence and apparent dulness." 
But it is said that his teacher penetrated 
the mask, and predicted his future great- 
ness in the words, "That dumb ox will 
some day speak and shake the world ! " 

Dump. " To dump," in the sense of 
tilting a cart and thus unloading it, is an 
Americanism; and open lots where "rub- 
bish may be shot," as is said in Eng- 
land, are in America called " dumping- 

Dum spire, spero. (Lat.) While I 
breathe, I hope. 

Dum vita est, spes est. (Lat.) 
" While life is, hope is." While there 
is life, there is hope. 




Dum vivimuB, vivamua. (Lat.) 

"While we live, let us live." Let us 
enjoy life as long as we can. 

Dunces' Parliament. A nickname 
given to a parliament convened by 
Henry IV. at Coventry in 1404, and so 
called because all lawyers were excluded 

Dun Cow of Warwick. Guy, Earl 
of Warwick, is said to have killed a 
monster cow of a dun color, which had 
ravaged the neighborhood. Some huge 
bones are shown to visitors at Warwick 
Castle as those of the veritable dun 
cow. Professor Owen pronounced the 
bones to be those of a mastodon ; and 
Mr. Isaac Taylor says that the tradition 
is founded upon the conquest of the 
Denagau, or Danish settlement in the 

Dune Edin, Dunedin. The old Gae- 
lic name for Edinburgh (Edwin's burgh). 
The term also embodies a description 
of the site, the words signifying literally 
" the face of a rock." The name is fre- 
quent in Scottish poesy as a synonym 
for Edinburgh. 

Dunelm. Durham. 

Dunheved. (Pseud.) Alfred Farthing 
Robbins, a writer in the English provin- 
cial press. 

Dunmow Flitch. A prize instituted 
at Dunmow, in Essex, in 1244, by Robert 
de Fitzwalter, on the following condi- 
tions : " That whatever married couple 
will go to the priory, and kneeling on 
two sharp-pointed stones will swear 
that they have not quarrelled nor re- 
pented of their marriage within a year 
and a day after its celebration, shall re- 
ceive a flitch of bacon." The prize was 
first claimed in 1445, two hundred years 
after it had been instituted. After 1751, 
up to which date only five presentations 
had taken place, the flitch was not 
claimed till 1855. The tenth occasion 
of awarding the flitch occurred in 1876. 

Dunn Browne. (Pseud.) Rev. Sam- 
uel Fiske, Congregational divine and 
author (1828-1864). 

Duo. Duodecimo, twelve folds. 

Duo. (Ital.) For two voices or 
instruments. (Mus.) 

Durante placito. (Lat.) During 

^ Durante vita. (Lat.) While life 
endures ; during life. 

Durga. In Hindu mythology the con- 
sort of Siva, depicted with ten arms. 

Dusty Foot, Court ol See Piepow- 
der Court. 

Dutch. In New York especially, 
and in many other parts of the United 
States, the name " Dutch " is misap- 
plied to Germans as well as to Hol- 
landers. As Archbishop Trench tells 
us, "Till late in the seventeenth cen- 
tury ' Dutch ' meant (in England) gen- 
erally German, and a 'Dutchman' a 
native of Germany," it is evident that 
this arose, not from a tendency to un- 
derrate Germans, but from a courteous 
effort to call them by their own name, 
" Deutsch," . which but too readily 
changed into " Dutch." The Ameri- 
cans, therefore, only follow the exam- 
ple of their forefathers, if they still 
continue to call all Germans "Dutch- 
men " and their language " Dutch." 

Dutch Concert. A great uproar, 
like that supposed to be made by a 
party of Dutchmen in sundry stages of 
intoxication, some singing, others quar- 
relling, wrangling, and so on. 

Dutch Courage. The courage ex- 
cited by drink; pot valor. 

Dutch School of painting is a sort 
of " pre-Raphaelite " exactness of detail 
without selection. It is, in fact, photo- 
graphing exactly what appears before 
the artist, as faithfully as his art will 
allow. The subjects are generally the 
lower classes of social life, as pothouse 
scenes, drunken orgies, street groups, 
Dutch boors, etc., with landscapes and 

Dutchy, A by-name conferred on 
General Sigel by the soldiers of his 
command in the late civil war. 

Duthus. (Pseud ) Alexander Taylor 
Innes in " Good Words." 

Dux femina facti. (Lat.) A woman 
was the spirit and soul of the enter- 

D. V. Deo volente. God willing. 

Dwarfie Stone. " This is one of the 
wonders of the Orkney Islands, though 
it has been rather undervalued by their 
historian, Mr. Barry. The island of 
Hoy rises abruptly, starting as it were 
out of the sea, which is contrary to the 
gentle and flat character of the other 
Isles of Orkney. It consists of a moun- 
tain having different eminences or peaks. 
It is very steep, furrowed with ravines, 
and placed so as to catch the mists of 
the Western Ocean; and has a noble 
and picturesque effect from all points 



of view. The highest peak is divided 
from another eminence, called the Ward 
Hill, by a long swampy valley full of 
peat-bogs. Upon the slope of this last 
hill, and just where the principal moun- 
tain of Hoy opens into a hollow swamp, 
or corrie, lies what is called the Dwarfie 
Stone. It is a great fragment of sand- 
stone, composing one sond mass, which 
has long since been detached from a 
belt of the same materials cresting the 
eminence above the spot where it now 
lies, and which has slid down till it 
reached its present situation. The rock 
is about seven feet high, twenty-two feet 
long, and seventeen feet broad. The 
upper end of it is hollowed by iron tools, 
of which the marks are evident, into 
a sort of apartment, containing two 
beds of stone, with a passage between 
them. The uppermost and largest bed 

is five feet eight inches long, by two 
feet broad, which was supposed to be 
used by the dwarf himself; the lower 
couch is shorter, and rounded off, in- 
stead of being squared at the corners. 
There is an entrance of about three feet 
and a half square, and a stone lies be- 
fore it calculated to fit the opening. A 
sort of skylight window gives light to 
the apartment. We can only guess 
at the purpose of this monument, and 
different ideas have been suggested. 
Some have supposed it the work of 
some travelling mason ; but the cui 
bono would remain to be accounted for." 
— Scott. 

DtwI. Pennyweight. 
Dyke, Grahame's. See Grahame's 
Dyn. Dynamics. 


E. East. 

Ea. Each. 

Eagle of Brittany. Bertrand du Gues- 
clin. Constable of France (fl. 1320-1380). 

Eagle of Divines. Thomas Aquinas. 
See Dumb Ox. 

Eagle of Prance, or Eagle of the 
Doctors of France. Pierre d'Ailly, the 
French cardinal and astrologer (fl. 1350- 
1420). See Hammer, The. 

Eagle of Meauz. Bossuet, bishop 
of Meaux, was so named. He was by 
all odds the greatest pulpit orator France 
ever possessed. 

Eagle Orator of Tennessee. Gus- 
tavus Adolphus Henry (i 804-1 880), who 
achieved great reputation as a public 
speaker, and waj known throughout the 
South by the above sobriquet. 

E. & O. E. Errors and omissions 

Ear. The spikes of the maize-plant are 
called " ears " only so long as the grains 
adhere thereto; after "shucking" the 
spike becomes a " corn-cob." See Cob. 

Earl of Mar's Gray Breeks. The 
Twenty-fi^st Regiment of Foot in the 
English army ; so named because they 
wore gray breeches when the Earl of 
Mar was their colonel, 1678-1686. 

Earl of Pleasure Bay. A humorous 
nickname given to the late Hugh J. 
Hastings (■1820-1883), the American 
journalist, by the New York " Herald." 
He possessed an estate at Pleasure 
Bay, Long Island, where he dispensed 
lavish hospitality to his friends. 

Eeit of Dionysius. A famous cavern 
near Neapolis, in which the slightest 
whisper was audible at a great distance. 

Ears-to-Ear Bible. So named be- 
cause of a misprint in Matthew xi. 15: 
" He that hath ears to ear," etc. 

East, Crown of the. See Crown 
OF THE East. 

Easter Day. Next to Christmas, the 
Easter festival — the anniversary of the 
resurrection of our Lord — is the most 
significant of the several festivals of the 
Church, and is most commonly and zeal- 
ously observed. The word " Easter " 
had, at first, no reference to this Chris- 
tian event. It is a modified form of the 
Anglo-Saxon Eastre, the name of the 
goddess of spring, in whose honor a 
festival was annually celebrated in the 
month of April. In the only instance in 
which this word occurs in the New Tes- 
tament it is a mistranslation oipascha, 
the passover. A movable feast, it oc- 
curs, by the authority of the Church, an- 



nually on the first Sunday after Good 
Friday, and corresponds as to time with 
the Passover of the Jews. Its observ- 
ance, if not apostolic, dates back to the 
early post-apostolic times. And yet it 
is everywhere seen in the writings of 
the Christian Fathers of the first three 
centuries that the resurrection of Christ 
and the general resurrection of the dead 
are strongly and constantly defined and 
maintained, and doubtless the anniver- 
sary of our Lord's resurrection was 
observed from the beginning. The ob- 
servance of Easter was instituted about 
68. After much contention between the 
Eastern and Western churches, it was 
ordained by the Council of Nice, 325, to 
be observed on. the same day through- 
out the whole Christian world. " Easter 
Day is the Sunday following that four- 
teenth day of the calendar moon which 
happens upon or next after the 21st of 
March ; so that, if the said fourteenth 
day be a Sunday, Easter Day is not that 
Sunday, but the next." Easter-Day may 
be any day of the five weeks which com- 
mence with March 22 and end with April 
25 ; that is to say, Easter Day cannot 
fall earlier than March 22, nor later than 
April 25. Some of the most supersti- 
tious ideas have been connected with 
the observance of Easter. It was once 
believed all over England that the sun 
dances in a peculiar way on Easter Day. 
The celebrated Sir Thomas Browne, in 
his book called "Vulgar Errors," de- 
votes considerable space to upsetting 
that superstition. Sir John Suckling 
introduced this error in complimenting 
the dancing of a young woman, saying : 
" No sun upon an Easter Day 
Is half as fine a sight." 

Easter Eggs. The following inter- 
esting account of the present custom 
of making gifts of eggs at Eastertide is 
from the pen of Mr. Frank Belle w : " In 
ancient Persia," he says, "many hun- 
dred years before the "birth of Christ, 
the people were all worshippers of fire. 
According to their religion, as commu- 
nicated to them by their prophet Zo- 
roaster, there was first a great spirit 
who had existed from aU eternity. 
From him came the first light; and from 
this light sprang two brothers, Ormuzd 
and Ahriman. Ahriman grew jealous of 
his elder brother, and was condemned 
by the Eternal One to pass three thou- 
sand years in utter darkness. On his 
release he created a number of bad 
spirits to oppose the good spirits cre- 

ated by Ormuzd; and when the latter 
made an egg containing good genii, 
Ahriman produced another full of evil 
demons, and broke the two together, so 
that good and evil became mixed in the 
new creation. This is the legend of 
Ahriman and Ormuzd. In memory of 
it the Persians of the present day, on a 
certain festival in March, present each 
other with colored eggs ; and it is, per- 
haps, from this that we get our similar 
Easter custom. But, independently of 
Persian history, eggs are as full of in- 
terest to us as they are proverbially full 
of meat. They have always been held 
as symbols of the springing forth of life, 
and are therefore very naturally asso- 
ciated with the rising of our Lord from 
the tomb. The festival of Easter, often 
called the Queen of Festivals, is held 
to commemorate the resurrection of 
Christ. Formerly the churches were 
ornamented with large wax candles, 
bonfires were lighted, and Christians 
saluted each other with a kiss and the 
words ' Christ is risen,' to which an- 
swer was made, 'He is risen indeed.' 
In the present time, as you well know, 
we celebrate the day by going to church 
and by making presents of painted eggs 
and Easter cards. In older times the 
festival of Easter was celebrated with 
many ceremonies, sports, and observ- 
ances. Chief among them then as now 
was the giving of colored eggs, called 
' pasch ' or ' pace ' eggs, which the boys 
and girls rolled down some grassy hill- 
side until they broke, the one whose 
egg held out the longest being the vic- 
tor, and claiming those of the other con- 
testants. While they were doing this 
they would sing some ditty with the re- 
frain ' Carland parland, paste egg day.' 
In a royal roll of the time of Edward I., 
preserved in the Tower, appears an entry 
of eighteen pence (thirty-six cents) for 
four hundred eggs to be used for Easter 
gifts. The game of ball was a favorite 
sport on this day, in which the town au- 
thorities engaged with due dignity and 
parade. At Bury St. Edmunds, in Eng- 
land, within a few years, the game was 
kept up with great spirit by twelve old 
women. In the northern part of Eng- 
land the men parade the streets on 
Easter Sunday, and claim the privilege 
of lifting every woman they meet three 
times from the ground, receiving in pay- 
ment a kiss or a silver sixpence. The 
same is done by the women to the men 
on the next day. This custom had no 



doubt originall)r a religious significance, 
intended to typify the rising ot our Lord 
on the third day. In Lancashire, Eng- 
land, they keep up the traditions of cen- 
turies on Easter Monday. In Preston 
the young folks of both sexes make a 
pilgrimage to a park outside the town, 
each with a colored egg, hard boiled, 
with an initial or distinguishing mark 
on it. Everybody makes for the sum- 
mit of a hill, down which the great aim 
is to roll the egg without getting it 
smashed. To see crowds of well- 
dressed people rolling eggs against one 
another, is a most amusing spectacle." 

Eastern Archipelago, Queen of the. 
See Queen of the Eastern Archi- 

Eastern States. In popular par- 
lance, in America, the six New Eng- 
land States, — Maine, New Hampshire, 
Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
and Connecticut. 

East, Queen of the. See Queen of 
the East. 

Easy Accession, The. A phrase at 
one time current in American politics. 
It had been the general practice of Pres- 
idents, from the first organization of the 
Government, to tender the post of Sec- 
retary of State to the man considered 
to be next in prominence to himself in 
the party to which both belonged. In 
the earlier history of the country the 
expected successor in the executive of- 
fice was selected. This was, indeed, 
for so long a period so uniform that the 
appointment to the State Department 
came to be regarded as a designation to 
the Presidency. In political phrase this 
mode of reaching coveted place was 
known as the " easy accession." By its 
operation Madison succeeded Jefferson, 
Monroe succeeded Madison, John Quin- 
cy Adams succeeded Monroe. After 
successful application for a quarter of a 
century the custom fell into disfavor, 
and by bitter agitation into disuse. The 
cause of its overthrow was the appoint- 
ment of Henry Clay to the State De- 
partment ; and the baseless scandal of 
a bargain and sale was invented to de- 
prive Mr. Clay of the " easy accession." 

Eau de Cologne. (Fr.) " Water of 
Cologne." A perfume so called. 

Eau-de-Tie. (Fr.) " Water of life." 

Eau suorfe. (Fr.) Sugared or 
sweetened water. 

E. B. English Bible. 

Eben. Ebenezer. 

Eblis. The ruler of the evil genii or 
fallen angels. Before his fall he was 
called Azazil. When Adam was cre- 
ated, God commanded all the angels to 
worship him ; but Eblis replied, " Me 
thou hast created of smokeless fire ; and 
shall I reverence a creature made of 
dust?" God was very angry at this 
insolent answer, and turned the disobe- 
dient fay into a devil ; and he became 
the father of devils. See kztiZlL. 

Ebony. A humorous nickname given 
to William Blackwood (fl. 1 777-1 834), 
the founder of " Blackwood's Magazine." 
" Ebony," of course, means black-wood. 

Ebor. Eboracum. York. 

Ebudse. The Hebrides. 

E. by S. East by South. 

E. C. Eastern Central, a postal dis- 
trict of London. 

Eoce Homo! (Lat.) "Behold the 
man ! " The title of a picture repre- 
senting the Lord Jesus as given up to 
the Jews by Pilate, or wearing a crown 
of thorns. 

Ecce signum ! (Lat.) " Behold the 
sign ! " Here is the proof. 

Eccl. Ecclesiastes. 

Ecclus. Ecclesiasticus. 

Echion. (Pseud.) Edward Chatfield, 
in " Blackwood." 

Echo. In classic mythology a nymph 
who became enamored of Narcissus. 
Her love being unreciprocated, she 
pined away till there remained of her 
nothing but her voice. 

Eclaircissement. (Fr.) The clear- 
ing up of an affair. 

Eclat. (Fr.) Splendor; applause. 

Eclat de rire. (Fr.) A burst of 

Eclipse first, the Rest nowhere. 
" Declared by Captain O'Kelley at Ep- 
som, May 3, 1769, when the horse 
Eclipse distanced the field." — Annals 
of Sporting. 

Ecorcheurs. Freebooters of the 
twelfth century, in France; so called 
because they stripped their victims of 
everything, even their clothes. 

Ecossais. (Fr.) An air in Scotch 
style. (Mus.) 

E. C. Revons. (Pseud.) Charles 
Crozet Converse, American littirateur 
(b. 1834). 

1 82 


Ecstatic Doctor. Jean de Ruys- 
broek, the mystic (fl. 1294-1381). 

E. D. Eastern District (of Brooklyn, 
N. Y.). 

Ed. Editor; edition. 

E. D. E. N. (Pseud.) Mrs. Emma 
D. E. (Nevitte) Southworth, American 
novelist (b. 1818). 

Eden, Garden of. See Garden of 

Eden of America. A name bestowed 
upon the island of Aquidneck, off the 
coast of Rhode Island, on account of its 
great fertility. 

Edict of Milan. A proclamation by 
Constantine, after the conquest of Italy, 
313, to "secure to Christians the res- 
titution of their civil and religious 

Edict of Nantes. A state paper by 
which Henry IV. of France granted tol- 
eration to his Protestant subjects, April 
13) 1558. It was confirmed by Louis 
XIII. in 1610, and by Louis XIV. in 
1652. It was revoked by the latter Oct. 
22, 1685. This unjust and impolitic act 
cost France fifty thousand Protestant 
families, and gave to England and Ger- 
many thousands of industrious artisans, 
who carried with them and established 
in those countries several valuable 
handicrafts. See Revocation. 

Edict of Restitution. The decree 
issued by Frederick II., of Germany, in 
1629, requiring the relinquishment of 
many Church lands. 

Edin. Edinburgh. 

Edina, or Edin. A synonym for Edin- 
burgh, introduced by George Buchanan, 
and frequently met in Scottish poetry. 
See Dune Edin. 

Edith Alston. (Pseud.) Mrs. Mary 
Green Goodale, of New Orleans, a poet 
of note. 

Edith Bland. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Austin Brereton. 

Edith Blande. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Edward Solomon. 

Edith Elliot. (Pseud.) Mrs. A. H. 
C. Howard, in the "Household," of 
Brattleboro, Vt. 

Edith Harding. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Charles T. Dazey. 

Edith May. (Pseud.) Anna Drinker, 
American poetess (b. 1830). 

Edith Murillo. The stage-name of 
Mme. Ignacio Martinetti. 

Edith Sinclair. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Edward M. Favor. 

Edition de laze. (Fr.) A hand- 
some edition of a book. 

Editio princeps. (Lat.) The first 

Edm. Edmund. 

Edmund Kirke. (Pseud.) James 
Roberts Gilmore, American littirateur. 

Edna Lyall. (Pseud.) Ada Ellen 
Bayly, an English novelist, author of 
"Donovan," etc. 

Edw. Edward. 

Edward Bradwardine Waverly. 
(Pseud.) John Wilson Croker, English 
author and critic (i 780-1 857). 

Edward Pitzball. (Pseud.) Ed- 
ward Ball, English dramatic writer (b. 

Edward Herbert. (Pseud.) John 
Hamilton Reynolds, English poet (1794- 

Edward Lee. The stage-name of 
Edward Seabrooke. 

Edward Search. (Pseud.) (i) Wil- 
liam Hazlitt, English critic and miscel- 
laneous writer (i 778-1830). (2) Abra- 
ham Tucker, English metaphysician 
(1 705-1 774). 

Edward Sezby. (Pseud.) Josiah 
Quincy, American orator and patriot 

Edward Spencer, (Pseud.) Caro- 
line Seymour in " Harper's Magazine." 

Edward the Robber. Edward IV. 
was so named by the Scotch. 

Edward William Sidney. (Pseud.) 
Beverly Tucker, American lawyer and 
novelist (i 784-1 851). 

Edwin Arnott. The stage-name of 
Edwin Job. 

E. E. Errors excepted. 

E. E. T. S. Early English Text So- 

Eel-skin. A former name for a thin 
narrow slip of paper, with the name of 
a candidate on one side, and coated 
with mucilage on the other, so as to be 
quickly and secretly placed over the 
name of an opponent on a printed bal- 
lot. "Eel-skins," judiciously distrib- 
uted, are the most eflScient instruments 
for " splitting tickets," and securing the 
election of some favored nominee on a 
ticket otherwise in the minority. They 
are now called " pasters." 

Effle Afton. (Pseud.) Mrs. Frances 
Ellen Watkins Harper. 



Effie Xillsler. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Frank Weston. 
' Effie Weaver. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Horace McVicker. 

Effigy Sargent. Aaron A. Sargent 
(1827-1887), an American legislator and 

B. Fl. Ells Flemish. 

E. Pr. Ells French. 

E. G. Exempli gratiA, for example ; 
Ex grege, among the rest. 

Egalite. (Fr.) Equality. 

Egallte. Philippe, Due d'Orldans, 
the father of Louis Philippe, was so 
surnamed because he sided with the 
revolutionary party, whose motto was 
" Liberty, equality, fraternity." Never- 
theless he met death on the guillotine 
in 1793. 

Egeria. In classical m}rthology a 
nymph who was fabled to have trans- 
mitted to Numa Pompilius directions 
respecting the modes of public worship 
which he established in Rome. 

Ego et rez meus. (Lat.) I and my 

Ego hoc feci. (Lat.) I did this. 

Egomet me ignosco. (Lat.) I over- 
look my own faults. 

Egypt A slang term, supposed to 
be descriptive of the people or of the 
soil of Southern Illinois. The inhab- 
itants at one time possessed the repu- 
tation of being extremely ignorant ; 
hence a figurative allusion to the " thick 
darkness " in which Egypt was involved 
at the command of Moses. The soil of 
the locality in question is of unsurpassed 
fertility, as was the case with that of 
the land of the Nile. Another writer 
says, controverting the above explana- 
tion: About the year 1835 there was 
throughout Northern and Central Illi- 
nois a great scarcity of corn, while all 
through Southern Illinois there was a 
very great abundance ; as a consequence, 
the following fall and winter great num- 
bers came down into " Egypt " (as in 
ancient times the people went down 
into ancient Egypt for a like purpose) 
to buy and carry back corn to supply 
the wants of the people in that part of 
the State where the corn crop for that 
year had been a total failure. The 
chief product of the State at that time 
was corn ; but little else was cultivated. 
It was the staple article of food, both 
for man and beast. And thus Southern 
Illinois came to be called "Egypt." 

The " thick darkness " and the extreme 
ignorance never did exist there. 

Egyptian Hercules. Sesostris (b. c. 

Egyptua. (Pseud.) Rev. Joseph Par- 
rish Thompson, D. D., American Con- 
gregational divine (1819-1879). 

E. I. East Indies or East India. 

B. I. C, or E. I. Co. East India 

E. I. C. S. East India Company's 

Eight Bells, Four Bells, etc. These 
shipboard terms have a peculiar mean- 
ing, not exactly equivalent to, but serv- 
ing as a substitute for, " time " or 
" o'clock " in ordinary land life. The 
day, or rather the night, is divided into 
watches or periods, usually of four 
hours' duration each ; and each half- 
hour is marked by striking on a bell. 
The number of strokes depends, not on 
the hour, according to the ordinary reck- 
oning, but on the number of half-hours 
which have elapsed in that particular 
watch. Thus, " three bells " is a phrase 
denoting that three half-hours have 
elapsed, but it does not in itself show 
to which particular watch it refers. See 

Eikon Basilike (" The Portraiture of 
His Sacred Majesty in his Solitudes 
and Sufferings "). A book of devotion 
formerly believed to have been written 
by Charles I. during his imprisonment, 
but now generally attributed to Bishop 
Gauden. It was published in 1648, 
and sold rapidly. See Calves' Head 

Bjusdem generis. 

same kind. 

(Lat.) Of the 

Elagabalus. The Syro-Phoenician 
sun-god. One of the Roman emperors 
was so called because he was a priest 
of Elagabalus. This madman invited 
the principal men of Rome to a banquet, 
and smothered them in a shower of 

Elan. (Fr.) Buoyancy; dash. 

El Atchby. (Pseud.) Lyman Hotch- 
kiss Bazy, in the "Graphic" and the 
"World," 1873-1878. 

Elbe Florence. The city of Dres- 
den ; so called from the important part 
which the river Elbe plays in the city's 
life and topography. 

El Dorado (" the golden," or, rather, 
"the gilded"). This name was first 
applied to a man, " el rey dorado," who 

1 84 


existed originally in the visions of the 
Spanish conquerors of America, whose 
insatiable avarice loved to dream of 
richer rewards than those of Mexico 
and Peru. The Castilians found an 
imitator in Sir Walter Raleigh, who 
twice visited Guiana in quest of this 
fabulous region. The name has at last 
made for itself an abiding-place beyond 
the furthest limits of Spanish posses- 
sion. It indicates a county in the north- 
east of California, of which the capital, 
Calloma, stands near the spot where the 
first discovery of gold was made in 
that State. The district in question is 
drained by some of the northern feeders 
of the Sacramento, which empties itself 
into the Bay of San Francisco. 

Eldred Grayson. (Pseud.) Rob- 
ert Hare, the American scientist 
(i 781-1858), who contributed moral 
essays to the " Portfolio " under this 

Eleanor Barry. The stage-name of 
Mrs. J. G. Chesley. 

Eleanor Kirk. (Pseud.) Mrs. Ames, 
a well-known writer of Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

Zileanor Moretti. The stage-name 
of Eleanor Rogers. 

Eleanor Putnam. (Pseud.) Mrs. 
Harriet L. Vose Bates, in the " Atlantic 

Election Bonfires. See Guy Fawkes 

Election Day. The general election 
day_ throughout the United States for 
national officers. By act of Congress, 
March i, 1792, amended Jan, 23, 1845, 
a uniform day of election for Electors 
of President and Vice-President was 
fixed for all th^ States, — being the 
Tuesday next after the first Monday 
in November, every fourth year after 
a President has been elected. Many 
of the State elections fall on the same 
day. This occasion is a legal holiday 
in the States of California, Maine, Mis- 
souri, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, 
South Carolina, and Wisconsin. By 
act of March 3, 1875, elections of Rep- 
resentatives in Congress are required 
to be held on the Tuesday next after 
the first Monday in November, every 
second year, in 1876 and following years. 
Subsequent special acts enable States 
whose Constitutions fix a difEerent date 
to elect earlier, until they amend their 
Constitutions, Following is a list of 

the days upon which State elections 
fall in the United States: — 



California a 












Louisiana c 






Mississippi a 

Missouri a 



Nevada a 

N. Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York a 

N. Carolina 


Oregon a 


Rhode Island 

S. Carolina 






W. Virginia a 



New Mexico 



Elections.— State. 

Month and Day. 

ist Mon. Aug. 
xst Mon. Sept. 
Tu. aft. z Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu, aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
xst Wed. Oct. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. 2 Mon. Oct. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
xst Mon. Aug. 
Tu. aft 3 Mon, Apr. 
2d Mon. Sept. 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu.aft. iMon.Nov. 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tii. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
Tu.aft. X Mon. Nov. 
Tu.aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon, Nov. 
Tu.aft z Mon. Nov. 
ist Mon. June 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
ist Wed. April 
Tu, aft X Mon. Nov, 
Tu.aft.xMon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. z Mou. Nov. 
xst Tu. Sept. 
Tu.aft.xMon. Nov, 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
sdTu. Oct 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 

Tu. aft. z Mon. Nov. 
Tu.aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
xst Mon. Aug. 
Tu.3ft. zMon. Nov. 

Elections. — Con- 
gressional and 

Month and Day. 

Tu. aft. z Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft I Mon. Nov, 
Tu.aft. I Mon. Nov, 
Tu.aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu, aft. J Mon. Nor. 
Tu. aft I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov, 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. 1 Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov, 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov, 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft X Mon. Nov, 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. z Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. 1 Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft I Mon. Nov. 
ad Tu. Oct, 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov, 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov, 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov* 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon, Nov. 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov, 
Tu. aft. X Man. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. I Mon. Nov, 

Tu. aft. X Mon, Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Mon. Nov, 
Tu. aft X Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. 1 Mon. Nov. 
Tu. aft. X Man. Nov. 

a In these States the Governor and State officers are 
elected quadrennially, and the Legislature (or members of 
the Assembly) every two years. 

h In Presidential election years Iowa's election day is the 
Tuesday after the first Monday in November. 

c In Louisiana the Legislature and State officers are elected 
quadrennially ; members of Congress biennially, 

d The Ohio election, for State ticket and Congress, is in 
October ; for Presidential electors, in November. 

Zilcctoral Commission. A tempo- 
rary expedient to meet the crisis attend- 
ing, the Presidential election of 1876; 
four States — Louisiana, Oregon, South 
Carolina, and Florida — having given 
double, in one case threefold, re- 
turns. It was elected by a committee 
appointed by the two houses of Con- 
gress, January, 1877, and consisted of 
three Republicans and two Democrats 
from the Senate, and three Democrats 
and two Republicans from the House, 
four justices of the Supreme Court, and 
a fifth justice selected by these. It 
commenced its examination of the cer- 
tificates February i, and on the after- 
noon of March 2 announced that Hayes 
and Wheeler were legally elected. 

Electra, In classic mythology daugh- 
ter of Agamemnon and of Clytemnes- 



tra, and who conspired with Orestes to 
murder their mother. 

Elegant Extracts. The Eighty-fifth 
Foot Regiment was so named on be- 
ing re-organized in 18 13, after a series 
of court-martials. A number of the 
officers were removed, and their places 
filled by transfers from other corps. 

Elegit. (Lat.) "He hath elected." 
A writ of execution. 

Eleusinian Mysteries. The name 
given to the sacred rites with which the 
annual festival of Ceres was celebrated 
at Eleusis. " Many traditions were afloat 
in ancient times as to the origin of this 
festival. Of these, the most generally 
accepted was to the effect that Ceres, 
wandering over the earth in quest of her 
daughter Proserpine, arrived at Eleusis, 
where she took rest on the 'sorrowful 
stone ' beside the well Callichorus. In 
return for some small acts of kindness, 
and to commemorate her visit, she taught 
Triptolemus the use of corn on the Rha- 
rian plain near the city, and instituted 
the mystic rites peculiarly known as 
hers. The festival itself consisted of 
two parts, the greater and the lesser 
mysteries. The less important feast, 
serving as a sort of preparation for the 
greater, was held at Agrse, on the Ilis- 
sus. The celebration of the great mys- 
teries began at Eleusis on the fifteenth 
day of Boedromion, the third month of 
the Attic year, and lasted over nine 
days." — Chambers. 
Elfere. (Fr.) A pupil. 
Eleven Thousand Virgins. An in- 
teresting mediaeval legend states that a 
certain Ursula was the daughter of Theo- 
notus, or Diognetus, of Britain. " She 
was demanded in marriage by a heathen 
prince named Holofernes, and consented 
to his demand on condition that he should 
become a Christian and allow her three 
years before the marriage in which to 
make a pilgrimage. He conformed to 
hei* will, and with his religion changed 
his name into .(Etherius ; and she took 
ship with eleven thousand virgins. They 
went first* to the port of Tila, in Gaul, 
and thence up the Rhine to Cologne 
and Basle, afterwards continuing the 
pilgrimage by land as far as Rome. 
When they returned, Pp^e Cyriacus, 
with a retinue of clergy, joined the im- 
mense procession; and at Basle the 
Bishop Paul, or Pantulus, likewise. At 
Cologne the returning pilgrims were at- 
tacked, while disembarking, by hordes of 

wild Hunnish barbarian^, and were all 
massacred, though the heathen king 
Attila (Etzel) admired the beauty of 
Ursula and desired to spare her, that 
she might become his wife. She fell 
pierced with an arrow, which has be- 
come her peculiar attribute in artistic 
representations of this saint. Immedi- 
ately after the massacre heavenly hosts, 
equal in number to the murdered vir- 
gins, appeared and put the barbarians 
to flight. The delivered inhabitants of 
the city thereupon buried the fallen pil- 
grims, and erected to each one a stone 
bearing her name, — the names having 
been obtained from James, a bishop, 
who was in the train of the pilgrims, 
and who had found a refuge in a cave 
from the fate of his companions. Soon 
afterwards Clemantius, a pilgrim from 
Greece, having been urged in repeated 
dreams, erected a church among the 
graves in honor of Ursula and her 
eleven thousand companions. The 
sanctity of this place of burial is ap- 
parent from the fact that no other in- 
terments, even though they be of the 
bodies of baptized children, can be per- 
formed in its hallowed soil." — McClin- 
TOCK AND Strong. 

Ella. (Pseud.) Charles Lamb, English 
essayist and humorist (1775-1834). 

Eliab. Henry Bennet, Earl of Ar- 
lington, was meant by this character in 
Dryden's satire " Absalom and Achito- 

Elias of Guatemala. Tomds Vic- 
toria, a Spanish missionary to Guate- 
mala in the sixteenth century. He 
numbered his converts by thousands. 

Eli Faut. (Pseud.) Edward Bean 
Underhill, in various publications in the 
United States. 

]Ellinor Vey. (Pseud.) Mrs. Eliot Glo- 
ver, in the " Independent," New York. 

Eli Perkins. (Pseud.) Melville D. 
Landon, American humorous writer. 

Elise Holt. The stage-name of Mrs. 
Henry Wall. 

Elite. (Fr.) The best part. 

Elivaga. In Scandinavian mythology 
the name of a mighty river rising in a 
fountain in Niflheim. 

Elixir vitSB. (Lat.) The quintes- 
sence of life. 

Eliz. Elizabeth. 

EUza. (Pseud.) Mrs. E. J. P. 
Nicholson, in the New Orleans "Times- 

1 86 


psiiza Grace. (Pseud.) Mrs. Kath- 
erine Byerly Thompson. 

Eliza Orchard. (Pseud.) Mrs. E. A. 
Connor, sometime literary editor of the 
New York " World," and later agricul- 
tural and scientific editor on the staff of 
the American Press Association, New 

Eliza Weathersby. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Nat C. Goodwin. 

Elizabeth Berger. (Pseud.) Eliza- 
beth Sara Sheppard, English novelist 
(i 830-1 862). 

Elizabeth Robins. The stage-name 
of Mrs. George R. Barks. 

Elizabeth Wetherell. (Pseud.) Su- 
san Warner, American novelist, author 
of "The Wide, Wide World" (1818- 

Ella Beebe. The stage-name of Mrs. 
M. J. Fitzpatrick. 

Ella Bordeaux. The stage-name of 
Mrs. J. W. Ransome. 

Ella Rodman. (Pseud.) Mrs. Eliza 
Rodman (M'llvaine) Church, Amer- 
ican poetess (b. 1831). 

Ella Sotheru. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Charles Willard. 

Ella Stokes. The professional name 
of Mrs. John B. Doris. 

Ella Weaver. The stage-name of 
Mrs. John H. Whiteley. 

Ellen. (Pseud.) Mrs. R. S. R. Nich- 
ols (b. 1820), author of poems in the 
Louisville "News-Letter." See Kate 

Ellen AUyn. (Pseud.) Christina 
Georgina Rossetti, an English poet- 

Ellen Louise. (Pseud.) Mrs. Ellen 
Louise Chandler Moulton, whose earli- 
est writings, circa 1 841, appeared over 
this signature. 

Ellen Rand. The stage-name of 
Nellie Fleming. 

ElUs Bell. (Pseud.) Emily BrontS, 
sister of Charlotte Bronte (1819-1848). 

Ellis Dale. (Pseud.) G. A. Mac- 
kenzie, in the " Canadian Monthly Mag- 

Ellsworth. (Pseud.) Elmer E. Wad- 
man, in various Boston papers. 

Ellsworth Outrage. In 1854 the 
Roman Catholic church of Dorchester, 
Mass., was blown up by unknown per- 
sons, and the " Ellsworth Outrage " 
took place, in which a priest was in- 
humanly treated by his fellow-citizens. 

Ellyllon. In Welsh mythology souls 
of the ancient Druids, which, being too 
good for hell and not good enough for 
Heaven, are permitted to wander upon 
earth till the judgment day, when they 
will be admitted to a higher state of 

Elma South. (Pseud.) Essie B. 

Elm City, or Elms, City of. See City 
OF Elms. 

Elmo. The pseudonym of Thomas 
W. Handford, an American author. 

Elocution Walker. A humorous 
nickname bestowed on John Walker, 
the English lexicographer (fl. 1732- 
1807). For many years he taught elocu- 
tion among the gentry of England. 

E. Lon. East longitude. 

Eloquent Doctor. Peter Aureolus, 
Archbishop of Aix, one of the School- 

El Penseroso. (Pseud.) G. F. Lani- 
gan, a Canadian author, in the " Western 

Elsie Moore. The stage-name of 
Louise T. O'Loughlin. 

Elsie Warwick. (Pseud.) Mrs. E 
J. FuUilove, in the " New York Weekly." 

Elysium. In classic mythology the 
blissful abode of the good after death. 
Called also the Elysian Fields. 

Elzevirs. Fine pocket editions of the 
classics, printed by the celebrated fam- 
iljr of printers in Holland named Elze- 
vir. Their first book bears date 1683. 

E. M. Mining Engineer. 

Emancipation Day. April 16. An 
annual commemorative holiday kept by 
the colored people in the United States, 
particularly in Washington, D. C, the 
day being the anniversary of the sign- 
ing of the Emancipation Proclamation 
by President Lincoln in 1863. 

Emancipation Proclamation. This 
was dated Jan. l, 1863; and in it Lin- 
coln declared all slaves within the 
Secession States free and untram- 

Embargo of 1807. See Terrapin 

Embarras de richesse. (Fr.) " Em- 
barrassment of riches." An inexhaus- 
tible mine of wealth ; difficulties arising 
from an over-abundance. 

Ember Weeks. Four weeks after 
Quadragesima Sunday, Whit-Sunday, 
Holyrood Day (September), and St. 



Lucia's Day (December). But the be- 
lief that persons sat in embers (or 
ashes) on these days is without founda- 

Embonpoint. (Fr.) Roundness ; good 

Embro. A corrupted form of the 
name Edinburgh. See Dune Edin. 

Emerald Isle. A descriptive desig- 
nation of Ireland, from the brilliant 
green of its herbage and foliage in 
many parts of the country. It was 
coined by the poet Drennan (1754- 
1820), in his poem " Erin," where he 
also spoke of Ireland as " the Emerald 
of Europe." 

An emerald set in the ring of the sea. 


Emerald of Europe. See Emerald 

Emeritus. (Lat.) One retired from 
active official duties. 

Erne Roseau. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Samuel Colville, formerly Mrs. 

Emeute. (Fr.) Insurrection ; an 

Emigre. (Fr.) An emigrant ; a 

Emilia. (Pseud.) Miss Pamelia S. 
Vinning, a Canadian authoress, who 
contributed to various periodicals in 
Canada and the United States. 

Emily Hare. (Pseud.) Laura Win- 
throp, an American authoress (b. 1825), 
in "Little Blossom's Reward," a book 
for children, 1854. 

Emily Hermann. (Pseud.) Mrs. 
Catherine Luders, American poetess 
(b. about 1828). 

Emily Jordan. The stage-name of 
Mrs. John Chamberlain. 

Emily Verdery. (Pseud.) Mrs. E. V. 
Battey in the " Sun," New York, and the 
" Woman's World " (about 1870). 

Emily Vivian. The stage-name of 
Mrs. John Kernell. 

Emiro Kastos. (Pseud.) Fermin 
Toro, Venezuelan statesman(i8o7-i865), 
as editor of a volume of poems by 
Manuel Canete. 

Emma Abbott. The professional 
name of Mrs. Wetherell, the well-known 
operatic singer. 

Emma Hanley. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Louise Allen. 

Emma Lascelles. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Frederick E. Queen. 

Emma Leslie. (Pseud.) Mrs. Dixon, 
authoress of Sunday-school fiction. 

Emma Nevada. The professional 
name of Mrs. Palmer, nie Wixon, the 
famous prima donna. " Nevada " is de- 
rived from the State in which she was 

Emma Pierce. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Warren Schulz. 

Emma Schutz. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Louise Harrison. 

Emma SidnaL The stage-name of 
Mrs. E. W. Freeman, nie Landis. 

Emma Skerrett. The stage-name 
of Mrs. R. F. McClannin. 

Emma Whittle. The stage-name of 
Mrs. J. P. Clark. 

Emp. Emperor; Empress. 

Emperor of Believers. A title given 
to Omar I., father-in-law of Mahomet 
(fl. 581-644). 

Emperor of the West. A sobriquet 
of John Murray, the famous London 
bookseller and publisher (fl. 1 778-1843). 
He removed from Fleet Street (City) to 
Albemarle Street (West End). 

Empire of Bees. Mount Hybla, in 
Sicily, was so named on account of its 
odorous flowers, thyme, and abundance 
of honey. 

Empire of the Seven Rivers. The 
Punjab, India. 

Empire State. New York State is 
so named because of its predominant 
wealth and commerce. The name 
" Empire City " is also bestowed upon 
its commercial metropolis for the same 

Empire State of the South. Georgia 
is so named. 

Empressement. (Fr.) Alacrity; haste. 

En ami. (Fr.) As a friend. 

En arrifere. (Fr.) "In the rear." 

En attendant. (Fr.) In the mean 

En avant. (Fr.) Forward. 

En beau. (Fr.) In a favorable 

En bloc. (Fr.) In a lump. 

En bon train. (Fr.) " In good 
train." In a fair way. 

En buste. (Fr.) " In bust." Half 

En cachette. (Fr.) Privately; se- 
cretly ; by stealth. 

En cavalier. (Fr.) As a gentleman. 



EnceladuB. In classic mythology 
son of Titan and Terra, and most pow- 
erful of the giants who rose against Jupi- 
ter and attempted to scale the heights 
of heaven. He was overwhelmed by 
Mount Etna. 

En commandite. (Fr.) " In part- 
nership." As in socUti en commandite, 
in France, a commercial company with 
unlimited responsibility as regards its 
acting partners only ; a limited liability 

Encratitea. A sect of the second 
century, who condemned marriage, for- 
bade eating flesh or drinking wine, and 
rejected all the luxuries and comforts of 
'life as " things sinful." The sect was 
founded by Tatian, a disciple of Justin 

Encyc. Encyclopaedia. 

Eucyc. Amer. Encyclopaedia Ameri- 
cana. . 

Encyc Brit. Encyclopaedia Britan- 

Encyclopedists. A brilliant com- 
pany of Frenchmen, of high literary and 
philosophical attainments, but whose 
opinions were tainted with the scepti- 
cism and impracticable revolutionary 
ideas of the last half of the eighteenth 
century. The names of the chief of 
them were : D'Alembert, Diderot, Rous- 
seau, Grimm, Dumarsais, Voltaire, 
Baron d'Holbach, and Jancourt. Their 
" Encyclopedic " was founded on Cham- 
bers's Encyclopaedia, published in Edin- 
burgh. Speaking of the rise of the 
Encyclopedists and their influence in 
this " storm and stress " period of 
French history, Guizot says, — 

Other influences, more sincere and at the same 
time more dangerous, were simultaneously under- 
mining men's minds. The group of Encyclo- 
pedists, less prudent and less temperate than 
Voltaire, flaunted openly the flag of revolt. At 
the head marched Denis Diderot, bom in 1715, 
the most daring of all, the most genuinely af- 
fected by his own ardor, without perhaps being 
the most sure of his ground in his negations. 
He was an original and exuberant nature, expan- 
sively open to all new impressions; it was in 
conjunction with his friends and in community 
of ideas that Diderot undertook the immense 
labor of the " EncyclopSdie." Having, in the 
first instance, received a commission from a 
publisher to translate the EngUsh collection of 
Ephraim Chambers, Diderot vras impressed with 
a desire to unite in one and the same collection 
all the efforts and all the talents of his epoch, so 
as to render joint homage to the rapid progress 
of science. Won over by his enthusiasm, 
D'Alembert consented to share the task ; and he 
wrote the beautiful exposition in the introduc- 
tion. Voltaire sent his articles from " ljs& Dfr 

lices." The Jesuits had proposed to take upon 
themselves a certain number of questions, but 
their co-operation was declined : it was a monu- 
ment to philosophy that the Encyclopedists as- 
pired to raise ; the clergy were in commotion at 
seeing the hostile army, till then uncertain and 
unhanded, rally organized and disciplined around 
this vast enterprise. An early veto, soon, how- 
ever, taken off, compelled the philosophers to a 
certain moderation. Voltaire ceased writing for 
the " Encyclop^die ; " it was not sufficiently free- 
going for him. New severities on the part of 
the Parliament and the Grand Council dealt a 
blow "to the philosophers before long : the edi- 
tors' privilege was revoked. Orders were given 
to seize Diderot's pap£rs. Lamoignon de Male- 
sherbes, who was at that time director of the 
press, and favorable to freedom without ever 
having abused it in thought or action, sent him 
secret warning. Diderot ran home in conster- 
nation. " What 's to be done ? " he cried ; " how 
move all my manuscripts in twenty-four hours f 
I have n't time even to make a selection. And, 
above all, where find people who would and can 
take charge of them safely ? " " Send them all 
to me," replied M. de Malesherbes, "nobody will 
come thither to look for them." — History of 

En deshabille. (Fr.) In undress. 

En Dieu est ma fiance. (Fr.) In 
God is my trust. 

Endymion. In classical mythology 
a beauteous youth of Caria, whose life 
passed in perpetual sleep. Diana was 
said to visit him nightly, as he lay in a 
cave, that she might kiss him unob- 

E. N. B. East Northeast. 

En echelon. (Fr.) " In echelon ; " 
applied to a body of troops formed in 
divisions appearing as the steps of a 

Energico, or Con energia. (Ital.) 
With energy. (Mus.) 

E. Kesbit. The pen-name of an Eng- 
lish poet named Mrs. Edith Bland, wite 
of Hubert Bland. 

En famille. (Fr.) With one's family ; 
alone ; by themselves. 

Enfcints perdus. (Fr.) " Lost chil- 
dren." In an attack on a fortified place, 
" the forlorn hope." 

Enfant terrible. (Fr.) " A terrible 
child." A child that causes annoyance by 
innocent but ill-timed remarks to others. 

En flute. (Fr.) Carrying guns on 
the upper deck only. 

Eng. England; English. 

Eng. Dept. Department of Engi- 

Engineer = Engine-driver. The 
expert who handles the throttle of 
an English locomotive is called the 
"engine-driver," — a wise distinction as 



compared with our American use of the 
term " engineer," which confounds men 
of vastly different callings. 

England, Achilles' Heel of. See 
Achilles' Heel of England. 

England, Garden of. See Garden 
OF England. 

England's Domestic Foet. William 
Cowper, author of "The Task" (1731- 

English Aristophanes. Samuel Foote, 
the comic dramatist (fl. 1772-1777). 
Sometimes altered to " Modern Aristo- 

English Atticua. Joseph Addison 
was christened thus by Pope, because 
of the polish of his style and the 
refinement of his taste. 

English Bastile. A name bestowed, 
in the early years of the present cen- 
tury, on Coldbath Fields Prison, London, 
from the number of prisoners of State 
immured there. 

English Connemara. A name con- 
ferred by Charles Diclcens on the dis- 
trict known as Agar-town in the parish 
of St. Pancras, London, because of the 
squalid and uncivilized condition of its 

English Cre'mera. A name given to 
the disastrous battle of Isandula, in 
Zululand, Jan. 22, 1879. Five compa- 
nies of the Twenty-fourth Regiment 
were annihilated. The allusion is to 
the slaying of all the grown-up males of 
the Fabii, to the number of three hun- 
dred and six, near Cremera, b. c. 447. 

English Ennius. Layamon, who 
wrote a translation in Saxon of Wace's 

English Mersenne. John Collins, 
mathematician and physicist (1624- 
1683); so called from iVIarin Mersenne, 
the French philosopher. 

English Opium-eater. Thomas De 
Quincey, author of the famous " Con- 
fessions " (fl. 1 785-1850). 
English Pale. See Pale, The. 
English Palestrlna. Orlando Gib- 
bons (i 583-1625), an English com- 
poser of sacred music, the excellence 
of which gained him the above title. 

English Petrarch. Sir Philip Sid- 
ney (fl. 1 5 54-1 586) was so named by 
Sir Walter Raleigh. See Warbler of 
Poetic Prose. 

English Solomon, (i) A satirical 
sobriquet given to James 1. of England, 

called by Sully "the wisest fool in 
Christendom." (2) Henry VIL was so 
named on account of his wise policy 
in uniting the rival White and Red 
Rose factions. 

English Thoreau. Richard JefEeries, 
an English author, because of his pro- 
found and sympathetic knowledge of 
wood lore. 

En grand seigneur. (Fr.) In lordly 
En'graude tenue. (Fr.) In full dress. 
En grande toilette. (Fr.) In full 

Enid Hart. The stage-name of Mrs. 
Frederick Fallen. 

Enlightened Doctor. Raymond 
Lully, of Parma, one of the most 
learned philosophers and physicists of 
his day(fl. 1234-1315). 
En masse. (Fr.) In a body. 
En mauvaise odeur. (Fr.) " In bad 
odor." In bad repute. 
Ennui. (Fr.) Weariness; lassitude. 
En papillotes. (Fr.) In curl-papers. 
En passant. (Fr.) By the way ; in 

En pension. (Fr.) At a boarding- 
house ; as a boarder. 

En rapport. (Fr.) In communication ; 
in harmony. 

En r^gle. (Fr.) As it should be; 
according to regulations. 

En r^sumd. (Fr.) To sum up ; on 
the whole. 

En revanche (Fr.) " In revenge." 
Another chance to make up for it. 
En route. (Fr.) On one's way. 
Ensanguined Oarment. See Bloodv 

Ense petit placidam sub libertate 
quietem. (Lat.) By his sword he seeks 
the calm repose of liberty. 

Ensemble. (Fr.) The whole taken 
En suite. (Fr.) In company. 
Ent., Entom. Entomology. 
Entente cordiale. (Fr.) A cordial 
understanding, as between two or more 

En titre. (Fr.) " In title." In name 
only; titular. 

Entourage. (Fr.) " Surroundings." 
The immediate attendants of a prince ; 
adjuncts; ornaments. 
En tout. (Fr.) " In all." Wholly. 
Entree. (Fr.) Entrance. 

I go 


Entremets. (Fr.) Small and dainty 
dishes set between the chief ones at 

Entrenous. (Fr.) Between ourselves. 

En v6rite. (Fr.) " In truth." Ver- 

Env. Ext. Envoy Extraordinary. 

Eg nomine. (Lat.) " By that name." 
For this reason. 

Eos. In classic myth the goddess of 
the dawn. The same as Aurora {g. v.). 

e. o. w. Every other week. 

Ep. Epistle. 

Epaminondas. (Pseud.) Gideon 
Granger, American statesman (1767- 
1822), published several political essays 
under this signature. 

Eph. Ephesians; Ephraim. 

Ephesian Poet. Hipponax. He was 
born at Ephesus in the sixth century 


Ephialtes. In classic myth one of the 
Titans who warred on the celestial 
gods. Apollo deprived him of his left 
eye, and Hercules put out his right eye. 

Epicurus of China. Ta{>-tse, who 
flourished about 540 b. c. He sought 
to discover the elixir of life ; and sev- 
eral Chinese emperors lost their lives 
by swallowing his " Potion of Immor- 

Epicurus Rotundus. (Pseud.) Shir- 
ley Brooks in London " Punch." 

Epigoni. In classic myth the name 
given to the seven Greek heroes who 
besieged Thebes. 

Epimenides. A philosopher of Crete, 
who fell asleep in a cave when a boy, 
and did not wake again for fifty-seven 
years, when he found himself endowed 
with miraculous wisdom. 

Epiphany (" appearance " or " man- 
ifestation "). January 6, celebrating the 
manifestation of the Saviour by the ap- 
pearance of the star which conducted 
the Magi to the place where he was to 
be found. Its observance as a church 
festival dates from 813. It was for- 
merly named " Christmas of the Gen- 
tiles." See Twelfth Night. 

Epis. Episcopal. 

E pluribus unum. (Lat.) " One 
composed of many." The motto of the 
United States. 

Epsilon. (Pseud.) Edward Denham, 
in the Boston " Transcript." 

Equal-Rights Party. This was the 
name of the New York faction of the 

Democratic party that subsequently 
became known as the Loco-foco party. 
In the presidential contest of 1884 
Mrs. Belva A. Lockwood was the can- 
didate of an Equal-Rights party advo- 
cating woman suffrage. She had prac- 
tically no following. HSr vote in the 
United States was less than 2,500 out 
of a total of over 10,000,000. 

E. R. East River. 

Er. Erbium. 

Era of Good Feeling. Monroe's ad- 
ministration (1817-1825); "the excite- 
ment and animosities aroused by the 
War of 1812 had subsided, and there 
was no sectionalism to disturb the re- 
pose and progress of the country." 
Benjamin Russell, editor of the Boston 
" Centinel " (i 761-1845), originated the 
phrase in his paper on the occasion of 
President Monroe's visit in 1817. 

Era of Martyrs. The reign of Dio- 
cletian. See Diocletian Era. 

Erasmus. (Pseud.) Miss Jeannette 
L. Gilder, New York literary correspond- 
ent of the Philadelphia " Press." 

Erato. In classic myth one of the 
Nine Muses. She presided over ama- 
tory poetry. 

Erceldoune. (Pseud.) Willis H. 
Bocock, in the " Central Presbyterian," 
Richmond, Va. 

Erebus (" darkness "). In classic 
myth son of Chaos, and one of the 
gods of Hades. 

Eretrian Bull. Menedemos of Ere- 
tria, in Euboea; a Greek philosopher of 
the fourth century b. c, and founder 
of the Eretrian school, which was a 
branch of the Socratic. He was so 
called from the bull-like gravity of his 

Ergo. (Lat.) Therefore. 

Erigena. A surname of John Scotus 
the Schoolman (d. 886). 

Erin. A very old name for Ireland, 
but now used only in poetry. 
There came to the beach a poor exile of Erin, 

The dew on his thin coat was heavy and chill ; 
For his country he sighed when at twilight 

To wander alone by the wind-beaten hill. 

Campbell, Tie Exile of Erin. 

Erinnya. In classic mythology an 
avenging deity, — one of the Furies 
{q. v.). 

Eripitur persona, manet res. (Lat.) 
The person is snatched away, the goods 



Eripuit ccelo fulmen, sceptrumque 
tyrannia. (Lat.) He snatched the thun- 
derbolt from heaven, and the sceptre 
from tyrants. 

EriB. In classic mythology the god- 
dess of discord; the same as the Roman 

Erminage Street. One of the four 

freat roads constructed in England 
y the Romans. See also Fosse, 
The, Ikenild Street, and Watling 

Fair weyes many on ther ben in Englond, 
But four most of all ben zunderstond. 
From the south into the north takit Erming strete. 
Robert of Gloucester. 

Ermite. (Pseud.) Patrick Eugene 
Moriarty, American Catholic clergy- 
man (1804-1875), who published nu- 
merous essays in the Philadelphia press 
on Irish history and controversial sub- 
jects. See HiEROPHlLOS. 

Ernest Hoven. (Pseud.) Fanny 

Ernest Sutton. The stage-name of 
Ernest James Sorl. 

Eros. In classic mythology the Greek 
name of the Roman Cupid. 

Errare est humauum. (Lat.) To 
err is human. 

Erratic Eniique. (Pseud.)' Henry 
Clay Lukens, in the " Daily News " of 
New York, and author of "Jets and 
Flashes," New York (1883). 

Erycina. In classic mythology an- 
other name for Venus (jr. v.) ; derived 
from Mount Eryx in Sicily, where she 
had a temple. 

Brysichthoa. In classic mythology 
a thoughtless fellow who felled trees in 
a grove sacred to Ceres. The goddess, 
as a punishment, afflicted him with 
raging and never-satisfied hunger. 

E. S. Ells Scotch. 

Esd. Esdras. 

B. S. E. East Southeast. 

Eskdale Tarn. (Pseud.) Thomas 
Telford, a Scottish poet, in "Ruddi- 
man's Weekly Magazine." 

Bspigglerie. (Fr.) Waggish tricks. 

Espressivo, or Con espress. (Ital.) 
With expression. (Mus.) 

Bspriella. (Pseud.) Robert Southey, 
English poet laureate (1774-1843). 

Esprit de corps. (Fr.) The pre- 
vailing spirit of honor which guides the 
actions of individuals of any "collec- 
tive body," such as the army and the 
bar, in the interests of that " body." 

Esprit d^licat. (Fr.) A person of 
refined or correct taste. 

Esprit fort. (Fr.) A free-thinker; 
a rationalist. 

Esq. Esquire. 

Essay Kaigh. (Pseud.) S. A. 
Kenner in the " Salt Lake City Herald." 

Esse quam videri. (Lat.) " To be 
[rather] than to seem.'"' It is infinitely 
better to possess the actual thing than 
only to seem to have it. 

Essex Junto, The. "In 1781 John 
Hancock applied this name to a num- 
ber of public men from Essex County, 
Mass., and their followers. The com- 
mercial classes were naturally those 
that desired a strong Federal Govern- 
ment, and these men were the ablest 
representatives of that class and fore- 
most among the advocates of the adop- 
tion of the Constitution. After the 
adoption they formed a part of the 
Federal party, and were more particu- 
larly adherents of Hamilton. They thus 
incurred the opposition of John Adams, 
who attempted to make them appear as 
a ' British faction ' hostile to France. 
It was he, also, that revived the name 
that had fallen into disuse. Subse- 
quently the name came to stand gen- 
erally for the Federalist spirit of New 
England; and the troubles in that sec- 
tion during the War of 1812, as the 
Hartford Convention, etc., were attrib- 
uted to the Essex Junto. Among its 
members were Pickering and Fisher 
Ames." — Brown and Strauss. 

Essez Lions. Calves, for which the 
county is famous. Whence the ironical 
saying, " As brave as an Essex lion." 

Essex Stile. A local nickname in 
Essex, England, for a ditch. As the 
country is very marshy and wet, it has 
many ditches which serve as fences, and 
hence there are few stiles. 

Estates of the Realm. It is gener- 
ally believed that the three estates of 
the realm are Queen, Lords, and Com- 
mons. Whatever may be meant by the 
phrase now, it was clear that this was 
not the original meaning. The Collect 
for the 5th of November in the old 
Prayer Books speaks of " the King, and 
the three estates of the realm of Eng- 
land assembled in Parliament." The 
meaning evidently was : (l) The Lords 
Spiritual; (2) The Lords Temporal; 
(3) The Commons. As the word 
" realm " means " a kingdom, a state, a 



region," it is dear that the king or 
queen cannot be a part of it. See 
Fourth Estate. 

Estelle. (Pseud.) (i) Miss Eliza- 
beth Bogart, in the " Mirror," of New 
York. (2) Mrs. M. W. F. Brown, in the 
" Southern Literary Messenger." 

Estelle Clayton. The stage-name 
of Mrs. S. E. Cooper, tide Evesson. 

Estelle Purcell. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Frank M. Fielders. 

Esth. Esther. 

Esther Chesney. (Pseud.) Miss 
Clara V. Durgan, author of stories and 
sketches in Southern papers. 

Esther Sarah Kenneth. (Pseud.) 
Mrs. E. M. Babson. 

Est-il-possible. A nickname con- 
ferred on Prince George of Denmark, 
by James II. It is said that when the 
startling events of the Revolution of 
1688 succeeded one another with breath- 
less rapidity, the emotions of Prince 
George found vent in the repeated 
exclamation, " Est-il-possible ? " King 
James, enumerating those who had for- 
saken him, S3.\A, " And Esi-il-possibU 
has gone too ! " 

Est modus in rebus. (Lat.) There 
is a middle way or medium in all things. 

Esto perpetua. (Lat.) "Let it be 
perpetual." Let it endure forever. 

Estotlland. A vast arctic country hav- 
ing no existence save in the fertile brains 
of the old geographers, and placed by 
them on the spot now occupied by por- 
tions of Newfoundland, Labrador, and 
that part of British America bordering 
on Hudson's Bay. It was said to have 
been discovered by two Friesland fish- 
ermen driven out of their course by a 
storm, two centuries before the time of 
Columbus ; but the story is nothing more 
than a legend. In 1497 the Cabots set 
sail from England for Estotiland, but 
discovered instead Newfoundland. 
The snow 
From cold Estotiland. 

Milton, Paradise Lost. 

E. T. Electric telegraph ; English 

Et al. Et alii. And others. 

Etc., or &o. Et cceteri, et caterce, et 
ccBtera. And others ; and so forth. 

The "ampersand," as the sign & is named, 
is simply a contracted form of et, which in old 
MSS. was written &". Modem type-founders 
have restored this shape to the ampersand. The 
latter word is thought to be a corruption of " and 
per se and." 

Et caetera. (Lat.) " And the others." 
And other things ; etc. 

Etelka G^rster. The professional 
name of Mrs. Gardini, the famous prima 

Etelka 'Wardell. The stage-name of 
Eva Heaton. 

Eteocles. In classic mythology son 
of CEdipus, king of Thebes, and brother 
of Polynices. The brothers agreed to 
reign on alternate years, but Eteocles 
broke the compact. A duel ensued, in 
which both were slain. 

Eternal City. Rome, the capital of 
Italy. Legend states that it was raised 
by or under the immediate supervision 
of the immortal gods. The term is 
frequently to be met in classic literature. 

Eternal Table. A pearl, extending 
from east to west and from heaven to 
earth, on which, according to Mahomet, 
God records every event, past, present, 
and future. 

Etesian Winds. The name given to 
breezes that blow in summer from the 
African Sahara over the south of Eu- 
rope. ' They are dry and warm. 

Eth. Ethiopic; Ethiopian. 

Ethan Spike. (Pseud.) Matthew 
F. Whittier, American litterateur 

Ethel Brandon. The stage-name of 
Mrs. L. R. Stockwell. 

Ethel Deen. (Pseud.) Mrs. Augusta 
De Milley, a well-known contributor to 
various Southern periodicals. 

Ethel Gale. (Pseud.) Helen E. 
Smith, in "The Independent," New 

Ethel Hope. (Pseud) Mrs. I. M. 
P. Henry, contributor to various South- 
ern magazines. 

Ethelyn Hodgson. The stage-name 
of Mrs. U. E. McCoy. 

Ethel Lynn. (Pseud.) Mrs. E. L. 
Beers («<& Eliot, 1 827-1 879), an Ameri- 
can author, whose earliest writings bore 
the above pen-name. She was chris- 
tened " Ethelinda," but after her mar- 
riage wrote her Christian name " Ethel 

Ethnic Plot. The " Popish Plot " is 
so called in Dryden's satire of " Absalom 
and Achitophel." As Dtyden calls the 
royalists "Jews," and calls Charles II. 
" David king of the Jews," the papists 
were " Gentiles " (or 'EAo;), whence the 
" Ethnic Plot " means the plot of the 
Ethnoi against the people of God. 



Et hoc genus omne. (Lat.) And 

everything of the same kind. 

Ethon. In classic myth the bird of 
prey that tore at the vitals of Prome- 

Etincelle. (Pseud.) Vicomtesse de 
Peyronney, French novelist and writer 
(b. 1 841). 

Etre un melon. (Fr.) ''To be a 
melon." To be without understanding. 
Et seq. Et sequentia. And what fol- 

Et sequentes. (Lat.) And those (per- 
sons) that follow. Et sequentia, and 
those (things) that follow. 

Et sic de caeteris. (Lat.) And so of 
the rest. 

Et sic de similibus. (Lat.) "And 
so concerning similar" (things). And 
the same may be said of everything 

Ettrick Shepherd. James Hogg, 
the Scottish poet (fl. 1 772-1835), who 
was born in Ettrick Forest, Selkirk- 
shire, where his father kept sheep. 

Et tu, Brute. (Lat.) " And thou, too, 
O Brutus ; " " and thou, also, Brutus ; " 
said of one from whom the conduct of 
a friend and not of an enemy would 
have been expected. In this, reference 
is made to the exclamation which Caesar 
uttered, on receiving the stab from his 
friend Brutus. 
Etude. (Fr.) A study. 
Etym. Etymology. 
E. U. Evangelical Union. 
Endorchawg Chsuns, or "Gold 
Chains of the Welsh," were the distin- 
guished marks of rank and valor among 
the numerous tribes of Celtic extrac- 
tion. Manlius, the Roman champion, 
gained the name of Torquatus, or " He 
of the Chain," on account of an orna- 
ment of this kind won, in single combat, 
from a gigantic Gaul. Aneurin, the 
Welsh bard, mentions, in his poem on 
the battle of Catterath, that no less 
than three hundred of the British who 
fell there had their necks wreathed with 
the Eudorchawg. This seems to infer 
that the chain was a badge of distinc- 
tion and valor, perhaps, but not of roy- 
alty ; otherwise there would scarce 
have been so many kings present in 
one battle. This chain has been found 
in Ireland and Wales, and sometimes, 
though more rarely, in Scotland. 
Doubtless it was of too precious mate- 
rials not to be usually converted into 

money by the enemy into whose hands 
it fell. 

Eugene Fomeroy. (Pseud.) Thomas 
F. Donnelly, American littirateur. 

Eugene Revillo. The stage-name of 
Eugene Oliver. 

Eugenia Blair. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Forrest Robinson, nie Wren. 

Eumenides. In classic myth a pleas- 
ant-sounding name given by the Greeks 
to the Furies {q. v?), whose real name, 
Erinnyes, they were afraid to speak. 

Euphrosyne. One of the Three 
Graces {q. v.). 

Euphrosyne. (Pseud.) Richard 
Graves, English divine and author 

Eurasian Plain. A name given to 
the great central plateau of Europe and 
Asia by ethnologists. 

Eureka. (Gr.) I have found it. 

Euroclydon. The name given by 
the ancients to a tempestuous wind 
blowing from the east on the Mediter- 

Eurolychus. In classic myth one of 
the comrades of Ulysses in his travels, 
and the only one who was not metamor- 
phosed by Circe into a hog. 

Europa. In classic myth the lovely 
daughter of Phoenix, carried off by 
Jupiter from Phoenicia to Crete in the 
form of a white bull. 

Europe, Granary of. See Granary 
OF Europe. 

European Saratoga, The. Baden- 
Baden, famous for its medicinal waters 
and as a resort of fashion. Similarly, 
Saratoga has been named the "Ameri- 
can Baden-Baden." 

Euryale. One of the Three Gor- 
gons, in the mythology of the ancients. 

EuryaluB. In classic myth a youth 
of Troy eulogized by Virgil as the fidus 
achates of Nidus. 

Eurydice. In classic myth wife of 
Orpheus, slain by a serpent on her 
bridal day. 

Eurynome. In classic myth the 
mother of the Graces. 

Eusebia. (Pseud.) Frances Thynne 
Somerset, Countess of Hertford (1699- 

Eusebius. (Pseud.) Rev. Edward 
Dorr Griffith Prime, American Presby- 
terian divine (b. 1814). 

Euterpe. In classic myth the god- 
dess of music. 




Eutychiana. Heretics of the fifth 
century, opposed to the Nestorians. 
They maintained that Jesus Christ was 
entirely God previous to the incarna- 
tion, and entirely man during his so- 
journ on earth. The founder was Eu- 
tyches, an abbot of Constantinople, 
who was excommunicated in 448. 

Eva Boucicault. The stage-name 
of Mrs. John Clayton. 

Evacuation Day. The day on which 
the British army evacuated the city of 
New York, Nov. 25, 1783, the annual 
return of which has been celebrated in 
that city for over a century. Samuel 
Woodworth thus alludes to the day : — 
The British troops had gone away ; 

And every patriot true 
Then kept Evacuation Day, 
When this old house was new. 

New York Post. 

Evadne. In classic myth the wife 
of Capaneus. Her husband having 
been slain at the siege of Troy, she 
threw herself on the funeral pile and 
was consumed with him. 

_Eva Fetrazzini. The stage-name of 
Signora Cleofonte Campanini. 

Eva Florence Ross. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Victor Stevens, nee Maryatt. 

Evander. In classic myth a son of 
Mercury by a -nymph of Arcadia, said 
to have headed a Pelasgian colony from 
Arcadia into Italy sixty years before the 
Trojan War. 

Evangelic Doctor. John WyclifEe, 
"the morning star of the Reformation " 

Evangeline. (Pseud.) Miss Ellen 
A. Moriarty in the "Citizen" pub- 
lished by " Miles O'Reilly." 

Everard Berkeley. (Pseud.) Tryon 
Edwards, D.D., American theologian 
(b. 1809). 

Ever-Faithful Isle. Cuba, in refer- 
ence to its attachment to Spain despite 
centuries of misgovernment. 

Evergreen. The signature of Wash- 
ington Irving in " Salmagundi." 

Ever-Memorable. A title often 
given to John Hales, an able and schol- 
arly divine of the Church of England 
(fl. 1584-1656). 

Everybody's Business is ITobody's 
Business. In Izaak Walton's glorious 
"Compleat Angler" (part i., c. 2), he 
says, "I remember that a wise friend 
of mine did usually say, 'That which 
is everybody's business is nobody's 
business.' " 

Evil Eye. It was anciently believed 
that the eyes of some persons darted 
noxious rays on objects which they 
looked at. The first morning glance of 
such eyes was certain destruction to man 
or beast. Virgil speaks of an evil eye 
making cattle lean. 

Who has bewitched my lambs, prithee say, if 
any the hag knows ? — Eclogues. 

Shortly after his election Pius DC., who was 
then adored by the Romans and perhaps the 
best-loved man in Italy, was driving through the 
streets when he happened to glance upward at 
an open window at which a nurse was standing 
with a child. A few minutes afterward the nurse 
let the child drop and it was killed. No one 
thought the Pope had wished this, but the fancy 
that he had the evil eye became universal and 
lasted till his death. In Camiola if you tell a 
mother that her baby is strong and large for its 
age, a farmer that his crops are looking well, or 
a coachman that his team is good, all three will 
spit at your feet to avert the omen ; and if you 
understand the custom, you will do the same as 
an act of politeness. A person who wandered 
through upper Camiola, and praised everything 
he saw, would soon come to be considered the 
most malevolent of men. In Naples exactly the 
same feeling exists. This superstition, however, 
is by no means confined to Naples or Italy ; it 
is said to be common in China and Japan, and 
among negroes and red Indians. Even in Eng- 
land it is not unknown. — Saturday Review. 

Evil May Day. May I, 1517; so 
named because of the atrocities com- 
mitted on that day by English appren- 
tices against foreigners, especially the 

Ex. Out of ; lately of, etc. 

Ex. Example; Exodus. 

ExactresB of Gold. An old name 
for Babylon. 

Ex adverse. (Lat.) In opposition; 
from the opposite side. 

Ex animo. (Lat.) " From the soul." 
Heartily ; with the whole heart. 

Exc. Excellency; exception. 

Ex capita (Lat.) " From the head." 
From memory. 

Ex cathedra. (Lat.) "From the 
chair." As a professor teaches; with 
official authority. 

Excelsior. (Lat.) "Higher." More 
elevated ; onward ; upward. 

Excelsior State. The State of New 
York, from the motto on its coat-of- 

Exceptio probat regulam. (Lat.) 
The exception proves the rule 

Exception proves the Rule. This 
proverbial saying is very generally mis- 
understood. The word "prove" an- 
ciently meant "test," and is so used in 



this saying. An old use of the word 
" prove " occurs in the advice of Saint 
Paul, "Prove all things," etc.; which 
means that we should test all things, so 
as to know which good ones to " hold 
fast." An exception cannot prove a 
rule in the modern sense, it tends rather 
to render it invalid; but an exception 
may test a rule, and in some cases prove 
it to be wrong, while in others the test 
may show that the so-called exception 
may be explained. Another theory on 
the subject is that the very word " ex- 
ception" implies that there is a rule; 
so that the word "prove " means "proves 
the existence of." 

Ezceptis ezcipiendis. (Lat.) The 
requisite exceptions being made. 

Excerpta. (Lat.) Extracts. 

Ezch. Exchequer; exchange. 

Ex commodo. (Lat.) Conveniently ; 
at one's leisure. 

Ez concesso. (Lat.) From what has 
been granted. 

Ex confesso. (Lat.) Confessedly; 
from one's own confession. 

Ex curia. (Lat.) Out of court. 

Ex delicto. (Lat.) From the crime. 

Ex. Doo. Executive Document. 

Ex dono Dei. (Lat.) By the gift of 

Exeat. (Lat.) "Let him go out." 
He may depart for a time. 

Exec. Com. Executive Committee. 

Execution Bell, that tolled from the 
steeple of the Church of St. Sepul- 
chre, London, prior to the execution of 
criminals at Newgate. 

Execx. Executrix. 

Exempli gratia. (Lat.) For the sake 
of example. Abbreviated e. g. 

Exeter Controversy. A pamphlet 
war between Episcopalians and Dissent- 
ers (i 707-1 71 5) anent a tract entitled 
" Plain Truth," by the Rev. John Agate, 
of Exeter, an Episcopalian. 

Exeter Domesday. A record con- 
taining a description of the counties of 
Wilts, Dorset, Somerset, Devon, and 
Cornwall, England, kept among the mu- 
niments of the dean and chapter of 

Exeunt omnes. (Lat.) They all de- 

Ex facie. (Lat.) " On the surface." 
Manifestly ; on the veny face of it. 

Ex fumo dare luoem. (Lat.) Out of 
smoke to bring light. Exempli gratid. For example. 

Ex hypothesi. (Lat.) " From suppo- 
sition." On a supposition ; hjrpotheti- 

Exit. (Lat.) "He goes out." He 
walks off or departs. 

Ex mero motu. (Lat.) Of one's own 

Ex necessitate. (Lat.) Out of neces- 
sity; necessarily. 

Ex necessitate rei^ (Lat.) " From 
the necessity of the thing." From the 
urgency of the case. 

Ex nihUo nihU fit. (Lat.) " Out of 
nothing, nothing is made." Nothing 
can be produced out of nothing. 

Ex occulto. (Lat.) Secretly; by 
way of surprise. 

Exodus, (i) The "going out*" of 
the Hebrews from Egypt under the 
leadership of Moses and Aaron. (2) A 
widespread movement in 1879 among 
the blacks of the South to Kansas and 
the West. 

Ex ofBcio. (Lat.) By virtue of his' 
oiBce; officially. 

Exon. Exonia. Exeter. 

Ex parte. (Lat.) From one side; 

Expect. The equivalent in the 
Middle States for the New England 
" guess." 

Expectation 'Week. Between the 
Ascension and Whit-Sunday, when the 
Apostles continued praying " in earnest 
expectation of the Comforter." 

Ex pede Herculem. (Lat.) " From 
the foot Hercules." We recognize a 
Hercules from the foot ; we can judge 
the whole from the specimen. 

Bxperientia docet. (Lat.) " Experi- 
ence teaches." We are taught by ex- 

Expeiimentum crucis. (Lat.) "The 
experiment of the cross." A crucial 
experiment; a most searching test. 

Experto orede. (Lat.) Trust one 
who has had experience. 

Exposd. An exposure ; a recital. 

Ex post facto. (Lat.) After the deed 
is done. 

Expounder of the Constitution. 
Daniel Webster (fl. 1 782-1852) was so 
named because of his masterly interpre- 
tations of the Constitution of the United 

Expnnging Resolution. In the Sen- 
ate of the United States, Dec. 26, 1836, 



Thomas Hart Benton, of Missouri, 
made a motion by wliich a resolution 
adopted by the Senate March 28, 1834, 
reflecting on President Jaclcson, was 
ordered to be expunged from the jour- 
nal of the Senate by drawing black lines 
around it and writing across it the fol- 
lowing words : " Expunged by order of 

the Senate this day of 1837." 

Benton's resolution was adopted March 
16, 1837. 
Ezr., or Ezec. Executor. 

Its tempore. Without premedita- 

Uzterminator, The. An epithet be- 
stowed by the Spaniards on Montbars, 
a cruel French buccaneer (b. 1645), 
who made his name notorious by the 
atrocities he committed in the Antilles 
and other colonies of Spain. 

Extra Billy. William Smith, Gov- 
ernor of Virginia (1796-1887). In early 
manhood he established a line of post- 
coaches through Maryland, Virginia, and 
Georgia, on which he contracted to carry 
the United States mail. His sobriquet 
of " Extra Billy " Smith, which clung to 
him throughout his life, grew out of his 
demands for extra compensation for that 

Extra mures. (Lat.) " Beyond the 

Ex uuo, disce omnes. (Lat.) "From 
one, learn all." From one you can 
judge of the whole. 

Ex vano. (Lat.) Without cause; 

Eye of Greece. The ancients so 
named the city of Athens, the most re- 
nowned of Greek cities. 

Athens the eye of Greece, mother of arts 

And eloquence, native to famous wits 

Or hospitable. 

Milton, Paradise Regained, Book iv. 

Eyes, Symbolism of the. Long 
almond-shaped eyes, with thick-skinned 
eyelids that cover half the pupil, are in- 
dicative of genius when they are found 
in conjunction with a brow which is full 
over the eyebrows, and which has one 
deep perpendicular line between the 
eyebrows. This combination may be 
frequently noticed in the faces of distin- 
guished literary men and artists. The 
almond-shaped eye, however, even with- 
out this particular form of forehead, al- 

ways means a susceptible, impressiona- 
ble nature. Eyes which are large, open, 
and very transparent, and which sparkle 
with a rapid motion under well-defined 
eyelids, denote elegance in taste, a 
somewhat susceptible temper, and great 
interest in the opposite sex. Eyes with 
weakly marked eyebrows above them, 
and with thinly growing eyelashes 
which are completely without any up- 
ward curve, denote a feeble constitu- 
tion and a melancholy disposition. 
Deep-sunken and small blue eyes, un- 
der a bony, almost perpendicular fore- 
head, are indicative of selfish and cold- 
hearted natures. Eyes which show not 
only the whole of the iris, but also some 
of the white both above and below it, 
denote a restless, uncertain nature, in- 
capable of repose or of concentrated 
thought on any subject. The eyes of a 
voluptuary move slowly under heavy 
lids. Round-shaped eyes are never 
seen in the face of a highly intellectual 
person, but they denote a kindly, truth- 
ful, and innocent nature. Eyes which, 
when seen in profile, are so protuber- 
ant as to run almost parallel with the 
profile of the nose, show a weak organi- 
zation of the body and mind. Eyes 
rather close together show penetration, 
but eyes close together denote cunning 
and an untruthful disposition. Eyes 
rather far apart are indicative of frank- 
ness and simplicity of purpose, an hon- 
est and guileless nature. When, how- 
ever, the eyes are not very far apart, 
they denote stupidity. Eyes with 
sharply defined angles sinking at the 
corners, show subuety of mind; the 
sharper the angle and the more it sinks, 
the greater the delicacy of perception it 
denotes; but when very much devel- 
oped, it shows also craftiness amount- 
ing to deceit. Well-opened eyes, with 
smooth eyelids and a steady and some- 
what fixed glance, denote sincerity. 
Lines running along the eyelids from 
side to side, and passing out upon the 
temples, denote habitual laughter, — a 
cheerful temperament, or, at any rate, 
one in which the sense of tun is 

Ezek Richards. (Pseud.) John 
Savage, in the Philadelphia " Press." 

Ez. Ezra. 

Ezek. Ezekiel. 




p. Fluorine. 

P., or Pabr. Fahrenheit (thermom- 

Faber quisque suae fortunae. (Lat.) 
Every man is the architect of his own 

Pac et Spera. (Pseud.) William 
Harding, in the New York "Clipper." 

Pacile est inveutia addere. (Lat.) 
It is an easy thing to improve on things 
already invented. 

Pacile piimus. (Lat.) By far the 

Facile princeps. (Lat.) " Easily the 
first." Without dispute the first man; 
the admitted chief. 

Pacilia est descensus Averni. (Lat.) 
"The descent to the lower ^ world is 
easy." The road to evil is an easy one. 

Pa9on de parler. (Fr.) Manner of 
spealiing; a form or mode of speech. 

Pac simile. (Lat.) « Make it like." 
Hence, an exact copy. 

Pacta est lu2. (Lat.) There was 

Factory King. Richard Oastler, of 
Bradford, the successful champion of 
the "Ten Hours Bill" (il. 1 789-1 861). 

Factotum. (From the Latin/acio, to 
do, and iotus, all.) " Do-all ; " a man of 
aU work. The phrase is an old one. 
Ben Jonson in one of his plays makes 
Tip ask, "Art thou the Dominus?" 
to which the host replies, "Factotum 
here, sir." And Foulis, in his " History 
of the Plots of our Pretended Saints," 
1674, says, " He was so farre the domi- 
nus factotum in this juncto that his 
words were laws." 

Padette. (Pseud.) Mrs. M. C. L. 

Paex populi. (Lat.) "The dregs of 
the people." The very lowest classes 
of the people. 

Pagerman. (Pseud.) Annie E. Bar- 

Paget Votes. Votes given by elec- 
tors expressly qualified for party pur- 
poses. Bailey says, " Ineffective per- 
sons, who receive no regular pay, but 
are hired to appear at muster and fill up 
the companies," are called fagots. 

Faineants. " Les Rois Faineants," 
or Do-nothing Kings, in the annals of 

France, were Clovis II. and his ten 
successors. Their affairs were man- 
aged by the mayors of the palace. 
Louis v., the last of the Carlovingians, 
received the same name. 

Paint Heart never 'won Pair Lady. 
This is a very old proverb. In "A 
Proper New Balad in Praise of my 
Lady Marques," printed in 1569, are 
these lines : — 

Then have amongst ye once again, 
Faint harts faire ladies neuer win. 

Reprint, Philobiblion So., 1867, p. 22. 

"The Rocke of Regard," 1576, con- 
cludes as follows : — 
The silente man still suffers wrong, the proverbe 

olde doth say. 
And where adventure wants, the wishing man 

ne'er thrives ; 
Faint heart, hath been a common phrase, faire 

ladle never wives. 

J. P. Collier's Reprint, p. 122. 

And in "Britain's Ida," by Spenser, 
canto V. stanza I, the second line is, — 

" Ah, fool I faint heart fair lady ne'er could win." 

Pair, The. (i) Charles IV. of France 
(l 294-1 328). (2) Philippe IV. of France 
(1268-1314). (3) Albert, Margrave of 
Brandenburg (i 1 06-1 1 70) . See Bear, 

Pair City, The. Perth in Scotland. 
It is elegantly built and picturesquely 

Paire de I'esprit. (Fr.) To be witty. 

Paire sans dire. (Fr.) To act with- 
out parade. 

Fairies, Wife of the. See Ban- 

Fairlop Oak. A giant oak-tree in 
Hainault Forest, Essex, whose girth 
was forty-eight feet, and beneath whose 
widely spreading ijranches an annual 
fair was held on the first Friday in 
July. The tree was blown down in 
February, 1820. 

Pair Maid of Anjou. Lady Edith 
Plantagenet, who married David, Prince 
Royal of Scotland. 

Pair Maid of February. The 
snowdrop, which blossoms in Febru- 

Pair Maid of Gallo-way. Margaret, 
only daughter of Archibald V., Earl of 

Pair Maid of Kent. Joan, Countess 
of Salisbury, wife of the Black Prince, 



and only daughter of Edmund Plan- 
tagenet, Earl of Kent. She had been 
twice married ere she gave her hand 
to the prince. 

Fair Maid of Norway. Margaret, 
daughter of Eric 11. of Norway, and 

franddaughter of Alexander III. of 
Gotland. Being recognized by the 
States of Scotland as successor to the 
throne, she set out for her new king- 
dom, but died on her passage from sea- 
sickness, 1290. 

Fair Maid of Perth. Katie Glover, 
the loveliest girl in Perth, Scotland. 
She is the heroine of Scott's novel of 
the name. 

Fair Rosamond. The name by which 
Rosamond, daughter of Lord Clifford, 
is known in English history. She was 
the mistress of Henry IL, who kept her 
secluded in a " bower " at Woodstock. 
The approaches to this retreat were 
through an intricate labjrrinth, and his 
jealous queen tracked him thither by 
means of a silken thread which he had 
used for a clew. 

Fait accompli (Fr.) " Deed accom- 
plished." A thing already completed. 

Faithful Monitor. One of the pen- 
names attributed to Junius (y. v.). 

Fake, Fakir. The word "fake" has 
been used for fifty years at least in 
the theatrical profession to express the 
idea of a makeshift. Thus, to " fake a 
dress " is to get up a costume which 
is not correct, but which can be made 
to serve its purpose on a pinch. Cos- 
tumes of this kind are called "fake- 
ments." To " fake a part " is to play it 
imperfectly, without proper knowledge 
of its lines. Men much given to this 
sort of thing were known in the pro- 
fession as "fakirs." 

Fakir of Lahore. The hero of one 
of the best authenticated cases of "sus- 
pended animation " on record. " It is 
quite certain that an apparent cessation 
of all the vital functions may take place 
without that entire loss of vitality which 
would leave the organism in the condi- 
tion of a dead body, liable to be speed- 
ily disintegrated by the operation of 
chemical and physical agencies." (Dr. 
W. B. Carpenter's Physiology.) It is 
also probably a fact that such " appar- 
ent cessation of all the vital functions " 
may continue for an indefinite period 
when the right conditions exist. The 
best known illustration of this, says a 
recent writer, is the case of the Fakir of 

Lahore, who was buried for six weeks, 
at the instance of Runjeet Singh, as at- 
tested by Sir Claude Wade, the British 
Resident at the Court of Loodhiana, in 
1837. In this thoroughly authenticated 
case — which, however, is but one of a 
class of similar facts known to Anglo. 
Indians and travellers — the Fakir was 
first put into a linen bag, the bag was 
placed in a wooden box, fastened with a 
padlock, the wooden box was deposited 
in a cell in the middle of a square brick 
vault, every aperture of which but one 
was bricked up, while the remaining 
door was built up with mud above the 
lock, and fastened with the rajah's seal. 
As a final precaution, a company of sol- 
diers was detailed to guard the vault 
day and night, four sentries constantly 
patrolling its four sides during the whole 
period. When, at the expiration of six 
weeks, the vault and the box were suc- 
cessively opened, and Sir Claude Wade 
and Runjeet Singh had entered the 
building and taken their places close to 
the body, so as to see everything, this 
is what appeared before them : — 

" The servant then began pouring warm water 
over the figure ; but as my object was to see if 
any fraudulent practices could be detected, I pro- 
posed to Runjeet Singh to tear open the bag 
and have a perfect view of the body before any 
means of resuscitation were employed. 1 accord- 
ingly did so ; and may here remark that the bag 
when first seen by us appeared mildewed, as if it 
had been buried some time. The legs and arms 
of the body were shrivelled and stiff, the face 
full, the head reclining on the shoulder like that 
of a corpse. I then called to the medical gentle- 
man who was attending me to come down and 
inspect the body, which he did, but could dis- 
cover no pulsation in the heart, the temples, or 
the arm. There was, however, a heat about the 
region of the brain, which no other part of the 
body exhibited. The servant then recommended 
bathing him with hot water, and gradually re- 
laxing his arms and legs from the rigid state 
in which they were contracted, Runjeet Singh 
taking his right and I his left leg, to aid by 
friction in restoring them to their proper ac- 
tion ; during which time the servant placed a hot 
wheaten cake, about an inch thick, on the top of 
the head, — a process which he twice or thrice 
renewed. He then pulled out of his nostrils and 
ears the wax and cotton with which they were 
stopped ; and after great exertion opened his 
mouth by inserting the point of a knife between 
his teeth, and while holding his jaws open with 
his left hand, drew the tongue forward with his 
right, — in the course of which the tongue flew 
back several times to its curved position upward, 
in which it had originally been, so as to close the 
gullet. He then rubbed his eyelids with ghee (or 
clarified butter) for some seconds, until he suc- 
ceeded in opening them, when the eyes appeared 
quite motionless and glazed. After the cake had 
been applied for the third time to the top of his 
I head, his body was violently convulsed, the nos- 



trils became inflated, respiration ensued, and the 
•limbs began to assume a natural fulness; but the 
pulsation was still faintly perceptible. The ser- 
vant then put some of the ghee on his tongue, 
and made him swallow it. A few minutes after- 
ward the eyeballs became dilated, and recovered 
their natural color, when the Fakir, recognizing 
Runjeet Singh sitting close to him, articulated, 
in a low, sepulchral tone, scarcely audible, " Do 
you believe me now ? " Runjeet Singh replied 
in the affirmative, and invested the Fakir with a 
pearl necklace and superb pair of gold bracelets, 
and pieces of muslin and silk, and shawls form- 
ing what is called a khelat, such as is usually 
conferred by the princes of India on persons of 
distinction. From the time of the box being 
opened to the recovery of the voice, not more 
than half an hour could have elapsed; and in 
another half-hour the Fakir talked with myself 
and those about him freely, though feebly, like 
a sick person ; and we then left him, convinced 
that there had been no fraud or collusion in the 
exhibition we had witnessed." 

Falcon. (Pseud.) SouM Smith, a mis- 
cellaneous American writer of tlie pres- 
ent day. 

Falconbridge. (Pseud.) Jonathan F. 
Kelly, American writer (b. 1820). 

Falkland. (Pseud.) Nathaniel Chap- 
man, M.D., in the " Philadelphia Port- 

Falls City, The. Louisville, Ky. So 
named from its situation on the falls of 
the Ohio River. 

False Decretals. See Decretals, 

False Reynard. Under this name 
Dryden satirizes the Unitarians, in his 
" Hind and Panther." 

Falsum in uno, falsum in omnibus. 
(Lat.) " False in one, false in all." One 
who has given false evidence on one 
point may be doubted on all points. 

Fama. (Lat.) A rumor ; a report. 

Fama clamosa. (Lat.) A public or 
current rumor, generally of a scanda- 
lous nature, concerning a person or 

Familists, The. Originally founded 
by George of Delft, an enthusiast, who 
believed himself the Messiah. They 
branched off into various sects of Grin- 
dletonians, Familists of Cape Order, of 
the Scattered Flock, etc. Among doc- 
trines too wild and foul to be quoted 
they held the lawfulness of occasional 
conformity with any predominant sect 
when it suited their convenience, of 
complying with the order of any magis- 
trate, or superior power, however sin- 
ful. They disowned the principal doc- 
trines of Christianity, as a law which 
had been superseded by the advent of 
David George, — nay, obeyed the wild- 

est and loosest dictates of evil pas- 
sions, and are said to have practised 
among themselves the grossest liber- 
tinism. See Edward's " Gangraena," 
Pagitt's " Heresiographia," and a very 
curious work written by Ludovic Clax- 
ton, one of the leaders of the sect, 
called the "Lost Sheep Found," Lon- 
don, 1660. 

Family Compact. A defensive alli- 
ance between the Bourbon rulers of 
France, Spain, and the Two Sicilies, con- 
cluded by M. Choiseul, August 15,1761. 

Fanchon. (Pseud.) (i) Mrs. Laura 
B. Starr, correspondent of the " Cleve- 
land Leader." (2) Mrs. Laura G. Sand- 
ford, American histprical writer (b. 1 835). 

F. and A. M. Free and Accepted 

Fannie Addison. The stage-name 
of Mrs. H. M. Pitt. 

Fannie Beane. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Charles Gilday. 

Fannie Dillon. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Richard E. Parker. 

Fannie Meserole. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Samuel Lynch. 

Fannie Reeves. The professional 
name of Mrs. E. A. McDowell, daughter 
of Sims Reeves, the famous English 

Fanny Davenport. The stage-name 
of Mrs. E. H. Price. 

Fanny Fairie. (Pseud.) Mrs. Mary 
T. Waggamon, in the New York 
" Weekly." 

Fanny Fales. (Pseud.) Mrs. Frances 
Elizabeth Smith, American poet (b. 

Fanny Fern. (Pseud.) Sarah Pay- 
son Willis Parton, American author 

Fanny Fielding. (Pseud.) Mary 
J. S. Upshur, a favorite contributor to 
the Southern press. 

Fanny Forester. (Pseud.) Emily 
(Chubbuck) Judson, American author 

Fanny Louise Buckingham. The 
stage-name of Mrs. Pettitt, tide Ward. 

Fanny Mountcastle. The stage- 
name of Mrs. Charles R. Thorp. 

Fanny True. (Pseud.) Mrs. Mary 
Asenath Short, an American poet, who 
contributed to " Arthur's Home Maga- 
zine " and " Beadle's Home Monthly."' 

Fanny Vernon. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Harry Sinclair.. 



Fanny Wheeler. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Martin Stall. 

Fan, Queen Anne's. See Queen 
Anne's Fan. 

Fansbawe Brook. (Pseud.) Fanny 
Susan Wyvill, an American poet. 

F. Anstey. Pen-name of F. Anstey 
Guthrie, the English novelist. 

Fantaisie. (Fr.) A species of musi- 
cal composition in which the author 
gives free scope to his ideas, without 
regard to those rules and forms which 
regulate other compositions. 

Fantasia. (Ital.) The same as the 
French fantaisie. 

Tax. Farthing. 

Farceur, The. Angelo Beolco, the 
Italian humorous dramatist (fl. 1502- 

Farmer George. George III. of 
England ; so named because of his 
bucolic manners, dress, and pastimes. 

Farrago libelli. (Lat.) "A medley 
of a little book." A hotchpotch or 
jumble of a book. 

Farthing Poet. Richard Hengist 
Home, circa 1843. 

F. A. S. Fellow of the Antiquarian 

F. A. S. E. Fellow of the Antiqua- 
rian Society of Edinburgh. 

Fas est ab boste doceri. (Lat.) It 
is allowable to learn, even from an 

Fashionable Salad-maker. The 
Marquis d'Abegnac, one of the French 
refugees in England during the Reign of 
Terror, used to be in great request at 
fashionable houses because of his skill 
in concocting a salad. It is said that he 
received a handsome fee in every case, 
and eventually amassed a fortune in this 

Fast-Day. This is peculiarly a New 
England institution, dating from a very 
early period in the annals of the coun- 
try. It is — or rather was, for it is 
fsuling into desuetude — an annual ob- 
servance, and in later years was usually 
appointed to be kept on Good Friday, 
when the people were admonished to 
abstain from all secular business and to 
mortify the flesh by abstention from food 
between sunrise and sunset. From time 
to time, however. Fast-days have been 
appointed during seasons of national 
calamity ; and such Fast-days, whenever 
appointed, are legal holidays in all the 

Fasten-e'en. See Shrove Tuesday. 

Fat, The. In the days of the Italian 
Republics the city of Bologna was so 
named. See Beautiful, The. 

Fat, The. (i) Alonzo II. of Portugal 
(fl . 1 2 1 2-1 223). (2) Charles II . of France 
(fi. 832-888). (3) Louis VI. of France 
(fl. 1078-1137). 

Fatal Saturday. The following rec- 
ord shows that for one hundred and 
seventy-six years Saturday was a very 
fatal day to the royal family in England : 
William III. died Saturday, March 18, 
1 702 ; Queen Anne died Saturday, Au- 
gust I, 1714; George I. died Saturday, 
June 10, 1727; George II. died Satur- 
day, Oct. 25, 1769; George III. died 
Saturday, Jan. 29, 1820; George IV. 
died Saturday, June 26, 1830; the 
Duchess of Kent died Saturday, March 
16, 1861 ; the prince consort died Satur- 
day, Dec. 14, 1861 ; Princess Alice died 
Saturday, Dec. 14, 1878. 

Fatal Stone. The facts in relation 
to the stone called the " Lia Fail," or 
Fatal Stone, are as follows : On this 
stone it appears that the kings of Mun- 
ster were crowned. It was originally 
deposited in the Cathedral of Cashel, 
their metropolis. In the year 1213 Fer- 
gus, a prince of the royal line, having 
obtained the Scottish throne, procured 
this stone for his coronation at Dun- 
staffnage, where it continued until the 
time of Kenneth II., who removed it 
to Scone; and in 1226 it was removed 
by Edward I. from Scone to London, 
where it was deposited in Westminster 

Fata obstant. (Lat.) "The Fates 
oppose." The Fates order that the 
matter should be otherwise settled. 

Fat Contributor. (Pseud.) A. M. 
Griswold, American writer (1805-1866). 

Fates, The. See Parc^. 

Father Abraham. (Pseud.) Benja- 
min Franklin. See Brother Abraham. 

Father Ambrose. (Pseud.) Matthew 
Henry Barker. 

Fatherland, The. The term of en- 
dearment among Teutons for their 
native land. 

Father Neptune. The ocean. 

Father Korbert. Pierre Parisot, the 
French evangelist (fl. 1697-1769). 

Father of American Anthropology. 
Lewis Henry Morgan, scientist (1818- 



Father of American Geography. 

Jedediah Morse, clergyman and author 
(1 761-1826). 

Father of American Geology. Wil- 
liam Maclure (i 763-1840). 

Father of American Shipbuilding. 
John Roach (1813-1887), founder and 
owner of great shipbuilding yards at 
Chester, Penn. 

Father of American Surgery. Philip 
Tyng Physick (1768-1837). 

Father of Angling. A nickname often 
given to Izaak Walton, the famous 
author of " The Compleat Angler " 
(fl.' 1593-1683). 

Father of Biblical Criticism. Origen 
was so named. 

Father of British Inland Naviga- 
tion. A nickname bestowed on Fran- 
cis Egerton, Duke of Bridgewater (fl. 
1736-1803), the projector of the first 
navigable canal constructed in Great 
Britain in modern times. 

Father of Chautauqua County. Elial 
Todd Foote, physician (i 796-1877). 

Father of Choral Epode. Stesicho- 
rus of Sicily (fl. 632-552 b. c). 

Father of Colonization in America. 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges, proprietor of 
Maine (i 565-1647). 

Father of Comedy. Aristophanes 
(fl. 444-380 B. c), a celebrated early 
Greek dramatist. He is the only writer 
of ancient Greek comedy of whom any 
complete works have been preserved to 

Father of Dutch Poetry. Jacob 
Maerlant (fl. 1235-1300). Named also 
" Father of Flemish Poets." 

Father of Ecclesiastical History. 
Eusebius of Caesarea (fl. 264-340). 

Father of English Geology. A nick- 
name given to William Smith (fl. 1769- 
1840), who compiled the first geological 
map of Great Britain. 

Father of English Poetry. A title 
given by Dryden to Chaucer, who was 
the first great English poet. 

Father of English Printing. William 

Father of English Prose, (i) Roger 
Ascham, one of the earliest English 
writers on general topics (fl. 1515-1568). 
(2) Wycliffe. 

Father of Epic Poetry. Homer, au- 
thor of the Iliad and the Odyssey. 
The title was conferred by Sir Walter 

Father of Equity. A title conferred 
on Heneage Finch, Earl of Nottingham 
(fl. 1621-1682). He is the Amri of Dry- 
den's "Absalom and Achitophel," and 
filled the high post of Lord Chancellor 
at the Restoration. 

Father of Flemish Poets. See Fa- 
ther OF Dutch Poetry. 

Father of Foreign Mission Work. 
Samuel John Mills, American clergy- 
man (1783-1818). 

Father of French History. A so- 
briquet of Andr^ Duchesne (fl. 1584- 
1640), an able and learned French wri- 
ter and student of history. 

Father of French Prose. Villehar- 

Father of French Satire. Mathurin 
Regnier (fl. 1 573-1613). 

Father of French Sculpture, (i) 
Jean Goujon (fl. 1510-1572). (2) Ger- 
main Pilon (fl. 1515-1590). 

Father of French Tragedy. Gamier 
(fl. 1 534-1 590). 

Father of German Literature. A title 
conferred on Gotthold Ephraim Lessing 
(fl. 1729-1781). He has also been 
named "the Frederick the Great of 

Father of Grace and Eloquence. 
Du Bellay (fl. 1 524-1 560), one of the 
" Pleiad " poets. See Ovid of France. 

Father of Grain Inspection. Julian 
Sidney Rumsey, American merchant 

Father of Greek Music. Terpander 
of Lesbos (fl. about 676 b. c). He was 
the first to reduce to a connected sys- 
tem the various rules of singing then in 
vogue ; and he gave to Greek music a 
character that it never lost. 

Father of Greek Prose. Herodotus, 
the historian. 

Father of Greenbacks. Elbridge 
Gerry Spaulding, American banker (b. 

Father of his Country, (i) Cicero 
was so named by the Roman Senate, as 
were several of the Caesars, notably 
Julius and Augustus. (2) Cosmo de' 
Medici (fl. 1389-1464). (3) George 
Washington. (4) Andrea iDoria, the 
Genoese patriot (fl. 1468-1560). (5) An- 
dronicus Palaeologus II., who assumed 
the title. 

Father of Historical Societies. 
Lewis Pintard, American merchant 



Father of Historic Fainting. Folyg- 
notus of Thasos (fl. 463-435 b. c). 

Father of History. Herodotus. 
Though he was perhaps not the first 
historian, yet he was the first who re- 
duced the art of writing history to a 

Father of Iambic Verse. Archilo- 
chus of Paros was so named (fl. 714- 
676 B. c). 

Father of Iron Bridges. Squire 
Whipple, American engineer (1804- 

Father of Jests. A nickname given 
to Joseph Miller (fl. 1684-1738), an 
English comic actor, many of whose 
witticisms were after his death gathered 
into a book. 

Father of Iiandscape Gardening. A. 
Lenotre (fl. 1613-1700). 

Father of Letters, (i) A title con- 
ferred on Francis I. of France, (fl. 1494- 
1547), a patron of letters and a friend 
to scholars. (2) Lorenzo de' Medici, the 
Florentine (d. 1492), who was likewise 
a generous friend to learning. 

Father of Lies, (i) A colloquial 
nickname for the Evil One. (2) An 
epithet sometimes conferred on Hero- 
dotus (see supra) by those who doubted 
his narrative. But the name is not at 
all deserved. 

Father of Medicine. Hippocrates, 
the most learned of the Greek physi- 
cians (fl. 460 B. c.) He was the first to 
attempt the treatment of medicine on a 
scientific basis. 

Father of Modern French Song. 
Panard (fl. 1691-1765). See also La 
Fontaine of the Vaudeville. 

Father of Modern Music. Pales- 
trina (fl. 1 529-1 594). He did much 
for church music, and brought it to 
a pitch of perfection until his day 

Father of Modern Pantheism. Jo- 
hannes Eckhart (1260-1329), the great- 
est of the medieval mystical writers, 
and one of the greatest minds of the 
German race. 

Father of Monks. Ethelwold of 
Winchester, who d. 984. He effected 
many needed changes in the English 
monastic orders. 

Father of Moral FhUosophy. 
Thomas Aquinas, the Schoolman, was 
so named. 

Father of Musicians. Jubal. See 
Genesis iv. 21. 

Father of Navigation. Don Hen- 
rique, Duke of Vasco (fl. 1394-1460), — 
perhaps the greatest man that Portugal 
ever produced. 

Father of Ne'w Spain. Luis de Ve- 
lasco, Viceroy of Mexico (i 500-1 564). 

Father of Ornithologists. A name 
conferred on George Edwards (fl. 1693- 
1773)1 the English naturalist. 

Father of Orthodoicy. Athanasius, 
Archbishop of Alexandria (fl. 296-373), 
the illustrious defender of the Church 
against the Arians and all forms of 

Father of Paper Currency. Abra- 
ham Clark, signer of the Declaration of 
Independence (1726-1794)'. 

Father of Parody. Hipponax of 

Father of Peace. The Genoese so 
named Andrea Doria (fl. 1468-1560), 
the intrepid doge and admiral. 

Father of Physiology. Albrecht von 
Haller, of Berne (fl. 1708-1777). 

Father of Poetry. A name given 
alike to Orpheus and Homer. The 
latter is also named Father of Epic 
Poetry (jj. v.). 

Father of Fresbyterianism in New 
T'ork. George McNish, clergyman 
( 1 660-1 722). 

Father of Fresbyterianism in Vir- 
ginia. Samuel Morris, lay preacher 
(i 700-1 770?). 

Father of Rhode Island and of 
American Baptists. John Clarke, phy- 
sician (1609-1676). 

Father of Riddles. A self-assumed 
title of the Ahh6 Cotin, which has not, 
however, been confirmed to him by 
critics. He flourished 1604-1682. 

Father of Ridicule. Frangois Rabe- 
lais (fl. 1483-1553), perhaps the greatest 
humorist and "comic romancer" of 
modern times. 

Father of Rifle Practice. George 
Wood Wingate, American lawyer (b. 

Father of Roman Satire. Lucilius 
(fl. 148-103 B. c). 

Father of Satire. Archilochus of 
Paros (fl. seventh century B. c). 

Father of Song. Homer, to whom 
are attributed the earliest of the Greek 
heroic epics. 

Father of the American Navy. 
Joshua Humphries, shipbuilder (I75'- 



Father of the Connecticut School 
Fund. Gideon Granger, statesman 

Father of the Drama, (i) Etienne 
Jodelle of the French. (2) Thespis of 
the Greek. (3) Lope de Vega of the 

Father of the Dutch Reformed 
Church in America. John Henry Liv- 
ingston, clergyman (i 746-1 825). 

Father of tiie Faithful. A name of- 
ten given to Abraham, the Jewish patri- 
arch. He was the recipient of the divine 
promises, and the progenitor of the 
Jewish race. 

Father of the Hotel System of the 
United States. Simeon Boyden, the 
owner of the City Tavern, on Brattle 
Street, Boston, a famous hostelry in 
stage-coaching days. 

Father of the House of Lords. The 
Earl of Mount-Cashel, an Irish heredi- 
tary peer, who died in 1883 at the great 
age of ninety-two years. 

Father of the Jurisprudence of 
Louisiana. Frangois Xavier Martin, 
American jurist (1764-1846). 

Father of the Monitors. Rear- 
Admiral Joseph Smith, U. S. N. 

Father of the New York Bar. 
(i) Samuel Jones (1734-1819). (2) 
Abraham van Vechten (1762-1823). 

Father of the North Carolina Bar. 
Bartholomew Figures Moore (1801- 

Father of the People, (i) Louis XIL 
of France (fl. 1462-1515). (2) Henri 
IV. (fl. 1553-1610). (3) Christian IIL 
of Denmark (fl. 1 502-1 559). (4) Gabriel 
du Pineau, the French advocate (fl. 

Father of the Poor. A sobriquet 
bestowed on Bernard Gilpin (fl. 1517- 
1583)! the English reformer. He was 
noted for his philanthropic labors among 
the poor and distressed. 

Father of the Public School Sys- 
tem of Pennsylvania. George Wolf, 
Governor of Pennsylvania (i 777-1 840). 

Father of the Rondo. J. B. Da- 
vaux, who excelled in that species of 
musical composition (d. 1822). 

Father of the Telegraph. Samuel 
Finley Breese Morse. 

Father of the Vaudeville. A nick- 
name given to Oliver Basselin, the Nor- 
man peasant poet, who composed and 
gave to the world at large many of the 
fyrics of his native valleys, called in 

Old French vatt-de-vire, since corrupted 
into vaudeville. He flourished in the 
fifteenth century. 

Father of Tragedy, y^schylus was 
so named by the Athenians. . 

Father of XTniversalism in America. 
John Murray, clergyman (i 741 -18 15). 

Father of ^Waters, (i) The Missis- 
sippi River is popularly so named in 
allusion to its great length and the num- 
ber of its affluents. (2) The Irrawaddy 
River, in India, whose name is said to 
include this meaning. 

Father Paul. Pietro Sarpi, of the 
Order of Servites in Venice (fl. 1552- 
1623). He changed his Christian name 
when he became a monk. 

Father Prout. (Pseud.) Francis Ma- 
hony, Irish author and wit (i 805-1 866). 

Fathers of the Church. The early 
exponents of the Christian faith. They 
may be divided as follows : Five Apos- 
tolic Fathers, — Clement of Rome, Bar- 
nabas, Hermas, Ignatius, and Polycarp. 
The Primitive Fathers, — the foregoing 
and Justin, Theophilus of Antioch, Ire- 
naeus, Clement of Alexandria, Cyprian, 
Origen, Gregory Thaumaturgus, Diony- 
sius, and Tertullian. See Fathers of 
THE Greek and Latin Churches. 

Fathers of the Greek Churoh. 
Athanasius, Eusebius, Basil, Gregory 
Nazianzen, Gregory of Nyssa, Cyril 
of Jerusalem, Chrysostom, Epiphanius, 
Cyril of Alexandria, and Ephraim of 

Fathers of the Latin Church. Lac- 
tantius, Hilary, Ambrose, Jerome, Au- 
gustine of Hippo, and Saint Bernard. 

Father Thames, Father Tiber, etc. 
Epithets not uncommonly applied to 
great rivers. The river may be re- 
garded as the father of the city, or the 
cause of that site being chosen by its 

Say, Father Thames, for thou hast seen 

Full many a sprightly race 
Disportmg on thy margined green 

The paths of pleasure trace. 
Gray, Distant Prospect of Eton College. 
Tiber, Father Tiber, to whom the Romans pray. 

Father Thoughtful. Nickname giv- 
en to Nicholas Catinat, Marshal of 
France, by his soldiery, on account of 
his deliberate and careful movements 
(d. 1712). 

Father Violet. A sobriquet conferred 
by the rabble of Paris on Napoleon I. 
See Corporal Violet. 



Faugh-a-Ballaghs. See Old Fogs. 

Faun, or Faunus. In classic myth 
a king of Italy, and teacher of agricul- 
ture to his people and founder of their 
religion, fabled to have lived 1300 b. c. 
After his death he was worshipped as 
a sylvan deity; and hence arose the 
fauns, corresponding to the Greek sa- 
tyrs (f.».). 

Fauna. The sister of Faun. See 

Fauteuil. (Fr.) An easy-chair. 

Fauz pas. (Fr.) "A false step." A 

Favonius. In classic myth the per- 
sonification of the west wind, the same 
as Zephyrus, and the harbinger of 

Fay Templeton. The stage-name of 
Mrs. William West. 

F. B. S. Fellow of the Botanical 

F. B. S. E. Fellow of the Botanical 
Society of Edinburgh. 

F. C. Free Church of Scotland. 

Fcap, or Fop. Foolscap. 

F. C. P. S. Fellow of the Cambridge 
Philological Society. 

F. C. S. Fellow of the Chemical 

F. D. Fidei Defensor or Defensatrix. 
Defender of the Faith. 

F. E., or Fl. E. Flemish ells. 

Pe. Ferrum. Iron. 

Fearless, The. Jean, Duke of Bur- 
gundy (fl. 1371-1419). 

Feast of Fools. "A kind of Satur- 
nalia, popular in the Middle Ages. Its 
chief object was to honor the ass on 
which our Lord made his triumphal 
entry into Jerusalem. This ridiculous 
mummery was held on the day of cir- 
cumcision (January i). The office of 
the day was first chanted in travesty; 
then, a procession being formed, all 
sorts of absurdities of dress, manner, 
and instrumentation were indulged in. 
An ass formed an essential feature, and 
from time to time the whole procession 
imitated the braying of this animal." — 
Brewer. Similar festivals were held 
in Paris on January i, from 1198 to 
1348, where various absurdities were 

Feather-heads. Another name for 
the Half-breeds {q. w.). 

Feb. Februarj'. 

Fee. Fecit. He did it. 

Fecit. (Lat.) He or she made it. 
On a painting, put after the artist's 

Federalists, The, were the advocates 
of a strong government. Under the 
leadership of Alexander Hamilton, who, 
with the aid of James Madison and 
John Jay, published eighty-six essays 
known as " The Federalist," in which 
these views were urged, aided, too, by 
the known opinions of Washington, 
their efforts for the adoption of the 
Constitution were successful. The 
wealthy and commercial classes were 
generally in accord with them, and the 
party came into power on the acces- 
sion of Washington to the Presidency, 
April 30, 1789. On September 11 
Hamilton was appointed Secretary of 
the Treasury, and his genius had much 
to do with the success of the adminis- 
tration. He proposed that the indebt- 
edness of the United States and the 
Revolutionary expenses of the States, 
in all nearly $80,000,000, should be as- 
sumed by the General Government, and 
fully paid by revenue derived from cus- 
toms and a. duty on ships. This met 
with a sharp opposition, but was finally 
adopted, and the credit of the country 
set on a firm basis. In 1 791 the Bank 
of the United States, with a capital 
of $10,000,000, was established, three 
fourths to be paid in United States 
stock at six per cent, thus furnishing a 
market for the bonds of the Govern- 
ment. There was no opposition to the 
re-election of Washington in 1792, but 
during his second term the diverse ele- 
ments of his Cabinet caused an explo- 
sion. Alexander Hamilton and Henry 
Knox were earnest Federalists, while 
Thomas Jefferson and Edmund Ran- 
dolph were opposed to that party. 
This led, at the retirement of Wash- 
ington, to a party strife on the election 
of a President. The Federalists were 
successful, and John Adams became 
President, March 4, 1797, and, as the 
electoral law then stood, his competitor, 
Thomas Jefferson, having the next high- 
est number of votes, became Vice-Presi- 
dent. His administration was unfortu- 
nate, and some of his acts gave offence 
to his own followers, especially in his 
dealing with France. The Alien and 
Sedition laws, for which the Federal- 
ists were responsible, had made the 
party unpopular, and Mr. Adams was 
defeated as a candidate for a second 
term by Thomas Jefferson, which vir- 



tually destroyed the power of the Fed- 
eralists. During the administration of 
James Madison, who had long before 
left the Federalists, June 4, 181 2, war 
was declared against Great Britain ; and 
the measures adopted pressed hardly 
upon New England, where many had 
opposed it from the beginning. The 
Hartford Convention met Dec. 15, 1814. 
Its President, George Cabot, of Massa- 
chusetts, and all its members were Fed- 
eralists. It sat with closed doors, and 
its proceedings were hostile to the gov- 
ernment ; and this, coupled with a sus- 
picion of disloyalty, wrought the com- 
plete ruin of the party, and it disap- 
peared on the election of James Monroe 
in 1S16. 

Federals. The Northern troops dur- 
ing the American civil war. Their op- 
ponents, the Southerners, were called 

P. E. I. S. Fellow of the Educa- 
tional Institute of Scotland. 

Felioiter. (Lat.) "Happily." Suc- 

Felix Ago. (Pseud.) Samuel Steh- 
man Haldeman (18 12-1880), in his 
"Rhymes of the Poets." 

Felix and Urner. Under this double 
pseudonym appeared in 1830 a histori- 
cal romance entitled " WaHthrum," 
written in collaboration by Louis Henri 
Martin the French historian (1810- 
1833), and Felix Davin. 

Felix Merry. (Pseud.) Evert Augus- 
tus Duyckinck, American essayist and 
critic (1816-1878). 

Felix Oldboy. (Pseud.) John F. 
Mines, author of some charming 
sketches of old New York in the 
"Evening Post" from time to time. 

Felix Summerly. (Pseud.) Sir 
Henry Cole, K. C. B., English art critic 
(b. 1808). 

Felo de se. A self-murderer; a 

Fem. Feminine. 

Female Howard. A title conferred 
on Mrs. Elizabeth Fry (fl. 1 780-1 844), 
a philanthropic Englishwoman, who did 
much to ameliorate the condition of 
prisoners, lunatics, and the poor. 

Femme couverte. (Fr.) A married 

Femme de chambre. (Fr.) Lady's- 
maid; tiring-woman. 

Femme sole. (Fr.) "A woman 
alone." An unmarried woman ; a spin- 

Fence Month, or Defence Month. 
" A time during which deer in forests do 
fawn, and their hunting is unlawful. It 
begins fifteen days before Old Mid-sum- 
mer, and ends fifteen days after it." — 
Manwood's Forest Laws, part ii. c. 13. 
By recent legislation " fence " times have 
been estabhshed in the case of birds 
and fishes, during which their capture 
or injury is unlawful. 

Fen Nightingsae. A humorous name 
for a frog, who sings in the swamps and 
fens as the nightingale does in the 

Fenrir. In Scandinavian m)rth a 
hideous demon, son of Loki, bound in 
chains by the gods, and cast down into 
Nifiheim, where he is to remain till 

Ferae natures. (Lat.) Of a wild or 
savage nature. 

Feman Caballero. (Pseud.) Dona 
Cecelia (Bohl de Faber) Arrom, Span- 
ish novelist (b. 1797). 

Feronia. An ancient Roman deity, 
the patroness of plants and of freed- 

Ferrars's Arrest. In March, 1542, 
Mr. George Ferrars, while attending the 
sessions of the House of Commons, was 
arrested by the sheriff for debt, and 
lodged in the Conyster Prison. The 
House demanded his release, and, it 
being refused, repaired to the Lords, 
and that body adjudged the civil officers 
in contempt, and they in turn were com- 
mitted to jail. The occurrence became 
the basis of that rule which exempted 
members of Parliament from arrest 
while in attendance on the session. 

Fervet opus. (Lat.) The work prosr 
pers greatly. 

P. E. S. Fellow of the Entomo- 
logical Society; Fellow of the Ethno- 
graphical Society. 

Festina lente. (Lat.) Hasten slowly. 

Festinatio tardo est. (Lat.) Too 
much haste does not accomplish its 
object well ; much haste, little speed. 

F£te. (Fr.) A feast or celebration. 

Fete champetre. (Fr.) A rural fes- 

F6te-Dieu. (Fr.) The Corpus Christi 
festival of the Roman Catholic Church. 



Feu de joie. (Fr.) A bonfire; a 
discharge of musketry on days of re- 

Feuilleton. (Fr.) A small leaf; a 
supplement to a newspaper; a pam- 

Pf. Following; the pandects. 

F. F. A. Fellow of the Faculty of 

F. P. V.'s. An abbreviation of the 
sentence " First Families of Virginia," 
often humorously used to denote a re- 
spectable lineage in the Old Dominion. 

F. G. S. Fellow of the Geological 

F. H. S. Fellow of the Horticultural 

F. I. A. Fellow of the Institute of 

Fiat. (Lat.) Let it be done. 

Fiat confirmatio. (Lat.) Let the 
confirmation take place. 

Fiatist. One who believes in " fiat," 
or paper, money ; a term current in the 
United States during the greenback 

Fiat justitia, ruat ccelum. (Lat.) 
"Though the heavens should fall, let 
justice be done." Though even ruin 
should follow, let justice be adminis- 

Fiat lux. (Lat.) Let there be light. 

Fid. Def. Defender of the Faith. 

Fiddler Josh. Mr. Joseph Poole, a 
reformed drunkard, who subsequently 
turned preacher in London, but retained 
his former sobriquet.- 

Fiddler's Green. The Elysium of 
sailors; a land flowing with rum and 
lime-juice; a land of perpetual music, 
mirth, dancing, drinking, and tobacco; 
a sort of Dixey's land, or land of the 

Fidei defensor. (Lat) Defender 
of the faith, as applied to an English 

Fide, non armis. (Lat.) By faith, 
not by arms. 

Fide, sed oui vide. (Lat.) Trust, 
but see whom. 

Fides et justitia. (Lat.) Fidelity 
and justice. 

Fides Punica. (Lat.) « Punic faith." 
Treachery. A phrase originating among 
the Romans, from the treachery which, 
as they alleged, characterized the actions 
of the Poeni, or Carthaginians. 

FiduB Achates. (Lat.) "Faithful 
Achates." A true friend. Achates was 
the faithful attendant on .lEneas in his 
flight from Troy. 

Fielding of the Drama. George 
Farquhar (fl. 1678-1707). He wrote 
" The Beaux Stratagem," etc. 

Field of Blood, (i) The meaning 
of the Hebrew word Aceldama, the de- 
scriptive designation of the plot of land 
purchased by Judas with the thirty 
pieces of silver, the price of his treach- 
ery. (Matt, xxvii. 5). (2) « The battle- 
field of Cannae (Apulia) has been so 
named. Here, August 2, 216 b. c, Han- 
nibal, with 50,000 Africans, Gauls, and 
Spaniards, defeated Paulus ^milius 
and Terentius Varro, with 80,000 Ro- 
mans, 40,000 of whom were slain. The 
victor sent to Carthage three bushels of 
rings taken from the Roman knights." 
— Haydn. 

Field of March and May. A name 
by which the Champ de Mars, Paris, is 
sometimes alluded to. On this spot, 
now given over to reviews, etc., were 
formerly held annually in March the 
ancient assemblies of the Prankish peo- 
ple, the germ of the French parliaments. 
In 747 King Pepin changed the date to 

Field of Mourning. The name be- 
stowed on a famous battle-field near the 
city of Aragon, memorable as the scene 
of a sanguinary conflict between Chris- 
tians and Moors, July 17, 1134. 

Field of Feterloo. A popular nick- 
name given to the famous Manchester 
Reform Meeting, August 16, 1819. The 
assembly consisted of from 60,000 to 
100,000 persons, — men, women, and 
children. Mr. Hunt, who had taken the 
chair, had spoken a few words, when 
the meeting was suddenly assailed by a 
charge of the Manchester cavalry, as- 
sisted by a Cheshire regiment of yeo- 
manry and a regiment of hussars, the 
outlets being guarded by other military 
detachments. The unarmed multitude 
were consequently driven upon one an- 
other (by which alone many were 
killed), ridden down by the horses, or 
sabred by their riders. The deaths 
were 1 1 men, women, and children, and 
the wounded numbered over 600. The 
word " Peterloo " was of course coined 
in burlesque allusion to the then recent 
battle of Waterloo, the gathering being 
held in St. Peter's Field, near Man- 



Field of the Cloth of Gold. A meet- 
ing between Henry VIII. of England 
and Francis I. of France, June 7-25, 
1520, midway between Ardres and 
Guisnes, within the English Pale, con- 
ducted with such magnificence as to 
gain for it 'this tide. Paintings of the 
embarkation and of the interview are 
preserved at Windsor. Many of the 
nobility in attendance seriously embar- 
rassed themselves by their senseless 

Field of the Forty Footsteps. A 
meadow that formerly existed near 
where the British Museum now stands, 
later known as Southampton Fields. 
The story goes that two brothers at the 
time of Monmouth's rebellion espoused 
opposite sides, and fought a duel in this 
place. Both were slain, and for many 
years forty footprints were visible, be- 
cause no grass would grow there. 

Fieri facias. (Lat.J " Cause it to be 
done." A kind of writ. 

Fi. fa. Fieri facias. Cause it to be 

Fifth Doctor of the Church. 
Thomas Aquinas, the Schoolman. 

Fifth Monarchy. About 1645 a 
strange sect appeared in England, who 
maintained that the millennium was at 
hand, when Jesus would descend from 
heaven, and erect the fifth universal 
monarchy or world - kingdom. They 
proceeded so far as to elect- Christ king 
at London. Cromwell dispersed them, 
i6j3; but another rising occurred in 
1 661, which was only suppressed after 
the loss of several lives. In politics 
they were republicans of the most radi- 
cal tjrpe. They conspired to murder the 
Protector and usurp the government. 

Fifty-five, The. Abijah Willard, an 
American royalist soldier (i 722-1 789), 
and fifty-four associates, who in 1783 
petitioned Sir Guy Carleton for exten- 
sive grants of land in Nova Scotia. 

Fifty-four Forty or Fight. A famous 
campaign battle-cry in the canvass re- 
sulting in the election of James K. Polk 
to the Presidency. It grew out of the 
dispute concerning the boundary be- 
tween the United States and British 
America in the Northwest. It was 
claimed by America that her limits 
extended to the parallel of fifty-four 
degrees forty minutes north latitude. 
The arbitrator, the Emperor of Ger- 
many, eventually decided in favor of 
the American claim. 

Fig. Figure. 

Figaro. (Pseud.) (i) Henry Clapp, 
Jr., in various periodicals. (2) Mariano 
Jose de Larra, Spanish poet (1809-1837). 

Fighting Chasseurs. The Sixty- 
Fifth New York Regiment in the civil 

Fighting Dick. Israel Bush Rich- 
ardson (1815-1862), a soldier in the civil 
war, was so named on account of his 
coolness in action. 

Fighting Fifth, (i) A nickname 
earned by the Fifth Foot Regiment in 
the English army during the Crimean 
War. (2) The Fifth New Hampshire 
Regiment during the civil war, under the 
command of Edward Ephraim Cross. 

Fighting Joe. A sobriquet conferred 
on Gen. Joseph Hooker. It is said that 
he never relished the appellation, though 
he always justified it in the field, espe- 
cially at the battle of Manassas, 1862. 

Fighting Nat Nathaniel Fitz Ran- 
dolph, a soldier in the Revolutionary 

Fighting Parson. Rev. Granville 
Moody, a Methodist itinerant (1812- 
1887), who left the ministry to take up 
arms for the North in the civil war. 
He won the above tide by his gallantry 
at the battle of Stone River, for which 
he was brevetted brigadier-general. 

Fighting Quakers. Another name 
for the "Free Quakers," who in the 
eighteenth century in Pennsylvania se- 
ceded from the Society of Friends. 

Fighting like DevUs, etc. In Lady 
Morgan's " Memoirs," vol. ii. p. 232, the 
writer, in an extract from her diary, 
Oct. 30, 1826, in which she describes a 
compliment paid to her by a Dublin 
street-ballad singer, gives the following 
as a stanza from his carol : — 

" Och, Dublin City, there 's no doubtin'. 
Bates every city upon the say ; 
'T is there you'll see O'Connell spoutin'. 

An' Lady Morgan makin' tay ; 
For 't is the capital of the finest nation, 

Wid charmin' pisantry on a fruitful sod 
plghtin' like divils for conciUation, 
An' hatin' each other for the love of God." 

Fighting McCook. General McCook 
was so named throughout the army. 

Fighting Prelate. Henry Spencer, 
Bishop of Norwich, who played a prom- 
inent part in quelling the rebellion of 
Wat Tyler. It is said that he met the 
rebels sword in hand; next absolved 
them, and then consigned them to the 



Pig Sunday (Palm Sunday^. So 
called from the custom of eating figs 
on this day, as snapdragons on Christ- 
mas Eve, plum-pudding on Christmas 
Day, oranges and barley sugar on St. 
Valentine's Eve, pancakes on Shrove 
Tuesday, salt cod-fish on Ash Wednes- 
day, frumenty on Mothering Sunday 
(Mid-lent), cross-buns on Good Friday, 
gooseberry tart on Whit-Sunday, goose 
on Michaelmas Day, nuts on All-Hal- 
lows, and so on. 

Filia Dolorosa. A name given to 
the Duchesse d'AngoulSme, daughter 
of Louis XVL of P"rance. See also 
Modern Antigone. 

Filia EcclesiaB. (Pseud.) Sarah 
Anne Dorsey (i 829-1 879). She began 
her literary career by writing for the 
New York " Churchman," and received 
from that journal her pen-name. 

Filibusters, Filibustering. "A fili- 
buster is defined as a 'lawless adven- 
turer, especially one in quest of 
plunder.' " — Webster. 

"The ari^TaX jilibusteros were West Indian 
pirates. Their name was derived from a small 
fast-sailing vessel which they employed, called a 
'filibote' (originally fly-boat), and said to have 
been so styled from the river Vly in Holland. 
The term ' filibusters ' came to be applied to all 
military adventurers. In the United States it 
has two meanings. First, it is given to the mem- 
bers of the minority of a legislative body who 
seek to delay or defeat the adoption of meas- 
ures obnoxious to them by obstruction and dila- 
tory tactics, such as constant motions to adjourn, 
or calls for yeas and nays. Secondly, the name 
'filibusters' is applied to the adventurers who 
organized expeditions in the United States to 
gain control of West India and Central American 
regions with the hope of having them annexed to 
the United States, and thus extending the slave 
territory of the nation. The first of these expe- 
ditions was organized by a Cuban, Narcisco 
Lopez. After making two attempts in 1849 ^"^^ 
1850, which proved failures, he sailed from New 
Orleans with about five hundred men and landed 
in Cuba in August, 18; i. His force was over- 
powered by the authorities, and he and several 
other leaders were executed. The next filibuster- 
ing expeditions were undertaken by Gen. William 
Walker. In 1853 and 1854 he attempted to 
conquer Lower California and the State of So- 
nera, Mexico, but failed. In 1855 he went to 
Nicaragua with a few followers. Profiting by 
internal dissensions in that country, he gained 
several victories and had himself elected Presi- 
dent. He re-established slavery and seized the 
property of the Vanderbilt Steamship Company. 
But his arbitrary acts created a revolution, and 
early in 1857 he surrendered himself to Com- 
mander Davis, of the United States Navy, who 
took him to New Orleans. He was released 
under bonds to keep the peace, but in November 
he was found once more in Nicaragua. In De- 
cember, however, he surrendered again, this time 
to Commodore Paulding of our Navy, who carried 

him to New York. Finding himself again at 
liberty, he attempted to start with a new expedi- 
tion from New Orleans, but was prevented by 
the national authorities. His last expedition 
was directed against Honduras in i860. In June 
of that year he landed with a small force at 
Trujillo, but was captured, court-martialled, and, 
on September 12, shot. Since then no filibuster- 
ing expeditions from this country have been 
known." — Brown and Strauss. 

Filius nullius. (Lat.) " The son of 
nobody." A bastard. 

Filius populi. (Lat.) A son of the 

Fille de chambre. (Fr.) "Girl of 
the chamber." A chambermaid. 

Filomena, Saint. The sobriquet be- 
stowed on Florence Nightingale by the 
poet Longfellow. The saint of the name 
is depicted, in Sabatelli's painting, as 
bending over a group of maimed and 
wounded, healed by her ministrations. 

Fin. Finland. 

Finale. (Fr.) The close, or end. 
In music, the last piece of an opera or 
concert, or the last movement of a sonata 
or symphony. 

Finality John. Lord John Russell, 
who stoutly maintained that the Reform 
Bill of 1832 was a finality. Yet several 
others have been passed, some of which 
he lived to see. 

Fin-Bee. (Pseud.) William Blan- 
chard Jerrold. 

Fine(Ital.),orFin. (Fr.). The end; 
a term used to denote the close of a 
musical or other composition. 

Finemrespice. (Lat.) Look to the end. 

Finger Benediction. In the Greek 
and Roman Churches the thumb and 
first two fingers represent the Trinity. 
The thumb, being strong, represents the 
Father ; the long or second finger, Jesus 
Christ; and the first finger, the Holy 

Finis. (Lat.) The~6nd. 

Finis coronat opus. (Lat.) " The 
end crowns the work." No one can de- 
termine justly the merits of a thing till 
its completion or termination. 

Finn. Finnish. 

Finn. (Pseud.) Peter Auguste 
Godecke, Swedish author and editor. 

Finnan Haddie. Another name for 
Findon Haddock, which derives its 
name from the Scotch village of that 
name, which lies on the sea-coast and 
is six miles by rail south of Aberdeen. 
The village is famous for its smoked 



Fir. Firkin. 

Firbolgs. The name given in the 
fabulous early history of Ireland to a 
tribe said to have descended from the 
Nemedians, who under their leader 
Nemedius lauded in the island about 
2260 B. c. ; and after two hundred and 
seventeen years left it, on account of 
the oppression to which they were sub- 
jected by pirates called the Fomorians. 
The emigrating Nemedians formed three 
bands, — one went to Thrace, and from 
them descended the Firbolgs ; a second 
to the north of Europe, or Lochlan, from 
whom descended the Tuatha de Da- 
nann ; and the third to Alban, or Scot- 
land, from whom sprung the Britons. 
The Firbolgs returned to Ireland in 
three tribes, one of which more espe- 
cially bore the name Firbolg ; the others 
were called Firdomnan, and Firgailian. 
The three tribes, however, were under 
five leaders, by whom Ireland was di- 
vided into five provinces. With Slainge, 
the first Firbolg king, who began to reign 
1934 B. c, and reigned only one year, 
the Irish historians begin their account 
of the Irish monarchy and list of kings. 
The Firbolgs were driven out, after they 
had been thirty-six years in Ireland, by 
their kinsmen, the Tuatha de Danann, 
from Scotland, they having previously 
passed over to that country from Loch- 
lan; and these, in their turn, were ex- 
pelled or conquered by the Milesians. 
The most recent investigators of the 
early history of Ireland regard the story 
of the Firbolgs as having some basis of 
truth, but no chronological accuracy; 
the different tribes having long sub- 
sisted in the country together, and with 
varying fortunes as to temporary supe- 

Fire and 'Water. "I would go 
through fire and water to serve you." 
This saying is a relic of the old trials 
by ordeal. In the old times when trial 
by ordeal of fire or water was recog- 
nized by English law, both ordeals could 
be performed by deputy. This was 
sometimes done for hire and sometimes 
out of friendship. 

The ordeal of fire was passing bKndfolded 
and barefooted through a place where nine red-hot 
ploughshares were arranged at irregular inter- 
vals. In the trial by water the person to be tried 
was bound hand and foot and thrown into a 
pond or river. If he swam, he saved his life and 
redeemed his character. If drowned, he was con- 
sidered to have met with a just retribution for 
the crime of which his drowning was held to be 
proof that he was guilty. The saying " I would 

go through fire and water," etc., was, therefore, 
equivalent to saying that the person using it was 
ready to sacrifice life or limb to serve his 

Firebrand of the Universe. Tamer- 
lane (fl. 1336-1405), the famous Asiatic 
conqueror. Though one of the greatest 
of warriors, he was one of the worst of 

Fire-eater. "A truculent, unrecon- 
structed Southerner." A second Sir 
Lucius O'Trigger. 

Fireman = Stoker. The " fireman " 
of American locomotives and steam- 
ships becomes the " stoker " on similar 
English conveyances. 

Firemen's Anniversary. This oc- 
curs on March 4, and is a legal holiday 
in Louisiana. 

Fire, Mountain of. See Mountain 
OF Fire. 

Fire, St. Anthony's. See Anthony's 

First catch your Hare. This say- 
ing is, perhaps, a play upon an ancient 
word still in use in Norfolk and Suffolk, 
England. In those counties, where the 
word " skatch " means to skin and dress 
an animal for cooking, the direction 
"first skatch your hare " might be easily 
mistaken for the mythical phrase " first 
catch your hare," a saying which has 
Iseen productive of so much merriment 
that it seems a pity to disturb it. There 
is, however, another theory, which is 
that the word used was "case," one 
meaning of which was formerly, accord- 
ing to Johnson, " to strip off the cover- 
ing ; to take off the skin." Shakspeare 
also uses the word in this sense in 
"All's Well that Ends WeU," where 
he says, — 

" We 'U make yon some sport with the fox ere 
we case him." 

First-chop. This phrase was once 
used all through the United States as a 
synonym for "first-rate." The word 
"chop" is Chinese for "quality." 
He looks like a first-chop article. 

Sam Slick in England, ch. ii. 

First Gentleman of Europe, (i) A 

nickname given to George IV. of Eng- 
lank. First in rank he may have been, 
but he was certainly devoid of pre-emi- 
nence either in manners, feeling, or 
deportment. (2) The name was also 
bestowed on Louis d'Artois. 

First Grenadier of Fremce. A so- 
briquet given by Napoleon I. to Latour 
d'Auvergne (fl. 1743-1800). 




First in a Village than Second In 
Rome. " Cassar said, ' For my part, I 
had rather to be the first man among 
these fellows than the second man in 
Rome.' " — Plutarch, Life of Ccesar. 

First in War, First in Peace, First 
in the Hearts of his Countrymen. 
This phrase, in the form in which we 
have it now, was said of George 
Washington by Gen. Henry Lee in his 
famous funeral oration. The apos- 
trophe was also contained in the reso- 
lutions prepared by Richard Henry 
Lee and offered in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by John Marshall on an- 
nouncing the death of Washington, 
but with a slight variation : " First in 
war, first in peace, and first in the 
hearts of his fellow-citizens." 

First Scottish Reformer. Patrick 
Hamilton (fl. 1503-1527), who was sent 
to the stake for preaching the doctrines 
of Luther. 

Fitche's Grenadiers. A nickname 
of the Eighty-third English Regiment, 
after a former colonel. 

Fits to a T. The expression " It 
suits (or fits) to a T " means " It suits 
(or fits) exactly," and comes from the 
Tee-square, or T-rule, an instrument (so 
called from its resemblance to a capital 
T) used by mechanics and draughtsmen, 
especially valuable in making angles 
true, and in obtaining perpendiculars 
on paper or wood. The phrase is one 
in common use. Boswell quotes John- 
son as saying, " You see they 'd have 
fitted him [Warburton] to a T." 

Fitzroy Clarence. (Pseud.) Wil- 
liam M. Thackeray in " Punch." 

Five-and-Threepennies. See Brick- 

Five Articles of Perth. A code 
passed in 1618 by order of James VI., 
enforcing kneeling at the Sacrament, 
the keeping of Christmas, Good Friday, 
Easter, and Pentecost, the observance 
of the rite of confirmation, etc. They 
were ratified on Black Saturday (y. w.), 
and condemned by the General Assem- 
bly of Glasgow in 1638. 

Five-mile Act. An act of Parliament 
(17 Charles II. chap, ii., October, 1665), 
was so named because it forbade Non- 
conformist preachers who refused to 
take the non-resistance oath to come 
within five miles of any corporation 
where they had preached since the Act 
of Oblivion (unless they were on a jour- 
ney), under penalty of a fine of £i,o. 

The act was repealed under William III. 
in 1689. 

Five Nations. The Indian tribes 
grouped under this name are the Cher- 
okees, the Chickasaws, the Choctaws, 
the Creeks, and the Seminoles — all 
now domiciled in the Indian Territory. 
See Iroquois. 

Five of Clubs. A famous coterie of 
Harvard graduates, consisting of H. 
R. Cleveland, Charles Sumner, H. W. 
Longfellow, C. C. Felton, and G. C. 

Five of Clubs. (Pseud.) Richard A. 
Proctor in his " How to Play Whist." 

Five per Cent. Cases. A decision 
of the United States Supreme Court in 
1884, holding that an act of Congress by 
which a percentage of the proceeds of 
land " sold by Congress " is reserved to 
certain public uses of a State does not 
include lands disposed of by the United 
States in satisfaction of military land- 

Five P's. A nickname given to Wil- 
liam Oxberry (fl. 1784-1824), an English 
/"oet, /"rinter, /"ublisher, Publican, and 

Kx. " To _/?*■," says a writer, " may 
be said to be the American word of 
words, since there is probably no action 
of mind or body which is not at some 
time or other represented by this word. 
Whatever is to be made, whatever needs 
repair, whatever requires arrangement, 
— all S& fixed. The President fixes his 
cabinet, the mechanic his work-bench, 
and the seamstress her sewing-machine. 
And yet fix may mean trouble and em- 
barrassment. The New York ' Herald ' 
speaks of President Arthur ' being in a 
fix; ' and a young lady hesitating be- 
tween two suitors is in a ' painful fix! 
Fixings naturally abound also, and de- 
note well-nigh everything, from the 
railway fixings of a new branch to 
the chicken fixings of the West and the 

Fizzle. The meaning given to this 
word in the United States constitutes 
an Americanism. The old-fashioned 
musket would frequently refuse to ex- 
plode, the priming in the pan going ofE 
with a fizzling sound. Hence the word 
" fizzle " signifies any ridiculous failure 
after great expectations had been 

P. K. Q. C. P. I. Fellow of King's 
and Queen's College of Physicians, Ire- 



Pla. Florida. 

Flagrante bello. (Lat.) While war 
is raging ; during hostilities. 

Flagrante delicto. (Lat.) In the 
act of committing the crime. 

Flags, Ford of. See FoRD of Flags. 

Flambeau. (Pseud.) Floyd Vail, in 
the New York " Mail and Express." 

Flaminian Way. The great northern 
road of ancient Italy, constructed by 
C. Flaminius. It commenced at the 
Flaminian Gate of Rome. 

Flaneur. (Fr.) A lounger. 

Flaneur. (Pseud.) (i) Col. Charles 
G. Greene, in the Boston "Post." 
(2) Blakely Hall, in the San Francisco 
" Argonaut." (3) Kenward Philp, in the 
Brookl)^ " Daily Eagle." (4) Edmund 
Hodgson Yates, the English journalist, 
in the London "Star" and " Tinsley's 

Flat Broke. See Broke. 

Flath-Innis (" Isle of the Brave "). 
In Celtic mythology the paradise of 
warriors and heroes. 

Flats. In the far West the alluvial 
lands on the bank of a river liable to 
inundation by overflow, and also large 
sandy shoals in the bed of the stream. 

Flebile. (Ital.) In a mournful style. 

Fleoti, non frangi. (Lat.) To be 
bent, not to be broken. 

Fleet Marriages. The custom of 
contracting clandestine marriages was 
very prevalent in England before the 
passing of the first Marriage Act in 1753 
put a check to the glaring abuse. No 
other place was equal in notoriety for 
this infamous traffic to the Fleet Prison. 
Between Oct. 19, 1704, and Feb. 12, 
1705, there were celebrated 2,954 mar- 
riages in the Fleet without license or 
banns. Twenty or thirty couples were 
often united in one day, their names 
concealed by private marks if they chose 
to pay an extra fee. Painted signs 
with the legend " Marriages performed 
within " were openly displayed. 

Fleet of the Desert. A caravan is 
so styled by Washington Irving. The 
camel is also called "the ship of the 

Fleshly School. A name given to 
a number of poets, among whom were 
Morris, Swinburne, and Rossetti ; they 
were preceded by the Spasmodic School 
{q. v.). 

Fleta. A poetical allusion to the 
Fleet Prison in London, of which name 
it is the Latinized form. It is also the 
title of a legal commentary composed 
by John Selden (i 584-1654), which is 
based on the labors of two English 
judges, Glanvil and Bracton, who dur- 
ing tiie reign of Edward I. were con- 
fined in the Fleet Prison, and who 
occupied their enforced leisure in the 
production of an excellent legal treatise. 
Fleta. (Pseud.) Kate W. Hamil- 
ton, an American writer. 

Fleur-de-lis. The fleur-de-lis has 
been the emblem of the kings of France 
from Clovis downward. It is not cer- 
tain whether it is derived from the com- 
mon white lily of our gardens or from 
the flag, or iris, the other name of which, 
" flower-de-luce," is a corruption of the 
French fleur-de-lis. Some say that 
what is now a lily was originally in- 
tended to represent the head of a spear 
or javelin. At first the kings of France 
bore as their arms an indefinite number 
of golden lilies on a blue field ; but 
eventually, either out of respect to the 
Trinity or to symbolize the three differ- 
ent races — the Merovingians, the Car- 
lovingians, and the Capets — from which 
the royal line was descended, Charles 
VI. reduced the number to three golden 
fleurs-de-lis emblazoned on an azure 
field. There is an ancient legend to the 
effect that the original blue banner em- 
broidered with golden lilies was given 
to King Clovis by an angel from heaven 
in the year 496, he having vowed to em- 
brace Christianity if he should be victo- 
rious in an impending battle with the 
Alemanni (the ancestors of the Germans) 
near Cologne. During the Revolution 
of 1789 the fleur-de-lis was discarded as 
the banner of France in favor of the 

Flint Jack. Edward Simpson, some- 
time servant to Dr. Young, of Whitby, 
and so named because he peddled an- 
cient (?) flint weapons up and down the 
country. In 1 807 Professor Tennant 
charged him with forging these relics; 
and in the same year he was sent to 
prison for vagrancy. 

Float Day. During Commencement 
at Wellesley College, Mass., the fair 
students engage in contests at the oar, 
the occasion being known as "Float 

Floaters. Under the Ohio Consti- 
tution of 1 85 1, a district or county hav- 



ing a fraction of population over and 
above the number of inhabitants neces- 
sary to the senators or representatives 
apportioned to it, is treated as follows : 
If by multiplying the surplus inhabit- 
ants by five the result is equal to or 
exceeds the number of inhabitants re- 
quired for one member, the county re- 
ceives a member for the fifth of the five 
terms of two years into which the period 
between reapportionments is divided. If 
equal to the number necessary to more 
than one member, then for the fifth and 
fourth terms, or for as many as required. 
These members are called " floaters." 

Flora. In classic myth the goddess 
of flowers and of the spring. 

Flora Irwin. The stage-name of Mrs. 
(Senator) Grady. 

Flora MoFlimsey. (Pseud.) Miss 
Evelyn Kimball Johnson, associate edi- 
tor of the " Bar Harbor (Me.) Tourist," 
1885 eiseg. 

Flora Weale. (Pseud.) Mrs. G. A. 
H. McLeod, a well-known magazine 
writer of the present day. 

Flora Walsli. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Charles H. Hoyt. 

Florence. (Pseud.) (i) Mrs. Fran- 
ces Sargent Osgood, in the "Juvenile 
Miscellany." (2) Miss Florence Tyng, 
contributor to various periodicals. 

Florence Baldwin. The stage-name 
of Mrs. George Robinson. 

Florence Girard. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Henry E. Abbey. 

Florence Kennedy. The stage-name 
of Mrs. J. H. Huntley. 

Florence Leigh. (Pseud.) Mrs. A. 
T. W. Wood, a miscellaneous American 

Florence Marryatt. (i) The stage- 
name of Mrs. Francis Lean. (2) (Pseud.) 
Mrs. Florence M. Ross-Church, a well- 
known contemporary novelist. 

Florence Percy. The pen-name of 
Mrs. Elizabeth Akers Allen, well known 
as the writer of the song, " Rock me to 
sleep, mother." 

Florence St. John. The stage-name 
of Madame Marius. 

Florence, The German. See Ger- 
man Florence. 

Florence Thropp. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Edward A. Bulkley. 

Florence Warden. The stage-name 
of Mrs. George E. James, nde Price. 

Florence Warden. (Pseud.) Mrs. 

Florence Alice [Price] James, a noted 
novelist of the present day, author of 
"The House on the Marsh," "The Fog 
Princes," " A Prince of Darkness," etc. 

Florida. The name of this State is 
derived from Fasqua de Flores, or 
" Feast of Flowers," upon which day it 
was discovered. 

Florine Arnold. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Charles A. Andrews. 

Florio. (Pseud.) James Gordon 
Brooks, in various periodicals. 

Florizel. George IV., when prince, 
corresponded, under this name, with 
Mrs. Robinson, actress and poet, gener- 
ally known as Perdita. 

Florry. (Pseud.) J. Frank Keman, 
an American writer. 

Flossie Edwards. The stage-name 
of Mrs. J. H. W. Byrnes. 

Flour City, The. Rochester, N. Y. 
The place is noted for its flour-mills. 

Flower City, The. Springfield, 111., 
famed for the beauty of its suburbs. 

Flower of Chivalry, (i) William 
Douglas, Earl of Liddesdale. (2) Sir 
Philip Sidney (fl. 1554-1586). (3) Chev- 
alier Bayard (fl. 1476-1524). 

Flower of Islands. Another of the 
many poetical names conferred on Cuba. 

Flower of Kings. Arthur of Eng- 
land is so styled by John of Exeter. 

Flow^er of Poets. Geoffrey Chaucer 
(i 328-1400). 

Flower of Strathearn. Lady Caro- 
lina Oliphant Nairn, author of " The 
Land o' the Leal," was so named. 

Flower of the Levant. Zante is so 
called from its great beauty and fertility. 
" Zante I Zante I flor di Levanti." 

Flower Sermon. A sermon preached 
on Whit-Sunday in St. Catherine Cree, 
London, when all the congregation wear 

Flowers, Symbolism of. Lady Mary 
Wortley Montagu, in speaking of this 
flower language, says, " There is no 
color, no flower, no weed, no fruit, herb, 
pebble, or feather that has not a verse 
belonging to it; and you may quarrel, 
reproach, or send letters of passion, 
friendship, or civility, or even of news, 
without even inking your fingers." 

Abatina Fiddeiiess. 

Abecedary .... Volubility. 

Acacia Friendship. 

Acacia, rose or white . Elegance. 

Acacia, yellow . . . Secret love. 

Acalia Temperance. 

Acanthus The fine arts, artifice. 

AchiUeaMiUefolia. . War. 



Achimenes Cupreata . Such worth is rare. 

Aconite ^Wolfsbane) , Misanthropy. 

Aconite (Crowloot) . Lustre. 

Adonis, Flos .... Sad memories. 

African Marigold . . Vulgar minds. 

Agnus Castus . . . Coldness, indifference. 

Agrimony Thankfiilness, gratitude 

Auspice ..... Compassion. 

Almond rcommon) . . Stupidity, indiscretion. 

Almond (flowering) . Hope. 

Almond, Laurel . . Perfidy. 

Aloe Grie^ religious supersthion. 

Althsa Frutex (Syrian 
Mallow) Persuasion. 

Alyssum (sweet) . . . Worth beyond beauty. 

Amaranth (globe) . . Immortality^ unfading love. 

Amaranth (Cockscomb) Foppery, anectation. 

Amaryllis Pnde, timidity, splendid 


Ambrosia Love returned* 

American Cowslip . . Divine beauty. 

American Elm . . . Patriotism. 

American Linden . . Matrimony. 

American Scarwort . Welcome, to a stranger, 
cheerfulness in old age. 

Amethyst Admiration. 

Andromeda .... Sel&sacrifice. 

Anemone (Zephjnr 

flower) Sickness, expectation. 

Anempne (ganlen) . . Forsaken. 

Angelica Inspiration, or magic. 

Angree Royalty. 

Apple Temptation^ 

Apple (blossom) . . Preference, fame speaks him 

great and good. 
Apple, Thorn . . . Deceitful charms. 
Apocynum (Dogsbane) Deceit. 
Apricot (blossom) . . Doubt. 
Arbor Vits .... Unchanging friendship, live 

for me. 
Arum (Wake Robin) . Ardor, zeal. 
Ash-leaved Trumpet- Separation. 


Ash, Mountam . . . Prudence, or With me you 

are safe- 
Ash Tree ... . Grandeur. 
Aspen Tree .... Lamentation, or fear. 

Asphodel My regrets follow you to the 

Aster (China) . . . Variety, afterthought. 

Auricula Painting. 

Auricula, scarlet , . A^^rice. 
Austurtium .... Splendor^ 
Azalea Temperance. 

Bachelor's Buttons . Celibacy. 

Balm Sympathy. 

Balm, gentle .... Pleasantry. 

Balm of Gilead . . . Cure, relief. 

Balsam, red .... Touch me not, impatient re- 

BaJsam, yellow . . . Impatience. 

Barberry Sharpness of temper. 

Basil Hatred. 

Bay leaf I change but in death. 

Bay (rose) Rhododen- 
dron Danger, beware. 

Bay-tree Glory, 

Bay Wreath .... Reward of merit. 

Bearded Crepis . . . Protection. 

Beech Tree .... Prosperity. 

Bee Ophiys .... Error. 

Bee Orchis .... Industry. 

Begonia Deformity. 

Belladonna .... Silence, hush 1 
Bell Flower, Pyrami- 
dal Constancy. 

Bell Flower (small 

white) (Gratitude. 

Belvedere I declare against you. 

Betony Surprise. 

Bilberry Treachery, 

Bindweed, great , . Insinuation, importunity. 

Bindweed, small . . Humility. 

Birch Meekness. 

Birdsfoot, Trefoil . . Revenge. 

Bittersweet, Night- 

shade .... 

. Truth. 

Black Poplar . . 

. Courage. 
. Difficulty. 

Blackthorn . . . 

Bladder Nut Tree . 

, Frivolity, amusement. 

Bluebell .... 

. Constancy, sorrowful regret. 

Bluebottle . . . 

. Delicacy. 

Blue-flowered Greek 

Valerian . . . 

. Rupture. 

Bonus Henricus 

. Goodness. 


Box Tree .... 

. Bluntness. 

. Stoicism. 

Bramble .... 

. Lowliness, envy, remorse. 

Branch of Currants 

. You please all. 

Branch of Thorns . 

. Severity, rigor. 

Bridal Rose . . . 

. Happy love. 

. Humility, neatness. 


Browallia Jamisonii 

. Could you bear poverty? 

Buckbean .... 

. Calm repose. 

Bud of White Rose 

Heart ignorance of love. 


Bufrush .... 


Indiscretion, docility. 

Bundle of Reeds, with 

their Panicles. . 


Burdock .... 

Importunity, touch me not. 


Rudeness, you weary me. 

Buttercup .... 

Ingratitude, childishness. 

Butterfly Orchis . 


Butterfly Weed . . 

Let me go. 

Cabbage .... 






Calceolaria . . . 

I offer you pecuniary assist- 
ance, or 1 offer you my 


Calla .^thiopica . . 

Magnificent beauty. 

Calycanthus .... 


Camelia Japonica, red 
Camelia Japonica, 

Unpretending excellence. 


Perfected loveliness. 


Ener^ in adversity. 


Canary Grass . . . 




Canterbury Bell . . 


Cape Jasmine . . . 

I am too happy. 

Cardamine .... 

Paternal error. 

Cardinal Flower . . 


Carnation, deep red . 

Alas 1 for my poor heart. 

Carnation, striped . 


Carnation, yellow . . 


Catchfty . ... 


Catchfly, red . . . . 

Youthful love. 

Catchfly, white . . . 


Cattleya .... 

Mature charms. 

Cattleya Pineli . . . 

Matronly grace. 



Cedar Leaf .... 

I live for thee. 

Cedar of Lebanon . . 


Celandine, lesser . . 

Joys to come. 


Delicacy. ^ 

Cereus, creeping . . 

Modest genius. 

Champignon .... 


Chequered Fritillary . 


Cherry-tree, black . . 


Cherry-tree, white . . 

Good education. 

Chestnut Tree . . . 

Do me justice. 



Chickweed .... 


Cliina Aster .... 


China Aster, double . 

I partake your sentiments. 
I will think of it. 

China Aster, single . 
China or Indian Pink . 


China Rose .... 

Beauty always new. 

Chinese Chrysanthe- 

Cheerfulness under adver- 

mum ...... 


Chinese Primrose . . 

Lasting love. 

Chorozema Varium . 

You have many_ lovers. 

Christmas Rose . . . 

Relieve my anxiety. 

Chrysanthemum, red . 

I love. 




Chrysanthemum, yel- 


Slighted love. 


Always delightful. 



Cinquefoil . . . 

Maternal affection. 




Dodder of Thyme . . 


Cistus, or Rock Rose . 

Popular favor. 

I shall die to-morrow. 


Deceit, falsehcwd. 

Cistus, gum . . 




Ill-natured beauty. 

Dragon Plant . . . 



The variety of your conversa- 

Dragonwort . . . . 


tion delights me. 

Dried Flax . . . . 



Mental beauty. 

Clematis, evergreen . 


Ebony Tree . . . . 



Worldlmess, self-seeking 

Echites Atropurpurea . 

Be warned in time. 

ClotbuT ... 

Rudeness, pertinacity. 

Eglantine (Sweet-brier) 

Poetry, I wound to heal. 

Clover, four-leaved 

Be mine. 


Clover, red 


Elm. ;.'!;; ' 


Clover, white . . . 

Think of me. 

Enchanters* Night- 



shade .... 

Witchcraft, sorcery. 



Endive. . . 


Cockscomb, Amaranth 

Foppery, affectation, singu- 

Eschscholtzia . . . 

Do not refuse me. 


Eupatorium . . . . 


Colchicum, or Meadow 

Everflowering Candy- 

Saflfron . 

My best days are past. 
Justice shall be done. 




Evergreen Clematis . 


Columbine .... 


Evergreen Thom . . 
Everlasting . . . . 

Solace in adversity. 

Columbine, purple . . 

Resolved to win. 

Never-ceasing remembrance. 

Columbine, red . . . 
Convolvulus . . . . 
Convolvulus, blue (mi- 

Anxious and trembling. 

Everlasting Pea . . . 

Lasting pleasure. 


Worthy all praise, strength. 


Repose, night- 


Fascination, magic, sincerity. 

Convolvulus, major . 

Extinguished hopes. 

Ficoides, Ice Plant . 

Your looks freeie me. 

Convolvulus, pink ■ 

Worth sustained by judicious 



and tender affection. 

Fig Mangold . . . 


Corchorus . . . 

Impatient of absence. 

Fig Tree 



Coreopsis ... 

Always cheerful. 


Coreopsis Arkansa . . 

Love at first sight. 




Fir Tree 





Domestic industry, fate, I 

Corn, broken . . . 


feel your kindness. 

Com Bottle . . . . 


Flax -leaved Goldeo- 

Com Cockle . . . . 




Corn Straw . 


Fleur-de-lis . . . . 

Flame, I bum. 

Cornel Tree . . . 


FIower-de-Luce . . . 



Success crown your wishes. 

Flowering Fern . . . 


Cosmelia Subra . . . 

The charm of a blush. 

Flowering Reed . . 
Flower-of-an-Hour . 

Confidence in heaven* 

Cowslip ... 

Pensiveness, winning grace< 

Delicate beauty. 

Cowslip, American . 

Divine beauty. 

Fly Orchis . . . 


Crab, blossom . 

Ill nature. 




Cure for heartache. 

Fool's Parsley . . . 


Creeping Cereus . . 


Foiget-me-not . . . 

True love. 


Stability, power. 




Abuse not. 

Foxtail Grass . . . 


Crocus, Saffron . 


Francisca Latifolia . . 

Beware of false friends. 

Crocus, Spring . . • 

Youthful gladness. 

French Honeysuckle . 

Rustic beauty. 



French Marigold . . 


Bravery and humanity. 

Crown, Imperial . . 

Majesty, power. 

French Willow . . . 



FrogOphrys. . . . 


Crowfoot, Aconite- 

Fuchsia, scarlet . . . 




Fuller's Teasel . . . 


Cuckoo Plant . . . 




Cudweed, American . 

Unceasing remembrance. 

Furze, or Corse . . . 

Love for all seasons. 


Thy frown will kill me. 

Cuscuta .... 


Garden Anemone . . 




Garden Chervil . . . 



Death, mouming. 

Garden Dais^ . ■ . 

I partake your sentiments. 

Garden Mangold . . 




Garden Ranunculus . 

You are rich in attractions. 



Garden Sage . , . . 






Daisy, garden . . 

I share your sentiments. 
Farewell, or afterthought. 

Garland of Roses • • 

Reward of virtue. 

Daisy, Michaelmas . 

Geranium, dark . . . 


Daisy, party-colored . 


Geranium, Horseshoe- 

Daisy, wild .... 

I will think of it. 


Bridal favor. 

Damask Rose - . . 

Brilliant complexion. 

Geranium, Ivy . . , 

Dandelion .... 

Rustic oracle. 

Geranium, Lemon . , 

Unexpected meeting. 


Glory, immortality. 

Geranium, Nutmeg . 

Expected meeting, . 

Daphne Odora . . . 

Painting the lily. 

Geranium, Oak-leaved 

True friendship. 



Geranium, Pencilled . 


Dead Leaves .... 


Geranium, Rose- 

Deadly Nightshade . 




Dew Plant .... 

A serenade. 

Geranium, scarlet . . 



Make haste. 

Geranium, Silver- 


Your simple elegance charms 




Geranium, wild . . . 

Steadfast piety. 

Diplademia Crassinoda 

You are too bold. 

Germander Speedwell , 


Dipteracanthus Spec- 

Gillyflower . . . 

Bonds of affection. 




Ready armed. 

Dittany of Crete . . 


Glory Flower . . . 
Goat^s Rue .... 

Glorious beauty. 

Dittany of Crete, white 





Goldenrod .... Precaution. 

Gooseberry , , . . Aoticipation. 

Gourd Extent, bulk. 

Grammanthus Chlora- 

flora Your temper is too hasty. 

Grape, wild .... Charit;', 

Grass Submission, utility. 

Guelder Rose . . . Winter, age- 

Hand Flower Tree . Warning. 

Harebell Submission, grief. 

Hawkweed . . . Quick-sightedness. 

Hawthorn ..... Hope, 

Hazel Reconciliation. 

Heartsease, or Pansy . Thoughts. 

Heath Solitude. 

Helenium Tears, 

Heliotrope .... Devotion, or I turn to 

Hellebore Scandal, calumny. 

Helmet Flower 

(Monkshood) . . . Knight-errantry. 
Hemlock You will be my death- 
Hemp ...... Fate. 

Henbane ..... Imperfection. 

Hepatica Confidence. 

Hibiscus ..... Delicate beauty. 

Holly Foresight 

Holly Heri} .... Enchantment. 

Hollyhock .... Ambition, fecundity. 

Honesty Honesty, fascination. 

Honey Flower . . . Love sweet and secret 

Honeysuckle .... Generous and devoted affec- 

Honeysuckle (Coral) . The color of my fate. 

Honeysuckle (French) Rustic beauty. 

Hop Injustice. 

Hornbeam .... Ornament 

Horsechestnut . . . Luxury. 

Hortensia You are cold- 

Houseleek .... Vivacity, domestic industry. 

Houstonia Content. 

Hoya Sculpture. 

Hoyab^a Contentment. 

Humble Plant . . , Despondenc^r. 

Hundred-leaved Rose. Dignity of mind. 

Hyacinth ..... Sport, game, play. 

Hyacinth, purple . . Sorrowful. 

Hyacinth, white . . Unobtrusive loveliness. 

Hydrangea .... A boaster. 

Hyssop ...... Cleanliness. 

Iceland Moss . . . Health. 

Ice Plant Your looks freeze me. 

Imbricata . ... Uprightness, sentiments of 


Imperial Montague. . Power. 

Indian Cress .... Warlike trophy. 

Indian Jasmine (Ipo- 

mcea) Attachment- 
Indian Pink, double . Always lovely. 

Indian Plum .... Privation. 

Iris Message. 

Iris, German .... Flame. 

Ivy Friendship, fidelity, mar- 

Ivy, sprig of, with ten- 
drils Assiduous to please. 

Jacob's Ladder . . . Comedown. 

Japan Rose .... Beauty is your only attrac- 

Jasmine Amiability. 

Jasmine, Cape . . - Transport of joy. 

Jasmine, Carolina . • Separation. 

Jasmine, Indian . . I attach myself to you. 

Jasmine, Spanish . . Sensuality. 

Jasmine, yellow . . . Grace and elegance. . 

Jonquil I desire a return of affection. 

Judas Tree .... Unbelief, betrayal. 

Juniper Succor, protection. 

Justicia The perfection of female 


Kennedia Mental beauty. 

King-cups .... Desire of riches. 

Laburnum .... Forsaken, pensive beauty- 
Lady's Slipper . . . Capricious beauty, win me 
and wear me. 

Lagerstraemia, Indian. Eloquence. 

Lantana Rigor. 

Lapageria Rosea . . There is no unalloyed good. 

Larch Audacity, boldness. 

Larkspur Lightness, levity. 

Larkspur, pink . * . Fickleness. 

Larkspur, purple . . Haughtiness. 

Laurel Glory- 
Laurel, common, in 

flower Perfidy. 

Laurel, Ground . . . Perseverance. 

Laurel, Mountain . . Ambition. 

Laurel-leaved Magno- 
lia. . Dignity. 

Laurestina .... A token. 

Lavender Distrust. 

Leaves (dead) . . . Melancholy. 

Lemon Zest. 

Lemon Blossoms . . Fidelity in love. 

Leschenaultia Splen- 

dens You are charming. 

Lettuce Cold-heartedness. 

Lichen Dejection, solitude. 

Lilacs field .... Humility. 

Lilac, puiple .... First emotions of love^ 

Lilac, white .... Youthful innocence. 

Lily, Day Coquetry. 

Lily, Imperial . , . Majesty. 

Lily of the Valley . . Return of happiness, uncon- 
scious sweetness. 

Lily, white .... Purity, sweetness. 

Lily, yellow .... Falsehood, gayety. 

Linden or Lime Trees . Conjugal love. 

Lint I feel my obligations. 

Liquorice, wild ... I declare against you. 

Live Oak Liberty. 

Liverwort ..... Confidence. 

Lobelia Malevolence. 

Locust Tree .... Elegance. 

Locust Tree, green . Affection beyond the grave. 

London Pride . . . Frivolity. 

Lote Tree Concord- 
Lotus Eloquence. 

Lotus Flower . . . Estranged love. 

Lotus Leaf .... Recantation. 

Love in a Mist . . . Perplexity. 

Love lies Bleeding . . Hopeless, not heartless. 

Lucem Life. 

Lupine Voraciousness. 

Madder Calumny. 

Magnolia Love of^Nature. 

Magnolia, Swamp . . Perseverance. 
MaSon Creeana . . Will you share my fort- 
Mallow Mildness- 
Mallow, Marsh . . . Beneficence. 
Mallow, Syrian . . Consumed by love. 
Mallow, Venetian ■ . Delicate beauty. 
Manchineal Tree . . Falsehood. 

Mandrake Horror. 

Maple Reserve. 

Marianthus .... Hope for better days. 

Marigold Grief. 

Marigold, African . . Vulgar minds. 

Marigold, French . . Jealousy. 

Marigold, Prophetic . Prediction. 

Marigold and Cypress . Despair. 

Marjoram Blushes. 

Marvel of Peru . . . Timidity. 

Meadow Lychnis . . Wit. 

Meadow Saffron . . My best days are past. 

Meadowsweet . . . Uselessness. 

Mercury ..... Goodness. 

Mesembryanthemum . Idleness. 

Mezereon Desire to please. 

Michaelmas Daisy . . After-thought 

Mignonette .... Your qualities surpass your 


MilfoU War. 

Milkvetch .... Your presence softens my 


Milkwort Hermitage. 



Mimosa, Sensitive 
Plant Sensitiveness. 

Mint Virtue. 

Mistletoe I surmount difficulties. 

Mitraria Coccinea . Indolence, dulness. 

Mock Orange . . . Counterfeit. 

Monarda Amplezicau- Your whims are quite un- 
lis bearable. 

Monkshood .... A deadly foe is near. 

Monkshood, Helmet- 
flower Chival^, knight>errantry. 

Moonwort .... Forgetuilness. 

Morning Glory . . . Afiectation^ 

Moschatel .... Weakness. 

Moss Maternal love. 

Mosses Ennui. 

Mossy Saxifrage . , Affection. 

Motherwort . . , Concealed love. 

Mountain Ash . . . Prudence. 

Mourning Bride . , Unfortunate attachment, I 
have lost all. 

Mouse-eared Chickr 

weed Ingenuous simplicity. 

Mouse-eared Scorpion 

Grass Forget me not 

Moving Plant . . . Agitation. 

Mudwort Happiness, tranquillity. 

Mulberry Tree, black . I shall not survive you. 

Mulberry Tree, white . Wisdom. 

Mushroom .... Suspicion, or I can't entirely 
trust you. 

Musk Plant .... Weakness. 

Mustard Seed . . Indifference. 

Myrobalan .... Privation. 

Myrrh Gladness. 

Myrtle Love. 

Nardssus Egotism. 

Nasturtium . . . Patriotism. 

Nemophila .... Success everywhere. 

Nettle, common sting- 
ing You are spiteful. 

NetOe, burning . . . Slander. 

Nettle Tree .... Conceit 

Night-blooming Ce- 

reus Transient beauty. 

Night Convolvulus Night. 

Nightshade .... Falsehood. 

Oak Leaves .... Bravery. 

Oak Tree Hospitality. 

Oak, white . . . Independence- 
Oats The witching soul of music- 
Oleander Beware. 

Olive Peace. 

Orange Blossoms . . Your purity equals your love> 


Orange Flowers , . . Chastity, bridal frativities. 

Orange Tree .... Generosity. 

Orchis A belle. 

Osier Frankness. 

Osmunda Dreams. 

Ox Eye Patience. 

Palm Victory. 

Pansy Thoughts. 

Parsley Festivity. 

Pasque Flower . . . You have no claims. 
Passion Flower . . . Religious superstition, when 
the flower is reversed, or 
Faith, if erect. 
Patience Dock . . . Patience- 
Pea, Everlasting . . An appointed meeting, last- 
ing pleasure. 
Pea, Sweet .... Departure. 
Peach ... . . Your qualities, like your 

charms, are unequalled. 

Peach Blossom ... I am your captive. 

Pear Affection. 

Pear Tree Comfort 

Pennyroyal ... Flee away. 
Fenstemon Azureum High-bred- 
Peony ... . . Shame, bashfnlness. 
Peppermint . . . Warmth of feeling. 
Penwinkle, blue . . Early friendship 
Periwinkle, white . . Pleasures of memory 

Persicaria .... 
Persimmon . . . 

Peruvian Heliotrope 
Petunia . . . 
Pheasant's Eye . 
Phlox .... 
Pigeon Berry 
Pimpernel . . 


Pineapple . . 
Pine, Pitch . . 
Pine, Spruce . . 
Pink .... 
pink, Carnation . . 
Pink, Indian, double . 
Pink, Indian, single . 
Pink, Mountain 
Fink, red, double 
Fink, sin^e . . 
Pink, variegated 
Pink, white . . 
Plain tain . . . 
Plane Tree . , 
Plum, Indian 
Plum Tree . . 
Plum, wild . . . 
Plumbago Laix>enta 
Polyanmus - . . 
Polyanthus, crimson 
Polyanthus, lilac 
Pomegranate . . . 
PomeCTanate Flower 
Poor Robin . . . 

Poplar, black . . 
Poplar, white > . 
Poppy, red . . , 
Poppy, scarlet ■ ■ 
Poppy* white . . 


PotentiUa . . 
Prickly Pear . . . 
Pride of China . . 
Primrose .... 
Primrose, Evening. 
Primrose, red . . 


Purple Clover . . 
Pyrus Japonica . . 


Bury me amid Nature'sbeau- 


Vour presence soothes me. 




Change, assignation. 


You are perfect 


Hope in adversity. 


Woman*s love. 

Always lovely. 



Pure and ardent love. 

Pure love. 


Ingeniousness. talent. 

White man's footsteps. 





Holy wishes. 

Pride of riches. 

The heart's mystery. 



Mature elegance. 

Compensation, or an equiva- 




Fantastic extravagance. 

Sleepi my bane. 


I daim, at least) your esteem. 



Early youth and sadness. 


Unpatronized merit. 



Fairies* flre. 


You are the c|ueen of co- 
quettes, fashion. 

Quince Temptation. 

Ragged Robin . . . Wit 

Ranunculus .... You are radiant with charms. 
Ranunculus, garden , You are rich in attractions. 
Ranunculus, wild . . Ingratitude. 
Raspberry .... Remorse- 
Ray Grass .... Vice. 
Red Catchfly . . . Youthful love. 

Reed Complaisance, music. 

Reed, split .... Indiscretion. 
Rhododendron (Rose 

bay) Danp;er, beware. 

Khubarb ..... Advice. 

Rocket Rivalry. 

Rose Love. 

Rose, Austrian . . . Thou art all that is lovely. 
Rose, Bridal .... Happy love. 
Rose, BuTKundy . . Unconscious beauty. 
Rose, Cabb^^ . . Embassador of love. 
Rose, Campion ■ . . Only deserve my love. 
Rose, Carolina . . . Love is dangerous. 
Rose, China - . . . Beauty always done- 
Rose, Christmas . , Tranquillize my anxiety. 
Rose, Daily .... Thy smile I an]ire to. 
Rose, Damask . . . Brilliant complexion. 
Rose, deep red . . . Bashful shame. 
Rose, Dog .... Pleasure and pain. 
Rose, full-blown, 

placed over two buds- Secrecy. 

Rose, Guelder . . Winter, age. 



Rose, Hundred-leaved Pride- 
Rose, Japan .... BeautyisyouronlyattractioD. 

Rose, Maiden-blush . If you love me, you will iiud 
It out. 

Rose, Montiflora . . Grace. 

Rose, Mundi . . . Variety. 

Rose, Musk .... Capricious beauty. 

Rose, Musk, cluster . Charming. 

Rose, single .... Simplicity. 

Rose, thornless . . . Early attachment. 

Rose, Unique . . Call me not beautiful. 

Rose, white .... I am worthy of you. 

Rose, white and red 

together .... Unity. 

Rose, white, withered • Transient impressions. 

Rose, yellow .... Decrease of love, jealousy- 
Rose, York and Lan- 
caster ... War. 

Rosebud, Moss • . . Confusion of love- 

Rosebud, red . . . Pure and lovely. 

Rosebud (Rhododen- 
dron) Beware, danger. 

Rosebud, white . . . Girlhood. 

Rosemary Remembrance, 

Roses, crown of. . . Reward of virtue. 

Rudbeckia .... Justice 

Rue Disdain. 

Rush Docility- 
Rye Grass .... Changeable disposition . 

Saffron Beware of excess. 

Saffron Crocus - ■ . Mirth. 

Sa£fron, Meadow . . My happiest days are past. 

Sage Domestic virtue. 

Sa^ ^rden .... Esteem. 

Samfbm Agitation. 

Saint John's Wort . . Animosity. 

Salvia, blue .... Wisdom. 

Salvia, red ... Energy. 

Saxifrage, mossy . . Affection. 

Scabious Unfortunate love. 

Scabious, sweet , . . Widowhood. 
Scarlet Lychnis . . . Sun-beaming eyes. 
Schinus Religious enthusiasm- 
Scotch Fir .... Elevation. 
Sensitive Plant . . - Sensibility. 

Senvy Indifference. 

Shamrock ... . Light-heartedness. 

Shepherd's Purse . . I offer you my all. 

Siphocampylos . . . Resolved to be noticed. 

Snakesfoot .... Horror. 

Snapdragon . . . Presumption, also No. 

Snowball Bound. 

Snowdrop Hope. 

Sorrel Affection. 

Sorrel, wild . . . Wit ill-timed. 

Sorrel, wood .... Joy 

Southernwood . . . Jest, bantering. 

Spanish Jasmine . . Sensuality. 

Spearmint Warmth of sentiment. 

Speedwell Female fidelity. 

Speedwell, Germander Facility. 
Speedwell, Spiked . . Semblance- 
Spider Oplu-ys . . Adroitness. 
Spiderwort .... Esteem, not love. 
Spiked Willow Herb Pretension. 
Spindle Tree .... Your charms are engraven 

on my heart 

Star of Bethlehem . . Purity. 

Starwort . . . . After-thought; 

Starwort, American . Cheerfulness m old age. 

Stephanotis . . . Will you accompany me to 

the East ? 

Stock Lasting beanty. 

Stock, Ten-Weeks . ■ Promptness. 

Stonecrop Tranquillity. 

Straw, broken . . • Rupture of a contract. 

Straw, whole .... Union. 

Strawberry blossoms . Foresight. 

Strawberry Tree . . Esteem, not love. 

Sultan, lilac .... I forgive you. 

Sultan, white . . . Sweetness. 

Sultan, yellow . . Contempt. 

Sumach, Venice . . Splendor. 

Sunflower, dwarf , . Adoration. 

Sunflower, tall . • . Haughtiness. 

Swallow-wort . . . 
Sweet Basil • . , . . 
Sweet-brier, American 
Sweet-brier, European 
Sweet-brier, yellow . 
Sweet Pea . , 
Sweet Sultan . . 
Sweet William . 
Sycamore . . • 
Syringa . . . 
Syringa, Carolina 

Tamarisk - . . 
Tansy, wild . . 
Teasel .... 
Tendrils of climbing 

T)lants . . . 
Thistle, common 
Thistle, Fuller's 
Thisde, Scotch . 
Thorn, apple, . 
Thorn, branch of 
Thrift . . . - 
Throatwort , . 
Thyme. . . . 
Tiger Flower . 

Traveller's Joy . 
Tree of Life . . 
Trefoil . . , . 
Tremella Ne.<;toc 
Trillium Pictum 
Triptilion Spinosnm 
Truffle .... 
Trumpet Flower 
Tuberose . . . 
Tulip, red . . . 
Tulip, variegated 
Tulip, yellow 
Turnip .... 
Tussilage (sweet- 
scented) . . . 

Valerian . . . 

Valerian, Cjreek . 
Venice, Sumach 

Venus's Car . . 
Venus's Looking-gl; 
Venus's Trap . 
Verbena, pink . 
Verbena, scarlet 

Verbena, white . 
Vernal C^rass 
Veronica . . . 
Veronica- Speciosa 
Vervain . . . 
Vine .... 
Violet, blue , . 
Violet, dame . . 
Violet, sweet . . 
Violetj yellow . 
Virginia Creeper 

Virgln]s Bower 
Viscaria Oculata 
Volkamenia . . 

Wallflower , . 
Walnut . . , 
Watcher by the Way- 
side ■ • . 
Water Lily . 
Watermelon . 
Wax Plant . 
Wheat Stalk . 
Whin . . , . 
White Jasmine 
White Lily . 
White Mullein 
White Oak . 
White Pink . 
White Poplar 

Cure for heartache. 

Good wishes. 


I wound to heal. 

Decrease of love. 

Delicate pleasures. 







I declare war against you. 






Deceitfiil charms. 



Neglected beauty. 

Activity or coura|;e. 

For once may pride befriend 

Old age. 
Modest beauty. 
Be prudent. 

Dangerous pleasures. 
Declaration of love. 
Beautiful eyes. 
Hopeless love. 

Justice shall be done you. 

An accommodating disposi- 


Intellectual excellence, splen- 

Fly with me. 



Family union. 

Unite against evil, or Church 

Pray for me. 

Poor, but happy. 


Keep this for my sake. 





Rural happiness. 

I ding to you both in sun- 
shine and shade. 

Filial love. 

Will you dance with me ? 

May you be happy I 

Fidelity in adversity. 
Intellect, stratagem. 

Never despair- 

Purity of heart. 

Bulkiness. _ 





Purity and modesty. 

Good nature. 






White Rose (dried) 

Whortleberry . . 

Willow, Creeping . 

Willow, French . . 

Willow Herb . . 

Willow, Water . . 

Willow, Weeping . 

Winter Cherry . . 
Wistaria .... 

Witch Hazel. . . 

Woodbine . . . 

Wood Sorrel . . . 

Wormwood . . . 

Xanthium . . . 
Xeranthemum . 

Death preferable to loss of 


Love forsaken. 

Bravery^ and humanity. 





Welcome, fair stranger 1 

A spell. 

Fraternal lore. 

Joy, maternal tenderness. 

Rudeness, pertinacity. 

Cheerfulness under adver- 


Yew. . . . 

Zephyr Flower . . . Expectation. 

Zinnia ... . Thoughts of absent friends. 

Flowery Land, The. This is the 
meaning of the words Hwa Kwoh, a 
name .often given to China by its peo- 
ple. They deem themselves the most 
cultured and civilized among the na- 

Ployd Valentine. (Pseud.) Floyd 
Vail, in the " Freeman's Journal," New 
York, 1884 et seq. 

P. L. S. Fellow of the Linnaean So- 

Flume. This word, though of good 
old Saxon origin, meaning originally a 
mill-race, has come .to signify, in West- 
ern mining terms, a stream of water, 
often conveyed in trough-like boxes for 
many miles from the source of supply 
to the scene of action. 

Flying Dutchman, (i) A spectral 
ship, seen in stormy weather off the 
Cape of Good Hope, and considered 
ominous of ill-luck. Sir Walter Scott 
says she was originally a vessel laden 
with precious metal; but a horrible 
murder having been committed on board, 
the plague broke out among the crew, 
and no port would allow the vessel to 
enter. The more popular form of the 
legend makes her cursed to beat forever 
against head-winds, because her captain 
impiously swore he would round the 
Cape in spite of God or devil. The 
ill-fated ship still wanders about like a 
ghost, doomed to be sea-tossed, and 
nevermore to enjoy rest. (2) A train 
which traverses the Great Western 
Railway from London to Bristol daily, 
a distance of 118X miles, in two hours 
thirty-six minutes. Allowing for stop- 
pages, the speed is forty-nine miles an 
hour. See infra. 

Flying High'wayman. A nickname 
of William Harrow, a notorious footpad 
or highway robber, executed at Hert- 

ford, England, March 28, 1763. For a 
long time he escaped pursuit, owing to 
his custom of compelling his horse to 
take flying leaps over the turnpike 

Flying Money. Bank-notes are so 
named by the Chinese. 

Flying Scotchman. The fast mail 
trains running daily between London 
and Edinburgh. The distance is over 
four hundred miles, and in 1888 the time 
was reduced to eight hours on both the 
eastern and western routes. These 
trains are the fastest in the world. See 

Flying Scotch Squadron {Sgua- 
drone Volante) is the name of a party 
of Scotch politicians formed about 1705, 
It was borrowed from the famous " Fly- 
ing Squadron " of independent cardinals 
during the previous generation at the 
PapaT Court. Lord Tweeddale was the 
leader of this " New Party," which, by 
keeping close together and joining first 
one side and then the other in the Union 
debates, had for some time a good deal 
of power. It had the fate of the Union 
question in its own hands, and its adhe- 
sion to the cause of the Government in 
1706 secured the triumph of that meas- 
ure. This reference to the " Union " 
means the union of England and Scot- 
land in one kingdom, bearing the name 
of Great Britain; that the succession 
to the crown of Scotland should be in 
all points the same as had been settled 
for England ; that the United Kingdom 
should be represented by one Parlia- 
,ment ; that thenceforward there should 
be community of rights and privileges 
between the two kingdoms, except 
where otherwise agreed upon by the 
Parliament ; that all standards of coin, 
weights, and measures in Scotland 
should be assimilated to those of Eng- 
land; that the laws of trade, customs, 
and excise should be the same in both 
countries ; that all other laws of Scot- 
land should remain unchanged, but with 
the provision that they might be altered 
in time to come at the discretion of the 
United Parliament. To these articles 
was added an Act of Security for the 
maintenance of the Scottish Church and 
the four universities. This act required 
each sovereign, on his or her accession, 
to take an oath to protect the Presbyte- 
rian Church as the established Church 
of Scotland. The whole judicial ma- 
chinery for the administration of the 



Scottish law system remained un- 
touched ; but henceforward there would 
be a possibility of appeal from the de- 
cisions of the Court of Sessions to the 
House of Lords. In the Parliament of 
Great Britain Scotland was to be repre- 
sented by forty-five members sent up by 
the Commons, and sixteen peers elected 
by their fellows as representatives of 
the peerage of Scotland. The articles 
of Union received the royal assent, and 
the first Parliament of Great Britain 
met Oct. 23, 1707. A standard on 
which was blended the flags of both 
nations, the crosses of St. Andrew and 
St. George, which had been first pro- 
jected by James VL under the name of 
the Union Jack, was adopted as the 
national flag of the United Kingdom. 
F.-M. Field-Marshal. 
P.-O. Field-Officer. 
P. O. B. These letters, which are 
often met with in quotations of prices 
of merchandise, mean " free on board ; " 
that is, the price includes carriage and 
all charges upon the goods until they 
are actually in the conveyance which is 
to carry them to their destination. 
P. o. b. Free on board. 
Pol. Folio. 
Polk. See People. 
Ponda. (Span.) A hotel. 
Pons et origo. (Lat.) "The foun- 
tain and source." The chief cause. 

Pontarabia. The ancient, now the 
poetical, form of the name of a town in 
Gascony, at present called Fuenterabia. 
Here Charlemagne defeated the Sara- 
cens, though with immense loss to 
himself. ' 

When Charlemagne with all his peerage fell 
By Fontarabia. 

Milton, Paradise Lost. 
Pool Bible. Shortly after the inven- 
tion of printing, the wife of a printer in 
Germany, while an edition of the Bible 
was in the press, on one occasion made 
a small but important change in the 
types. The sentence in Genesis in 
which it is declared that Eve shall be 
subject to her husband runs thus : " He 
shall be thy lord" {Herr). This was 
altered to "He shall be thy fool" 
(Narr). Many copies of the book got 
into circulation before the substitution 
of the one word for the .other was dis- 
covered; for in black letter Herr and 
Narr much resemble each other. It 
is said that the practical joke cost the 
unfortunate woman her life, she hav- 

' ing been condemned to the stake by the 
ecclesiastical authorities. 

Pool or Physician at Porty. Plu- 
tarch, in his "Treatise on the Preser- 
vation of Health," tells us that Tiberius 
said a man was either his own physi- 
cian or a fool by the time he was forty. 
Poot's Resolution. A resolution in- 
troduced in the Senate in December, 
1829, by S. A. Foot, of Connecticut, 
designed to limit the sale of Western 
lands. Its importance lies in the fact 
of its having been seized on by the 
Southern members as the text for an 
attack on the North and the " centrali- 
zation " theory. 

Pop's Alley. Many years ago there 
existed in Her Majesty's Opera House, 
London, a gangway or promenade down 
the centre of the pit and between the 
latter and the boxes. Here the beaux 
of the day were wont to stroll between 
the acts, exchanging criticisms on the 
music and the smgers, and ogUng the 
belles in the boxes. 
Por. Foreign. 

Porce Bill. A measure famous in 
American political annals. Its full title 
was " An Act to enforce the provisions 
of the Fourteenth Amendment to the 
Constitution of the United States, and 
for other purposes." It was introduced 
in the House by Mr. Shellabarger, of 
Ohio, from the select committee ap- 
pointed to consider the President's 
message calling attention to the neces- 
sity of such a measure, on March 28, 
1871. It was debated at length in the 
House, passed April 4, debated in the 
Senate April 1 1, and passed with amend- 
ments ; two conference committees con- 
sidered it, and with certain amendments 
it was signed by the President on April 
20, 1871. Mr. Blaine, we presume, was 
opposed to it as being unconstitutional 
and unnecessary. He was Speaker at 
the time, and did not take part in the de- 
bate. The Force Act gave to persons 
deprived by anybody of any constitu- 
stitutional right the power to sue their 
aggressors in the United States courts ; 
it punished conspiracies to deprive per- 
sons of any rights by fine and impris- 
onment, besides allowing the injured 
parties to sue for damages ; it gave the 
President power to use the army and 
the navy to put down such conspiracies 
and insurrections, and to suspend the 
writ of habeas corpus when he deemed 
it necessary, after proclamation ; it in- 



stituted an " iron-clad" oath to be taken 
by jurors in cases arising under the act, 
that they were in no way implicated in 
the aggressive acts; and it provided 
that persons who did not oppose con- 
spiracies of which they were aware 
should be liable in damages to persons 
injured by such conspiracies. There 
were other provisions of the same 

Ford of Flags. A translation of 
Balleek, the former name of the town 
of Ballina, Ireland, by which appella- 
tion it is often referred to. 

Forefathers' Day. This is the anni- 
versary of the landing of the Pilgrims 
at Plymouth Rock, which event took 
place on Dec. 1 1, 1620, according to the 
Old Style, or December 22, New Style, 
which of course is the date now observed. 
Throughout New England and in the 
chief cities of the Middle States the day 
is kept by various societies who seek to 
keep alive and commemorate the sturdy 
virtues of the Pilgrims, — the "Fore- 
fathers." In other places there are lit- 
erary and festive gatherings in honor of 
the great event and the principles it 
illustrated. On such occasions Mrs. 
Hemans's immortal lyric, " The Landing 
of the Pilgrim Fathers in New Eng- 
land," is recited or sung: — 

" The breaking waves dashed high 
On a stem and roclc-bound coast, 
And the woods against a stormy sky 
Their giant branches tossed ; 
" And the heavy night hung dark 
The hills and waters o'er, 
When a band of exiles moored their bark 
On the wild New England shore. 
" Not as the conqueror comes, 
They, the true-hearted, came ; 
Not with the roll of the stirring drums. 
And the trumpet that sings of fame ; 

" Not as the flying come. 
In silence and in fear ; — 
They shook the depths of the desert gloom 
With their hymns of lofty cheer. 
" Amidst the. storm they sang. 
And the stars heard, and the sea ; 
And the sounding aisles of the dim woods rang 
To the anthem of the free ! 
" The ocean eagle soared 
From his nest by the white wave's foam ; 
And the rocking pines of the forest roared : 
This was their welcome home ! 
" There were men with hoaiy hair 
Amidst that pilgrim band : 
Why had they come to wither there, 
Away from their childhood's land ? 
" There was woman's fearless eye. 
Lit by her deep love's truth ; 
There was manhood's brow serenely high. 
And the fiery heart of youth. 

" What sought they thus afar ? 
Bright jewels of the mine ? 
The w^th of seas, the spoils of war ? — 
They sought a faith's pure shrine I 
" Ay, call it holy ground. 
The soil where first they trod ; 
They have left unstained what there they 
found, — 
Freedom to worship God." 

Forest City. Three cities in the 
United States are known by this de- 
scriptive designation, owing to the pro- 
fusion of shade-trees that adorn their 
streets : Cleveland, Ohio, Portland, Me., 
and Savannah, Ga. 

Forks, Tbe Caudine. See Caudine 

Forlorn Hope. (Pseud.) Mrs. Ma- 
tilda A. Bailey, a contributor to the 
New Orleans " Times." 

Fornax. In classic myth the goddess 
of corn and the patroness of bakers. 

Forseti. In Scandinavian mythol- 
ogy a son of Baldur and god of justice. 

Forte. (Ital.) Loud. 

Fortes fortuna adjuvat. (Lat.) " For- 
tune assists the brave." Fortune favors 
brave men. 

Fortissimo. (Lat.) Very loud. 

Fortiter in re. (Lat.) Vigorous in 
action. See Suaviter in modo. 

Fortuna. In classic mjrth the goddess 
of chance, good luck, success, or pros- 
perity. She is depicted as being blind. 

Fortunae filiua. (Lat.) " The son of 
fortune." A favorite of fortune. 

Fortuna favet fatuis. (Lat.) For- 
tune favors fools. 

Fortunate City. Dowletabad, an in- 
land town and fortress of India. 

Fortunate Islands. The' Canaries. 
See Happy Islands. 

Fortune Bay Outrages. "In Jan- 
uary, 1878, the rights of our fishermen 
uncier the Treaty of Washington (1871) 
were infringed by the inhabitants of 
Fortune Bay, Newfoundland, who at- 
tacked several Gloucester vessels that 
were taking in cargoes of frozen herring, 
cut their nets and drove away the crews. 
A claim was made that local laws had 
been violated, but the British Govern- 
ment took a correct view of the matter by 
deciding that these could not stand in con- 
flict with the treaty. The claims of the 
injured fishermen amounted to $105,305 ; 
Great Britain paid ;^ 15,000 (nearly $73,- 
000), to be divided among them as com- 
pensation for the damages inflicted." 
— American Political Dictionary. 



Fortune des armes. (Fr.) Fortune 
of war. 
Forty Footsteps, Field of the. See 

Field of the Forty Footsteps. 

Forty Stripes save One. The Jews 
were forbidden by the Law of Moses to 
inflict more than forty stripes ; and lest 
they should exceed that number, they 
generally gave fewer. It is thought that 
they used a whip with three thongs, and 
therefore could not strike more than 
thirteen times without exceeding the 
lawful number. This phrase is applied 
by a section of the Anglican Church to 
the Thirty-nine Articles. 

Forza. (Ital.) Force; as, Conforza, 
with force. (Mus.) 

Forzando, or Forz, or Fz. (Ital.) 
Implies that the note is to be marked 
with force and emphasis. (Mus.) 

Fosse, The. One of the four great 
Roman thoroughfares that traversed 
England. A fosse or ditch ran along 
each side of it. See Erminage Street, 
Ikenild Street, Watling Street. 

The fourth is most of all that tills from Tote- 

From the ene end of Cornwall anon to Cate- 

nays — 
From the south to north-east into Englonde's 

Fosse men callith thisk voix. 

Robert of Gloucester. 

Foul-weather Jack, (i) A nick- 
name given to Commodore John Byron 
by the crews who sailed with him, be- 
cause of the uniformly bad weather that 
attended his cruises. (2) Admiral. Sir 
John Norris, who died 1746. 

Founder of Christian Eloquence. 
Louis Bourdaloue, the French preacher 

Founder of Rome. (l ) Romulus, the 
legendary founder, B. c. 752. (2) Ca- 
millus, because he saved the city from 
the Gauls, b. c. 365. (3) Caius Marius, 
who saved the city from the Teutones 
and Cimbri, b. c. ioi. 

Founder of the Fathers of Christian 
Doctrine. Cassar de Bus (1544-1607). 

Foundling of Nuremberg. See Cas- 
par Hauser. 

Fountain of Life. A complimentary 
title conferred on Alexander Hales, a 
thirteenth-century English friar. See 
Irrefragable Doctor. 

Four-eyed George. A by-name 
conferred on General Meade by his sol- 
diery, and containing a jocular allusion 
to the fact that he wore spectacles. 

Four Forest Cantons, The. A 

name sometimes given to the four 
Swiss cantons, Uri, Schwytz, Unter- 
walden, and Lucerne, probably from 
the extensive forests with which they 
were once covered. See Lake of the 
Four Forest Cantons. 

Four Hundred. The "upper ten" of 
New York society. During the prepa- 
rations for the centennial celebrations of 
1889 a Mr. McAllister said there were 
only about four hundred people actually 
in " society " in New York. See Upper 
Ten Thousand. 

Four Masters. A name conferred 
on Michael, Conary, O'Clery, and 
O'Mulconry, four Celts who flourished 
in the first half of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and who compiled from original 
documents the Annals of Ireland from 
2242 B. c. to 1 61 6 A. D. 

Fourth Estate of the Realm. There 
is reason for believing that Carlyle 
originated this phrase. In " Hero Wor- 
ship," Lecture V., he says, " Burke said 
there were three estates in Parliament, 
but in the Reporters' Gallery yonder 
there sat a fourth estate, more impor- 
tant far than they all." 

Fourth of July. See Independence 

Fourth Party. A small knot or 
clique of Conservatives in the English 
House of Commons, headed by Lord 
Randolph Churchill, who made them- 
selves specially obnoxious to Mr. Glad- 
stone, 1 883-1 884. 

F. P. S. Fellow of the Philological 

Fr. Franc ; France ; French ; Fran- 
cis ; from ; fragment (Jragmentuni). 

Fra Angelico of Ecuador. Peter 
Bedon, a South American clergyman 
who died in 1 561. In early life he cul- 
tivated painting, and several of his 
works adorn the altars of churches in 
Santa F^ and Quito. 

Fracas. Bustle; a slight quarrel; 
more ado about a thing than it is worth. 

Fra Diavolo. Michael Pozza, a 
famous insurgent of Calabria (fl. 1760- 
1806). His story forms the libretto of 
Auber's opera of the name. 

France, Garden of. See Garden 
OF France. 

France, Iron Gate of. See Iron 
Gate of France. 

Frances Bishop. The stage-name 
of Mrs. John T. McKeever, Jr. 



Francesco Abati. (Pseud.) Wil- 
liam Winwood Reade. 

Francis Fitznoodle. (Pseud.) B. B. 
Valentine, in " Puck," New York. 

Francis Forrester, XSsq. (Pseud.) 
Daniel Wise, D. D., American littira- 
teur and divine (b. 1813). 

Francis Oldys. (Pseud.) George 
Chalmers, Scottish writer and lawyer 

Francis Fhiz. (Pseud.) Edward 
Smedley, English divine and miscellar 
neous writer (1814-1864). 

Francis Troloppe. The literary sig- 
nature of Paul Henri Fdval, a famous 
French novelist (1817-1887), under 
which he published his " Mysteries 
of London." 

Franck Careless, (Pseud.) Richard 
Head, Irish dramatist (d. 1678). 

Frank Cooper. (Pseud.) William 
Gilmore Simms, American novelist and 
poet (1806-1870). 

Frank Dashmore. (Pseud.) Fanny 
Murdaugh Downing, American poet 
(b. about 1835). Her novels include 
"Nameless," "Perfect through Suffer- 
ing,"" and " Florida." She has written 
over the above pseudomyn, and also 
over that of " Viola." 

Frank Douglas. (Pseud.) F. E. 

Frank Fairleigli. (Pseud.) Edward 
Smedley, English divine and miscella- 
neous writer (1814-1864). 

Frank Falconer. (Pseud.) E. N. 
Carvalho, in " Turf, Field, and Farm." 

Frank Forester. (Pseud.) Henry 
William Herbert, English novelist and 
humorist (1807-1858). 

Frank Lin. (Pseud.) Mrs. Ger- 
trude Atherton, author of " Hermia Suy- 
dam," " What Dreams may Come," etc. 
She is a Californian author and news- 
paper correspondent. 

Frank Mayo. The stage-name of 
Francis Maguire. 

Frankenstein. The central char- 
acter of Mary WoUstonecraft's tale, in 
which a young student makes a soulless 
monster out of fragments of men picked 
up from churchyards and dissecting- 
rooms, and endues it with life by gal- 
vanism. The creature longs for sym- 
pathy, but is shunned by every one. 
It is a parody on the creature man, 
powerful for evil, and the instrument 
of dreadful retribution on the student 

who usurped the prerogative of the 

Frankie Eemble. The stage-name 
of the second Mrs. (Isabella) Clay- 

Franklin. The English freeholder 
in the Middle Ages. " Franklin " means 
" freeman." 

Franklin of Poland. Thaddeus 
Czacki (fl. 1765-1813). 

Franklin, State of. See State op 

P. R. A. S. Fellow of the Royal 
Astronomical Society. 

F. R. C. P. Fellow of the Royal Col- 
lege of Physicians. 

P. R. C. P. E. Fellow of the Royal 
College of Physicians, Edinburgh. 

P. R. C. S. E. Fellow of the Royal 
College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, 

F. R. C. S. I. Fellow of the Royal 
College of Surgeons, Ireland. 

P. R. C. S. L. Fellow of the Royal 
College of Surgeons, London. 

Pr. E. French ells. 

Fred. Frederic. 

Frederick Paulding. The stage- 
name of Frederick Dodge. 

Freeborn John. A sobriquet given 
to John Lilburne (fl. 1613-1657), a noted 
Englishman who made a memorable 
defence of his republican principles 
and of his rights as a free-born English- 
man before the Star-chamber. 

Freedmen. The negroes were so 
named subsequently to the Proclama- 
tion of Emancipation, Jan. i, 1863. 

Free Lance. (Pseud.) J. T. Denny, 
in various English publications. 

Free Lances. Another name for the 
Fourth Party {q. z/.). in the English 
House of Commons. 

Freeman, Mrs. A name assumed 
by the Duchess of Marlborough in her 
correspondence with Queen Anne. See 
MoRLEY, Mrs. 

Free-soil Party, or Free-soilera, 
were organized at Buffalo, N. Y., in 
1848, and comprised the Liberty party, 
the Barnburners (anti-slavery Demo- 
crats of New York), and anti-slavery 
Whigs. Their first candidate was Mar- 
tin Van Buren, but he received no elec- 
toral votes. In 1852 it nominated John 
P. Hale, who met with no better sue 
cess ; and in 1856 it became part of the 
Republican party. 



Tree State of Patrick. Patrick 
County, Va., situated in a secluded cor- 
ner of the State, and noteworthy be- 
cause of the slight communication main- 
tained between its people and the rest 
of the inhabitants of the Common- 

Freestone State, The. Connecticut ; 
so named in allusion to the extensive 
quarries of freestone found within its 

Free Trade. The principles em- 
bodied in this phrase triumphed in 
England when the Com Laws were abol- 
ished in 1846, and the commercial 
treaty with France was adopted in i860. 
Richard Cobden, who was very instru- 
mental in passing these measures, 
named the "Apostle of Free Trade," 
died April 2, 1865. A new free-trade 
league was inaugurated in London in 
December, 1873 ; and one at Mel- 
bourne, Australia, September, 1876. 
Free trade was warmly advocated in 
New South Wales and New Zealand, 
but opposed in Canada and Victoria, 
1877-1880. It was an " issue " in the 
Presidential campaign of 1888 in the 
United States. 

Freights Goods. Articles shipped 
by railway are called " freight " in 
America and " goods " in England. 
Thus we have the American " freight- 
train " and the English " goods-train " 
or " luggage-train." The English never 
speak of matter sent by ship as 
" freight," but use the term " cargo '' or 

Freight-cars = Trucks. See Rail- 

French Anacreon. Pierre Lanjou 
(1727-1811), a famous poet, president 
of the Caveau Moderne, a club of bons- 
vivants. The knack of rhyming was 
an indispensable requisite to member- 

French and Indian War. In Amer- 
ica, that during which Canada was con- 
quered by the British (1759-1760), and 
in which the French and Indians were 
allied against the English. 

French Aristophanes. Jean Bap- 
tiste Poquelin de Molifere (fl. 1622- 
1673) was so named. 

French DevU. An epithet conferred 
on Jean Bart, the intrepid French sailor, 
(fl. 1 650-1 702). 

French Ennius. Guillaume di Lo- 
vris (fl. 1235-1265). 

French Fabius. The Due de Mont- 
morency (fl. 1493-1567). See Ameri- 
can Fabius. 

French Fnry. The descriptive name 
given to the attempt of the Due d'An- 
jou to capture Antwerp by storm, 
Jan. 17, 1503. The entire attacking 
party were either killed or captured 
in less than an hour. 

French Leave. This proverbial ex- 
pression appears to have arisen from 
the ancient custom of French armies 
on their marches taking whatever they 
wished for or required without pay- 
ment or any other consideration. 

French Phidias, (i) Jean Goujon 
(fl. 1510-1572). (2j Jean Baptiste Pi- 
galle (fl. 1 714-1785). 

French Politician. (Pseud.) Ed- 
mond Scherer, editor of the Paris 
" Temps," a French senator, and Paris 
correspondent of the London " Daily 
News," 1877-1878. 

French Titian. Jacques Blanchard, 
the painter (fl. 1 600-1 638). 

Fr^res d'armes. (Fr.) Brothers in 

Fresco. (Ital.) Quick and lively. 

Frey. In Scandinavian mythology 
the god of the sun and rain, and hence 
of fertility and peace. 

Freyja. In Scandinavian mythology 
wife of Odur, and the goddess of love, 
pleasure, beauty, and fecundity. Her 
husband abandoned her on her loss of 
youth and beauty, and was changed by 
Odin into a statue as a punishment. 

F. R. G. S. Fellow of the Royal 
Geographical Society. 

F. R. Hist. See. Fellow of the Royal 
Historical Society. 

Fri. Friday. 

Friar, The. (Pseud.) Phanuel Bacon, 
D.D., an English poet, author of the 
" Snipe." 

Friar's Heel. The " Friar's Heel " 
is the name given to the outstanding 
upright stone at Stonehenge. It is re- 
lated that Godfrey of Monmouth says 
the devil bought the stones of an old 
woman in Ireland, wrapped them up in 
a withe, and took them to Salisbury 
Plain. Just before he got to Mount 
Ambre the withe broke, and one of the 
stones fell into the Avon, the rest hav- 
ing been carried to the plain. After the 
fiend had fixed them in the ground 
he cried out : " No man will ever find 



out how these stones came here." A 
friar replied, " That 's more than thee 
canst tell ; " whereupon the foul fiend 
threw one of the stones at him and 
struck him on the heel. The stone 
stuck in the ground, and remains so to 
the present hour. 

Friday, Black. See Black Friday. 

Friend of Man. The Marquis de 
Mirabeau (fl. 1715-1789), father of the 
great Mirabeau ; so named from one of 
nis works, " L'ami des hommes." See 
Shakspeare of Eloquence. 

Friends of the People. An associa- 
tion formed in London, 1792, to obtain 
Parliamentary reform. 

Friends of Virtue. A Revolutionary- 
society founded by Saint Amand Ha- 
zard, a French socialist (1791-1832). 

Frigga. In Scandinavian mythology 
wife of Odin, and queen of the gods, 
mother of Baldur, Thor, etc. She 
typified the earth, as Odin did the 

Frithiof ("peacemaker"). In the 
Icelandic myths he married Ingeborg, 
daughter of a king of Norway, to whose 
dominions he succeeded. His adven- 
tures are recorded in the Saga which 
bears his name, and which was written 
at the close of the thirteenth century. 

Frogs = Points. The pointed iron 
plates placed where two lines of rail- 
road part are called " points " in Eng- 
land ; in the United States they are 
called "frogs," resembling the marks 
on a horse's hoof. 5V^ Switchman. 

From the Sublime to the Ridicu- 
lous. The great Napoleon is generally 
credited with having originated this 
mot. It occurs, however, in Paine's 
" Age of Reason." The passage is as 
follows : " The sublime and the ridicu- 
lous are often so nearly related, that it 
is difficult to class them separately. 
One step above the sublime makes the 
ridiculous, and one step above the ridicu- 
lous makes the sublime again." 

Fronde, The. The popular party in 
France, made up of the Parliament and 
the citizens, who were opposed to the 
court and the nobility, during the gov- 
ernment of Queen Anne and Cardinal 
Mazarin at the period of the minority 
of Louis XVI. They were originally 
called " Frondeurs," " slingers," from 
a stone-throwing incident in a street 
fight. The civfl wars of the Fronde 
lasted from 1648 to 1653. 

Fronti nulla fides. (Lat.) There is 
no trusting to appearances. 

Frozen Music. Schelling was the 
author of the phrase "Architecture is 
frozen music." 

F. R. S. Fellow of the Royal So- 

Frs. Francs; Frisian. 

F. R. S. E. Fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety, Edinburgh. 

F. R. S. L. Fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety, London ; Fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety of Literature. 

F. R. S. S. A. Fellow of the Royal 
Scottish Society of Arts. 

Fruges consumere nati. (Lat.) Born 
merely to consume the fruits of the 

Frump. The modern dictionaries 
define this as a cross-tempered, old- 
fashioned woman. This is just the re- 
verse of its original signification, which, 
according to Bailey, was "plump, fat, 

Frying-pan of Andalusia. The town 
of Ecija, in Spain. The reference is to 
its torrid climate. 

F's, The Three. See Three F's. 

F. S. A. Fellow of the Society of 
Arts, or of Antiquaries. 

F. S. A. E. Fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries, Edinburgh. 

F. S. A. Scot. Fellow of the Soci- 
ety of Antiquaries of Scotland. 

F. S. S. Fellow of the Statistical 

Ft. Foot ; feet ; fort. 

F. T. C. D. Fellow of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin. 

Fth. Fathom. 

Fudge Family, The. (Pseud.) 
Thomas Moore, Irish poet (i 779-1852). 

Fugam fecit. (Lat.) He has taken to 

Fugitive Slave lavr. An act passed 
by the United States Congress in 1850. 
It imposed a fine of $1,000 and six 
months' imprisonment on any person 
harboring slaves or aiding in their es- 
cape. It was declared unconstitutional 
by the Supreme Court, Feb. 3, 1855, and 
was repealed June 13, 1864; it was never 
fully carried into affect, Massachusetts 
refusing to recognize it. 

Fuitnium. (Lat.) " Troy has been." 
The object or source of strife has no 
longer an existence. 



Fulmen brutum. (Lat.) A harm- 
less thunderbolt; a blow that strikes 

Functus ofQcio. (Lat.) Out of 

Funny Man of the " TimeB." Wil- 
liam L. Alden (b. 1837), whose humor- 
ous editorials in the "sixth column of 
the New York 'Times'" gave him a 
national reputation. 

Fuooo, or Con fuoco. (Ital.) With 
fire and intense animation. (Mus.) 

Fur. Furlong. 

Furies. In classic myth Alecto, Me- 
gaera, and Tisiphone, the three god- 
desses of vengeance. They were armed 
- with smoking torches, snakes wreathed 
themselves about their heads, and their 
toute ensemble was hideous and appall- 

Furioso, or Con furia. (Ital.) With 
fire. (Mus.) 

Furor arma ministrat. (Lat.) Fury 
supplies with weapons. 

Furore. (Ital.) "Fury." Excitement. 

Furor loquendl. (Lat.) A rage for 

Furor poeticus. (Lat.) The poetic 

Furor scribendi. (Lat.) A rage 
for writing. 

Fursch-Madi, Mme. Th e stage-name 
of Madame Emy Verle. 

Fury of Antwerp. See Spanish 

Future Great City of the World. 
The people of St. Louis, Mo., used fre- 
quently to refer to their city by this 
name ; it came to be humorously short- 
ened to " Future Great." 

Fuzzy Guzzy. (Pseud.) William 
Henry Burleigh. 

F. Z. S. Fellow of the Zoological 


G. Glucinum. 

G., or g. Guineas. 

Ga. Georgia. 

G. A. General Assembly. 

Gage d'amour. (Fr.) "A pledge 
or token of love." A keepsake. 

Gagging Bill. A measure enacted in 
England Dec. 8, 1795, and aiming to 
protect the king and the government 
from the addresses of seditious persons 
or meetings. Again, in December, 1 8 1 9, 
soon after the Manchester affray {see 
Field of Peterloo), an act was passed 
to restrain tumultuous public meetings 
and cheap periodicals ; it was popularly 
called " the Gagging BiU." 

Gaiet^ du coeur. (Fr.) " Gayety of 
heart." Animal spirits. 

Gail Forrest. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Charles Barton. 

Gail Hamilton. (Pseud.) Miss 
Mary Abigail Dodge, American littdra- 
teur (b. 1830). 

Gal. Galatians; gallon. 

Galantuomo. (Ital.) An honest man. 

Gallant King. Victor Emmanuel of 
Italy was so named (fi. 1820-1878). 

Gallic Bird. The game-cock, or the 
barnyard rooster, from a fancied resem- 
blance of its boastful, strutting, over- 

bearing manners to corresponding traits 
in the French nation. 

Gallic^. (Lat.) In French. 

Galloping Dick. Richard Ferguson, 
a notorious English highwayman, exe- 
cuted April 4, 1800; so named because 
of his reckless riding when pursued. 

Galloping Head, Sir F. B. Head, 
the British traveller and author (1793- 
1875), on account of the breezy manner 
in which he penned his " Rough Notes " 
of South American experiences. 

Gallows, The Walking. See Walk- 
ing Gallows. 

Gallura's Bird. The cock, which was 
the cognizance of Gallura. 

For her so fair a burial will not make 

The viper . . . 

As had been made by shrill Gallura's bird. 

Dante, Purgatory. 

Galv. Galvanism; Galveston. 

Galway Jury. An enlightened or in- 
dependent jury. The allusion is to cer- 
tain state-trials held in Ireland in 1635 to 
decide the right of the English crown to 
Mayo, Sligo, Leitrim, Roscommon, etc. 
These four decided in favor of the king, 
but Galway voted the other way ; in con- 
sequence, the sheriff was fined ;£l,ooo, 
and each of the jurors ;^4,ooo. 




Gamaliel Smith. (Pseud.) Jeremy 
Bentham, English jurist (1748-1832). 

Game-cock Brigade. The brigade 
commanded by George Edward Pickett 
(1825-1875), the Southern general, in 
the civil war. 

Gamma. (Pseud.) Dr. John D. Os- 
borne, in the New Orleans " Picayune." 

Gamps and Harrises. A sobriquet 
for poorhouse nurses. The allusion is 
to the characters of the name in Dick- 
ens's " Martin Chuzzlewit." 

Gander-Cleugh (» folly hill or cliff"). 
A species of No-Man's-Land where any 
one who makes a goose of himself takes 
up his abode. The pseudon)rmous 
Jedediah Cleishbotham of Scott's novels 
resided there. 

Gar. (Pseud.) J. Garczynski, in the 
New York " Times." 

Gargon de bureau. (Fr.) An office- 

Gargon d'esprit. (Fr.) A clever 

Garde bL vous. (Fr.) The military 
order of " Attention ! " 

Garde-chasse. (Fr.) A gamekeeper. 

Garde du corps. (Fr.) A body- 

Garde mobile. (Fr.) A force liable 
for general service. 

Garden City. Chicago, 111., owing to 
the fertile stretch of country in which it 
is situated. 

Gardener. Adam is named "the 
Grand Old Gardener " by Tennyson. 

Garden of Eden. A name often ap- 
plied to Eden Park, Cincinnati, O. 

Garden of England. The Isle of 
Wight, and the counties of Worcester- 
shire and Kent have all been so named. 

Garden of Europe. Italy; an appel- 
lation well deserved on account of its 
healthful climate, picturesque scenery, 
astonishing fertility, and the great vari- 
ety of its agricultural products. 

Garden of France. The Depart- 
ment of Indre-et-Loire, a district noted 
for its rich soil and lovely landscapes. 

Garden of Italy. The Island of 
Sicily, which bears the same relation to 
Italy, in respect of beauty and fertility, 
that Italy bears to the rest of Europe. 
See Garden of Europe. 

Garden of Kentucky. Bourbon 
County, in that State. 

Garden of Scotland. Morayshire 
has been so named. 

Garden of Spain. Andalusia. It is 
fertile to the highest degree. 

Garden of the Hesperides. See 

Garden of the 'West. A name some- 
times applied to the whole of that vast 
arable district west of the Mississippi, 
on account of its generous yield of grain, 
but more particularly applied to Kansas. 
See infra. 

Garden of the World. An appella- 
tion often bestowed on that vast expanse 
of country watered by the Mississippi 
and its tributaries, — a region whose soil 
is of unsurpassed productiveness. 

Garden Sass. See Sass. 

Garden Sect. The disciples of Epi- 
curus. He discoursed to tiiem in his 
own garden. 

Gardez bien. (Fr.) Take good care. 

Gardez la foi. (Fr.) Keep the faith. 

Garrisonians. A name applied to 
those Abolitionists who adhered to Wil- 
liam Lloyd Garrison. 

Gasconnade. (Fr.) Boasting like 
that of the Gascons; bragging. 

Gashed, The. Henry, Duke of Guise 
(fl. 1 550- 1 588). In the battle of Dor- 
mans he received a frightful sword-cut 
which marked his face for life. 

Gate City, The. (i) Keokuk, Iowa, 
situated at the foot of the lower rapids 
on the Mississippi. (2) Atlanta, Ga., a 
great railroad centre, so named by Jef- 
ferson Davis during the civil war; it 
being, in his estimation, the most im- 
portant inland position, from a military 
point of view, in the South. 

Gate of Asia. Kazan, a fortified city 
of Russia, has been so named. It is the 
entrepdt of commerce between Siberia, 
Bokhara, and Russia. 

Gate of Italy. The gorge in the val- 
ley of the Adige, near the city of Trent. 

Gate of Tears. The Straits of Bab- 
el- Mandeb are often referred to by this 
appellation ; the term is an exact trans- 
lation of the words Bab-el-Mandth, 
which have reference to the many ship- 
wrecks that anciently occurred there- 

Like some ill-destined bark that steers 
In silence through the Gate of Tears. 

Moore, The Pire-Worshifptrs 

Gate of the Talisman. A famous 
portal in the city of Bagdad. 

Gates of the Reformation. The his- 
torical doors of the church at Witten- 



berg upon which Luther nailed his 
ninety-five theses in 151 7. They were 
known by this name throughout Ger- 
many. See Cradle of the Reforma- 

Gateway of KansaB. Kansas City, 
Mo., is so named. It is situated on the 
boundary between Kansas and Missouri, 
on the Kansas River, and is the point 
of transfer and departure for all business 
with Kansas, and the entrepSt for much 
of its trade. 

Gatb, in Dryden's satire of " Absalom 
and Achitophel," stands for Brussels, 
where Charles IL took refuge when in 

Gath. (Pseud.) George Alfred Town- 
send, American journalist. 

Gath Brittle. (Pseud.) Robert W. 

Gauche. (Fr.) " Left." As opposed 
to " right ; " clumsy ; awkward. 

Gaucherie. (Fr.) Awkwardness ; 

Gaudeamus igitur. (Lat.) So let 
us be jojrful. 

Gauntlet. "To run the gauntlet." 
The word " gauntlet " in this phrase is 
improperly used. The word should be 
" gauntelope." Phillips, in his "World 
of Words," tells us that "to run the 
gauntelope " is a punishment among sol- 
diers; the offender having to run, with 
his back naked, through the whole regi- 
ment, and to receive a lash from a switch 
from every soldier. It is derived from 
Gant (Ghent), a town of Flanders, where 
the punishment was invented, and the 
Dutch word lope, running. 

Mr. Ingram, one of the survivors of the wreck 
of the " Royal George," who died a few years 
ago at Woodford in Gloucestershire, used to say 
that he had seen sailors run the gauntelope on 
board the king's ships, and that to prevent the 
runner from going too fast, the ship's corporal 
walked before him with his drawn cutlass under 
his arm, with the point backwards, and that he 
had seen a man get a scratch from the cutlass in 
trying to escape from the switches. 

Gautier et Garguille. The French 
equivalent for " All the world and his 

Gay Lothario. A gay libertine; a 
seducer of female modesty; a debauchee. 

G. B. Great Britain. 

G. B. & I. Great Britain and Ireland. 

Grand Chapter; Grand Con- 
Grand Cross of the Bath. 

G. C 

G. C. B. 
G. C. H. Grand Cross of Hanover. 

G. C. K. P. Grand Commander of 
the Knights of Saint Patrick. 

G. C. L. H. Grand Cross of the 
Legion of Honor. 

G. C. M. G. Grand Cross of Saint 
Michael and Saint George. 

G. C. S. I. Grand Commander of 
the Star of India. 

G. D. Grand Duke ; Grand Duchess. 

G. E. Grand Encampment. 

Gefion. In Scandinavian mythology 
the goddess of virginity, to whom all 
maidens repair after death. 

Gem Alphabet. 

Transparent, Opaque. 

Amethyst Agate 

Beryl Basalt 

Ohrysoberyl Oacholong 

Diamond Siaspore 

Emerald Egyptian pebble 

Felspar Pire-stone 

Gtemet Granite 

Hyacinth Heliotrope 

Idocrase Jasper 

Eyanite Erokidolite 

Lynx-sapphire Lapis-lazuli 

Milk-opal Malachite 

Ifatrolite Nephrite 

Opal Onyx 

Pyrope Porphyry 

Quartz Quartz-agate 

Ruby Eose-quartz 

Sapphire Sardonyx 

Topaz Turquoise 

Unanite TJltramarine 

Vesuvianite Verd-antique 

"Water-sapphire "Wood-opal 

Xanthite Xylotile 

Zircon Zurlite 

Gem City, (i) Dayton, Ohio, is so 
named. (2) Quincy, 111. (3) St. Paul, 

Gemini ("the Twins"). The fourth 
constellation and the third sign in the 
order of the zodiac, between Cancer on 
the east and Taurus on the west, and 
south of the Lynx, the orbit of the earth 
passing through the centre of the con- 
stellation, which contains eighty-five 
stars; one of these. Castor, is of the 
first magnitude, and Pollux of the 
second, both appearing in the head of 
the Twins, not far apart. 

Gem of Normandy. Emma, daugh- 
ter of Richard I., Duke of Normandy, 
and married to Ethelred 1 1., King of 
England. She died 1052. 

Gem of the Desert, The. The town 
of Graaf-Reynet, in Cape Colony, Africa. 
It is most picturesquely situated in a 
hilly and wooded countiy. 

Gem of the Mountains. The Terri- 
tory of Idaho is so termed by her people. 



Gen. Genesis; General; genus; gen- 
era; genealogy. 

General Observer. (Pseud.) Nathan 
Fiske, S. T. D., in the " Massachusetts 

General Undertaker. A nickname 
given by the Parisian populace to Napo- 
leon I. because of the vast improvements 
he planned for the capital but did not 
always carry to completion. 

Genesee. (Pseud.) Prof. J. H. Gil- 
more, in the New York " Examiner." 

Geneva Bible. A translation of the 
Scriptures printed in 1560. It was the 
work of English Protestant refugees 
domiciled in Geneva, whence its name. 
It is also known as the Breeches Bible 
{q. v.). A second edition, because of a 
curious misprint, became known also as 
the Place-maker's Bible (g. v.). 

Geneva Bull. A nickname for Ste- 
phen Marshall, a Calvinistic preacher, 
who fairly bellowed in the pulpit. 

Genevese Traveller. (Pseud.) Mat- 
thew L. Davis (1 766-1850), an Amer- 
ican author and correspondent in the 
London " Times." He was the " Spy in 
Washington " of the New York " Cou- 
rier " and " Enquirer." 

Genevieve Rogers. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Frank E. Aiken. 

Gendarme. (Fr.) An armed police- 

Gendarmerie. (Fr.) The armed 
police force. 

Genii. In classic myth protecting 
spirits, similar to the guardian angels of 
the Christians. 

Genius loci. (Lat.) " The genius of 
the place." The tutelary deity of a 

Gens-d'armes. Armed policemen ; 
in France, a military police. 

Gens de condition. (Fr.) Persons 
of rank. 

Gens de guerre. (Fr.) "Men of 
war." Military men. 

Gens de lettres. (Fr.) "Men of 
letters." Literary people. 

Gens de peu. (Fr.) The lower 

Gens du monde. (Fr). "People of 
the world." Persons employed in ac- 
tive life. 

Gent. Gentleman. 

Gentil Bernard, Le. Pierre Joseph 
Bernard, the French poet (1710-1 775). 

Gentilhomme. (Fr.) A gentleman. 

Gentle, The. In the palmy days of 
the Italian republics Florence was so 
named. "In the mouth of an Italian 
this adjective includes all the amenities 
and agreeableness resulting from a high 
state of civilization." See Beautiful, 

Gentle Art. Angling has been so 

Gentle Craft. The trade of shoemak- 
ing. According to Brady, this designa- 
tion arose from the fact that in an old 
romance a prince named Crispin is made 
to exercise, in honor of his namesake. 
Saint Crispin, the trade of making shoes. 
There is also a tradition that King Ed- 
ward IV. once made merry with a party 
of cobblers ; and the story is alluded to 
in an old play, "George- A -Greene," 

1599: — 

" Marry, because you have drank with the king, 
And the king hath so graciously pledged you, 
You shall no more be called shoemakers ; 
But you and yours, to the world's end, 
Shall be called the trade of the gentle craft." 

Gentle Lochiel. See Lochiel. 

Gentleman George, (i) A nickname 
bestowed some twenty years ago on 
Senator Pendleton, the Ohio statesman, 
because of his courtly manners. (2) 
George Hooker Barrett, comedian 
(1794-1860), was so named on account 
of his elegance and stateliness. 

Gentleman of the Four Oats. The 
nickname for a man with-o»/ wit, with- 
oui manners, ■with-oui money, and with- 
out credit. 

Gentle Shepherd. George Grenville, 
the statesman ; a nickname derived from 
a line applied to him by Pitt, afterward 
Earl of Chatham. Grenville, in the 
course of one of his speeches, addressed 
the House interrogatively, "Tell me 
where ? tell me where ? " Pitt hummed 
a line of a song then very popular, 
" Gentle shepherd, tell me where ? " and 
the House burst into laughter. 

Gent. Mag. Gentlemen's Magazine. 

Genus homo. (Lat.) The human 

Genus irritabile vatum. (Lat.) Irri- 
table tribe of poets. 

Geo. George. 

GreoBrey Crayon. (Pseud.) Wash- 
ington Irving, American author (1783- 

Geog. Geography. 

Geol. Geology. 

Geom. Geometry. 



George Alexander. The stage-name 
of George A. Sampson. 

George Eliot (Pseud.) Mrs. Ma- 
rian (Evans) Lewes Cross, English nov- 
elist (i 820-1 880). 

George Fltzdoodle. (Pseud.) Wil- 
liam Makepeace Thackeray, English 
novelist and humorist (1811-1863). 

George Fleming. The pen-name of 
Julia Fletcher, an American writer, and 
author of " Kismet," " Mirage," and 
" Vestigia." 

George P. Moore. The professional 
name of George Fox. 

George Garrulous. (Pseud.) George 
Arnold, writer of comic poetry. 

George Howard, Esq. (Pseud.) 
Francis C. Laird, R. N., English histor- 
ical writer (b. 1794). 

George Sand. (Pseud.) Madame 
Amantine Lucille Aurore Dudevant, 
French novelist (i 804-1 876). 

George S. Knight. The stage-name 
of George Sloan. 

George VTashington. A nickname 
conferred on Gen. George H. Thomas 
(1816-1870) by his associates at West 
Point, from a fancied resemblance 
in appearance and character to the great 

George Wilson. The stage-name of 
Walter McNally. 

Georges' Conspiracy. A plot in 
France to assassinate Bonaparte and 
restore Louis XVIII., discovered Feb- 
ruary, 1804. The prime movers were 
General Moreau, General Pichegru, and 
Georges Cadoudal (who was commonly 
known by the name of Georges). Piche- 
gru was discovered strangled in prison, 
April 6, 1804; twelve others were exe- 
cuted on June 25 ; others were impris- 
oned, and Moreau was exiled and went 
to America. 

Georges Letorifere. (Pseud.) Vi- 
comtesse de Pe3Tonney, French novelist 
(b. 1841). 

Georgia. The name of this State 
was given in honor of George II. of 

Georgia Drew. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Maurice Barrjmiore. 

Georgie Woodthorpe. The stage- 
name of Mrs. Fred Cooper. 

Georgius Dounamus. (Pseud.) 
George Downame, D.D., English theo- 
logian (d. 1634). 
Ger. German; Germany. 

Gerald Eyre. The stage-name of 
Gerald Ryan. 

Gerald Maxwell. The stage-name 
of Gerald Braddon, son of " Miss " 
Braddon, the novelist. 

Gerald Montgomery. (Pseud.) Rev. 
John Moultrie, English poet (b. 1804). 

Geraldine Stewart. The stage- 
name of Mrs. Shiel Barry. 

German Barber. (Pseud.) Julian 
E. Ralph, in the New York " Sun," and 
other papers. 

German Comb. A colloquialism 
meaning the four fingers and the thumb. 
The periwig never found much favor in 
Germany; and while the French con- 
stantly had a comb in hand to adjust 
their wigs, the Germans wore their own 
hair, and were content to smooth it by 
running their fingers through it. 

German Florence, The. The city 
of Dresden, so named for its wealth in 
works of art and scientific treasures. 

German Jerusalem. The town of 
Brody, in Galicia, Austria, is so named 
because its trade is well-nigh entirely 
in the hands of Jews. 

German Milton. Friedrich Gottlieb 
Klopstock (1724-1803). He was the 
author of an epic poem entitled "The 

German Peabody. Baron John 
Henry Schroder (i 784-1883) was so 
named on account of his great benevo- 
lence. He was a well-known banker 
and financier. 

German Princess. See Kentish 

Germinal Insurrection. A popular 
uprising in the Parisian faubourgs in 
1795, suppressed, according to the Revo- 
lutionary calendar, on 12th Germinal, 
year III. (April I, 179s). 

Gerrymander. An attempt to divide 
a State into districts so that one of the 
parties shall obtain thereby more than 
its just share of the representatives. 
Elbridge Gerry, of Massachusetts, was 
once accused of attempting this, whence 
the origin of the term. 

"In 1814 the Senate districts of Massachu- 
setts were laid out with the aim of electing to 
that body a majority of Democrats. The result 
was great irregularity in the shape of many of 
the districts. One in particular was so distorted 
that the Boston " Centinel " published a colored 
map of it, to which a few artistic touches were 
added for the purpose of giving it resemblance to 
some monstrous animal. This mythical animal 
they named ' gerrymander.' " 



Gertie Maddigan. The stage-name 
of Mrs. Benjamin Lodge. 

Gertrude. (Pseud.) Mrs. Jane 
(Cross) Simpson, English poetess (b. 

Gertrude Glenn. (Pseud.) Mrs. 
Mary Harris Ware, in " Godey's Lady's 
Book," etc. 

Gertrude Toussaint. The stage- 
name of Mrs. W. H. Clark. 

Geryon. In classic myth a being 
with three bodies and three heads. He 
fed his magnificent oxen with human 
flesh, for which he was killed by Her- 

Getting into a Hole. This pro- 
verbial saying is said to arise from an 
accident which sometimes occurs in 
playing at golf, where, if a ball "gets 
into a hole," it is almost certain that 
the owner must lose the game. 

Getting into a Scrape. " The deer 
are addicted, at certain seasons, to dig 
up the land with their forefeet, in holes, 
to the depth of a foot, or even of half a 
yard. These are called ' scrapes.' To 
tumble into one of these is sometimes 
done at the cost of a broken leg ; hence a 
man who finds himself in an unpleasant 
position, from which extrication is diffi- 
cult, is said to have ' got into a scrape.' " 
The Rev. H. T. EUacombe, M.A., in 
"Notes and Queries," Feb. 14, 1880, 
says that in 1803 a woman was killed by 
a stag in Powderham Park, Devon. " It 
was said that, when walking across the 
park, she attempted to cross the stag's 
' scrape,' " which he says is " a ring which 
stags make in rutting season, and woe 
be to any who get within it." He con- 
firms his story by a copy of the parish 
register, which records that " Frances 
Tucker (killed by a stag) was buried 
December 14th, 1803." 

Ghibellines. See Guelphs and Ghi- 


Ghost 'Walks. A colloquial phrase 
in vogue among theatrical people and 
others, and signifying that pay-day has 
come, or that the treasurer is around. 

" In one of the itinerant companies of Eng- 
land, the manager, himself an actor, was very 
fond of playing ' The Ghost ' in ' Hamlet,' which 
was one of the stock pieces of these unpaid no- 
mads. Salary day came and went; but as the 
manager had no bank account, and the box- 
office receipts were too meagre to warrant the 
alleged treasurer in posting over the box-office 
door those letters so cheering to the actor's 
heart, ' S. P. Q. R.,' the stomachs and wardrobes 
of the players began to suffer. At last patience 
ceased to be a virtue. The company grew clam- 

orous for their arrears. A strike was organiaed, 
and at one of the 'Hamlet' rehearsals, when 
Hamlet, speaking of 'The Ghost,' exclaimed, 
* Perchance 't will walk again,' the leader of the 
revolt, who happened then to be ' The Ghost,' 
ignored Shakspeare, and shouted emphatically 

'No 1 I'm d d if " The Ghost " walks any 

more until our salaries are paid.' All actors 
will easily concede that an incident like this 
would quickly become common sport, and soon 
furnish the material for a new bit of stage 

Giant, The. The river Nile is so 
named by the Egyptians. 

Giant, The Northern. See North- 
ern Giant. 

Giant of Literature. Samuel John- 
son (i 709-1 783). .S^* Cham and Great 

Giants. In classic myth the sons of 
Tartarus and Terra, of enormous stat- 
ure, with dragons' tails and hideous 
faces. They attempted to storm heaven, 
but were killed by the gods, assisted by 
Hercules, and buried under the volca- 
noes of Mount Etna. 

Giants' Causeway between the 
East and 'West. The Aleutian Archi- 
pelago has been so named, from the 
belid that many races have migrated by 
this route from one continent to the 

GManf s Grrave. A height on the 
Adriatic shore of the Bosphorus, much 
frequented by holiday parties. 

'T is a grand sight from off the " Giant's Grave" 
To watch the progress of those rolling seas 
Between the Bosphorus, as they lash and lave 
Europe and Asia. 

Byron, Don Juan. 

Giaour (pronounced jour). The 
Turkish word for " infidel, a term ap- 
plied in the Orient to all who do not 
believe in Mohammedanism. 

Gibraltar of America. Quebec, 
Canada. Both on account of its com- 
manding situation and its well-nigh im- 
pregnable defences, both natural and 
artificial, it is the most securely fortified 
city in America. 

Gibraltar of the East. Aden, a town 
and seaport of Arabia. Since 1839 it 
has belonged to the British, and its forti- 
fications have been greatly strengthened 
and improved. The citadel is built on 
a rocky eminence, and is of great stra- 
tegic importance, having a position be- 
tween Asia and Africa like that of 
Gibraltar between Europe and Africa. 

Gibraltar of the New 'World. Cape 
Diamond, in the province of Quebec. 



Gibson's Lambs. In the Revolu- 
tionary War the soldiers commanded by 
George Gibson (i 747-1 791) were so 
named for their good conduct and 

Giddy Gusher. The pen-name of 
Mrs. Mary Hewins Fiske, a correspond- 
ent of the "Mirror." See Clara 

Gilbert. (Pseud.) William Stevens 
Robinson, in the New York " Tribune," 
circa 1857-1860. 

Gilbert Forrester. (Pseud.) Henry 
Braddon, in the old "Sporting Maga- 

Gimel. rPseud.) Rev. Elisha An- 
drews, in the " Christian Watchman," 
Boston, Mass. 

Gimli. In Scandinavian mythology 
the choicest of the Elysian abodes. 

Ginnunga-gap. In Scandinavian 
myth the abyss which existed before the 
present world was formed. 

Gipsy, The. Antonio da Solario, the 
Spanish artist (1382-1454). 

Girdle of China. The great Yang- 
tse-Kiang River is so named by the 
Celestials. It forms a majestic water- 
way, connecting aU the central provinces 
of tlie empire. 

Girondists. An important party dur- 
ing the French Revolution, principally 
composed of deputies from the Gironde. 
They were ardent republicans, but after 
the excesses of August and September, 
1792, labored in vain to restrain the 
cruelties of Robespierre and the Moun- 
tain party ; their leaders, Brissot, Vergu- 
land, and many others, were guillotined 
Oct. 31, 1793. Lamartine's "Histoire 
des Girondins," published in 1847, 
tended to hasten the revolution in 1848. 

Git thar, Eli. A common Western 
Americanism. The story goes that at a 
country fair in Ohio there was a greased 
pole for climbing, on which was perched 
a prize. Among the competitors was a 
lad named Eli, who secured the prize, 
being cheered on by his companions 
yelling, " Git thar, Eli." 

Giulia Grisi. The professional name 
of Madame Augusta De Meley. 

Giulia Valda, Mme. The profes- 
sional name of Mrs. Julia Cameron, 
a well-known operatic singer. 

Giusto. (Ital.) In just and exact 
time. (Mus.) 

Give me Liberty or give me Death! 
Patrick Henry was the author of this 

famous exclamation, in a speech before 
the Virginia Legislature while pleading 
for the organization of the militia. 

Given Name. This is merely a col- 
loquial substitute for "Christian name," 
which, according to the Catechism, is 
"given" in baptism. 

Gjallar. In Scandinavian myth the 
horn of Heimdall, which he sounds to 
warn the gods of the arrival of any one 
at the bridge Bifrost (q. v.). 

G. L. Grand Lodge. 

Gl. Glossa. A gloss. 

Gladstone of America. (() James 
G. Blaine was so named by Levi P. 
Morton in a speech in Madison Square, 
New York, on the night of August 10, 
1888. (2) Allen GranBery Thurman was 
also so named by his admirers. 

Gladstone's Umbrella. A phrase 
which became current in the political 
nomenclature of England in 1885, per- 
sonifying the almost magical influence 
wielded by the ex-Premier, by which 
the conflicting elements composing the 
Liberal Party were harmonized in view 
of the impending election — 

Is Mr. Gladstone's umbrella worn out beyond 
repair? Will it no longer protect the various 
wings of the Liberal party from the downpour 
of disintegration which must inevitably fall on a 
collection of such incongruous elements as whigs, 
radicals, and semi-socialists ? — Daily Paper. 

Gladys Wayne. (Pseud.) Julia Van 
Valkenburg, in the " Household," Brat- 
tleboro, Vt. 

Glasgow Eeelie. A nickname for a 
native of Glasgow. 

Glauous. In classic myth a son of 
Sisyphus, rent in pieces by his own 
steeds. Also, a son of Minos, king of 
Crete ; he was drowned in a keg of 
honey, but was miraculously restored 
to life. 

Gleaner. (Pseud.) Nathaniel Inger- 
soll Bowditch, in the " Transcript," Bos- 
ton, circa 1855. 

Glencoe Massacre. A wholesale 
slaughter of the Macdonald clan in 
Scotland, merely for not surrendering 
before the time stated in the procla- 
mation of King William, Dec. 31, 
1691 : — 

Sir John Dalrymple, the Master, afterward 
Earl, of Stair, their inveterate enemy, obtained 
a decree "to extirpate that pack of thieves," 
which the king is said to have signed without 
perusing. Every man under seventy was to be 
slain, and the mandate was executed with the 
blackest treachery. The one hundred and twenty 
soldiers, forming a part of the Earl of Argyle's 



regiment, were hospitably received by the High- 
landers. On Feb. 13, 1692, the massacre began. 
About sixty men were brutally slain, and many 
■women and children, their wives and offspring, 
were turned out naked on a dark and freezing 
night, and perished by cold and hunger. This 
black deed excited great indignation in England, 
and an inquiry was set on foot In 1695, l""' 1° 
punishment followed. — Chambers. 

Glissando. (Ital.) In a gliding man- 
ner. (Mus.) 

Gloria in ezcelsis. (Lat.) Glory to 
God in the highest. 

Gloria Patri. (Lat.) Glory to the 

Glorious First of June. June i, 
1 794, Lord Howe, with twenty-five ships, 
signally defeated the French fleet with 
twenty-six ships, off Brest harbor. The 
French loss was very great, and the day 
was long termed in England "the Glori- 
ous First of June." 

Glorious John. John Dryden, the 
poet laureate (fl. 1631-1701). 

Glorious Preacher. Saint Chrysos- 
tom. See Golden Mouth. 

Glorious Uncertainty of the Law. 
In 1756, soon after Lord Mansfield had 
overruled several ancient legal decisions, 
and introduced many innovations in the 
practice, Mr. Wilbraham, at a dinner of 
judges and counsel in Serjeants' Hall, 
gave as a toast, " The glorious uncer- 
tainty of law." This was the origin of 
the phrase. 

Glory Hole. A cupboard, ottoman, 
box, or other receptacle where any- 
thing may be thrown for the nonce to 
get it out of sight rapidly. A cupboard 
at the head of a staircase, for brooms, 
etc., is so called. 

Glory of the East. The ancient Per- 
sepolis. No other city could be com- 
pared to it for wealth or magnificence. 

Gluckists and Piccinists. Names 
of rival parties in Paris, 1 774-1 780, 
during the musical controversy between 
the admirers of GlUck and those of 
Piccini. It is said that all Paris was 
arrayed on one side or the other, though 
but few could have understood the prin- 
ciples at stake. 

Glyn, Miss. The stage-name of Isa- 
belle Gearns Dallas, a famous English 
actress (1823-1889). 

G. M. Grand Master. 

G. M. K. P. Grand Master of the 
Knights of Saint Patrick. 

G. M. S. I. Grand Master of the 
Star of India. 

G. O. General Order. 
Gobe-mouches. (Fr.) "Fly-catchers." 
Persons having no opinions of their 

Godam. The French nickname for 
an Englishman, from a familiar oath 
once common and still too frequently 

God al-ways favors the Heaviest 
Battalions. Napoleon said, "Provi- 
dence is always on the side of the last 

Le nombre des sages sera toujours petit. U 
est vrai qu'il est augmente; mais ce n'est rien 
en comparison des sots, et par malheur on dit 
que Dieu est toujours pour les gros bataillons. — 
Voltaire to M. le Riche. 

La fortune est toujours pour les gros bataillons. 
— SiviGN^, Lettre h sa Pille. 

God bless You. In the time of 
Pope Pelagius II. a plague raged at 
Rome, the victims of which died sneez- 
ing and gaping. Hence arose the cus- 
tom of saying " God bless you ! " when 
a person sneezes, and the habit among 
devout Roman Catholics of making the 
sign of the cross upon the mouth when 
a person gapes. 
_ Goddess of Reason. Reason, con- 
sidered as an impersonation of all those 
mental powers which distinguish man- 
kind from the brute creation, was de- 
creed to be worshipped as a goddess by 
the French Republicans, Nov. 10, 1793, 
when a festival was held in honor of the 
new faith. The Church of Notre D^me 
was converted into a Temple of Reason, 
and every tenth day was appointed to 
supersede the Christian Sabbath. 

God's Acre. A burying-ground at- 
tached to a church or place of worship. 
God save the Mark. These words 
are connected with an old Irish super- 
stition. If a person, on telling the story 
of some hurt or injury which another 
has received, should illustrate his nar- 
rative by touching the corresponding 
part of his own or his hearer's body, 
he averts the omen of similar injury by 
using as a sort of charm the words, 
"God save the mark." 

God's Image done in Ebony. The 
negroes were so named by Thomas 

God's Truce. One of the most sin- 
gular among the institutions of the 
Middle Ages, which was in vogue in 
France, the German Empire, and other 
nations of Europe. It consisted of the 
suspension, for a stated time and at 
stated seasons and festivals, of that 



right of private feud for the redress of 
wrongs which was recognized by the 
mediaeval code. 

God tempers the Wind to the 
Shorn Lamb. Sterne first used this 
phrase in English, by putting it into 
the mouth of Maria in the " Sentimental 
Journey." It is an adaptation of the 
French proverb, " A brebis tondue Dieu 
mesure le vent." 

Godwin's Oath. Godwin, Earl of 
Kent, was charged with killing Alfred, 
brother of Edward Confessor, but died 
at the king's table while protesting with 
an oath his innocence of the crime. He 
was choked with a piece of bread while 
beseeching Heaven that it might stick 
in his throat if he were guilty of the 
murder. Hence the caution to a per- 
son taking a voluntary and intemperate 
oath : " Beware lest you are swearing 
Godwin's oath." 

Gog and Magog. The names given 
to the pair of famous images of giants 
in Guildhall, London, and also fre- 
quently met in Scripture. " Magog is 
spoken of by the writer of Genesis as a 
son of Japheth ; Ezekiel speaks of Gog, 
prince of Magog ; Gog and Magog are 
spoken of in the Revelation. The fig- 
ures in London, above referred to, are 
the legendary survivors of a race of 
giants who formerly inhabited the coun- 
try; but there are various other tales 
told about them. They are of wood, 
hollow, and about fourteen feet high. 

Going out to see a Man. The ori- 
gin of this phrase was as follows : Lin- 
coln Hall, Washington, D. C, was the 
scene of many lectures and " shows " of 
various kinds. Adjoining it was a res- 
taurant, the name of the proprietor being 
Aman. One night in the winter of 1865 
Artemus Ward lectured in the hall ; and 
when the great humorist was about half 
through his discourse he surprised his 
audience with the announcement that 
they would have to take a recess of fif- 
teen minutes so as to enable him to go 
across the street to see a man. H. R. 
Tracy, then editor of the " Washington 
Republican," was in the audience, and 
seeing an opportunity to improve upon 
the joke, pencilled the following lines 
and sent them to the platform : " Dear 
Artemus, — If you will place yourself 
under my guidance I '11 take you to see 
a man without crossing the street." Ar- 
temus accepted the invitation ; and while 
the audience impatiently but with much 

amusement awaited the reappearance 
of the humorist, the latter was making 
the acquaintance of Aman and luxuri- 
ating at a well-laden refreshment board. 
Of course everybody " caught on to " the 
phrase, and men became fond of getting 
up between acts and "going out to see 
a man." 

Go it Blind. An Americanism, mean- 
ing " to act without due information or 
ddiberation." It is derived from the 
game of Poker, where a player may, if 
he chooses, " go it blind " by doubling 
the " ante " before looking at his cards, 
and if the other players refuse to see 
his "blind," he wins the "ante." 

Gold Coast. See Guinea Coast. 

Golden Age. " In the mythologies 
of most peoples and religions there ex- 
ists a tradition of a better time, when 
the earth was the common property of 
man, and produced spontaneously all 
things necessary for an enjoyable exist- 
ence. The land flowed with milk and 
honey, beasts of prey lived peaceably 
with other animals, and man had not 
yet, by selfishness, pride, and other 
vices and passions, fallen from a state 
of innocence. The Greeks and Romans 
placed this golden age under the rule 
of Saturn; and many of their poets 
have turned this poetic matiriel to ad- 
mirable account, and defined the grad- 
ual decadence of the world as the 
Silver, the Brass, and the Iron Ages, 
holding out at the same time the con- 
solatory hope that the pristine state of 
things will one day return." — Cham- 
bers. The Golden Ages of other an- 
cient nations were as follows : (i) New 
Assyrian Empire, b. c. 691-606. (2) 
Chaldeo-Babylonian Empire, B. C. 606- 
538. (3) China, the T'ang dynasty, 
626-684; tlie reign of Taetsong, 618- 
626. (4) Egypt, B. C. 1336-1224. (5) 
Media, b. c. 634-594. (6) Persia, b. c. 
628-531. See Silver, Brass, and Iron 
Ages, respectively. 

Golden Age of Israel. The eighty 
years from the accession of David to 
the death of Solomon. 

Golden Bay. The Bay of Rieselarke ; 
so named because its sands glitter like 

Golden Bull, (i) An edict of the 
Emperor Charles IV., so called from 
its golden seal, was made the funda- 
mental law of the German Empire at 
the Diet of Nuremberg, 1356. (2) A 
constitutional edict promulgated by 



Andrew II. of Hungary in the thirteenth 
century. It remained in force till the 
dissolution of the German Empire in 

Golden Chersonese. The Malay 
Peninsula is so alluded to by Ptolemy 
and Milton. 

Golden Fleece. In Greek myth the 
fleece of the ram Chrysomallus, the 
recovery of which was the cause of 
the Argonautic Expedition. In more 
modern days the Golden Fleece "has 
given its name to a celebrated order of 
knighthood in Austria and Spain founded 
by Philip III., Duke of Burgundy and 
the Netherlands, at Bruges, on Jan. 10, 
1429, on the occasion of his marriage 
with Isabella, daughter of King John I. 
of Portugal. This order was instituted 
for the protection of the Church; and 
the fleece was probably assumed for its 
emblem as much from being the mate- 
rial of the staple manufacture of the 
Low Countries as from its connection 
with heroic times." 

Golden Horde. Tartars who invaded 
Russia in 1245, and did much damage, 
ravaging the country from Moscow to 
Hungary, under Baton, a grandson of 
Genghis Khan. 

Golden Horn. The inlet of the 
Bosphorus on which the city of Con- 
stantinople is situated ; so named from 
its crescent shape and the surpassing 
loveliness of its scenery. 

Golden House of Nero. A palace 
erected by Nero in Rome. It was roofed 
with gilded tiles, and the inside walls 
and ceilings were inlaid with gold, ivory, 
and precious stones. The Farnese 
princes subsequently used the materials 
of this costly structure to embellish 
their own palaces. 

Golden Legend. A celebrated col- 
lection of hagiology, which for a time 
enjoyed almost unexampled popularity, 
having passed through more than a hun- 
dred editions and being translated into 
almost all the European tongues. It is 
the work of James de Voragine (also 
written Vragine and Varagine), who was 
born about 1230. 

Golden-mouthed. Saint Chrysostom 
was so named because of his surpassing 

Golden Palace. See Golden House 
OF Nero. 

Golden State. California ; so named 
on account of its rich auriferous de- 

Golden Stream. A title given to 
Johannes Damascenus (d. 756), who 
wrote a work entitled " Dogmatic The- 

Golden-tongued. A title conferred 
on Saint Peter, bishop of Ravenna (fl. 
fifth century). 

Golden Vede. The eastern part of 
the vale of Limerick, Ireland. The soil 
is remarkably fertile. 

Goldlaoe. (Pseud.) Lieut. E. P. Ban- 
ning, U. S. N., in various periodicals. 

Gold Purse of Spain. The ancient 
province of Andalusia; so called be- 
cause it is from thence that Spain 
derives much of its auriferous wealth. 

Goldsmith of America. Benjamin 
Franklin Taylor (1819-1887), the Amer- 
ican author, was so named by the London 
" Times." 

Goldy. The diminutive nickname 
given by Dr. Johnson to Oliver Gold- 
smith. His intimates also dubbed him 

Gold Vears. There is a supersti- 
tion among miners on the Pacific Coast 
that years of the century ending with 
the figure 9 are sure to witness the dis- 
covery of rich deposits of the precious 
metals. In proof, they adduce Califor- 
nia, 1849; Pike's Peak, 1859; Nevada, 
1869; and Leadville, 1879. 

Golgotha, The City. See City Gol- 

G. O. M. See Grand Old Man. 

Gondolas of the London Streets. 
Hansom cabs were so nicknamed by 
Lord Beaconsfield. The phrase also 
occurs in Balzac's writings applied to 
the Parisian fiacres, from whom Bea- 
consfield probably borrowed it. 

Gone Broke. See Broke. 

Gone to the Devil. There was for- 
merly a tavern next door to Child's 
Banking House in Fleet Street, near 
Temple Bar, known by the sign of the 
"Devil and Saint Dunstan.''^ It was 
much frequented by lawyers as a place 
for dining, etc., and was noted for the 
excellence of its liquors. It was famil- 
iarly called the " Devil." When a law- 
yer from the Temple went to dinner 
there, he Jisually put a notice on his 
door, "Gone to the Devil." Some 
who neglected their business frequently 
had this notice exhibited, until at 
length "Gone to the Devil" became 
synonymous with "gone, or going, to 



Gone Up, Gone Under. These ap- 
parently contrary expressions stand for 
one and the same thing in Western par- 
lance ; i. e., to fail, to " go to smash," or 
even to die. The first may be supposed 
to be drawn from the sudden elevation 
attending an explosion ; the second prob- 
ably arose from the fate of some luck- 
less pioneer who was drawn under the 
rapids of a river. " Of the facility with 
which the slang of England rises to the 
rank of unobjectionable words in the 
mouths of Americans, the term 'going 
up ' is an instance. It arose from the 
spout or tube through which the pawn- 
broker sends the goods he has advanced 
upon to an upper story. Hence at first 
the phrase ran ' to go up the spout,' and 
meant simply disappearance or destruc- 
tion. Then the 'spout' was deemed 
supe^uous ; and when the city of Rich- 
moncftw^t the close of the civil war, 
the new^^pers reported gravely that it 
had gone up" 

Good, The. (i) Alfonso VII 1. of 
Leon (fl. 115^1214). (2) Sir James 
Douglas, a friend of Robert Bruce (d. 
133°)- (3) Jean II. of France (fl. 1319- 
1364). (4) Jean III., Due de Bour- 
gogne (fl. 1286-1341). (5) Jean of 
Brittany (fl. 1389-1442). (6) Philippe 
III., Due de Bourgogne (fl. 1396-1467). 
(7) Rdnd, titular King of Naples (fl. 
1409-1452). (8) Richard II., Due de 
Normandie (fl. 996-1026). (9) Richard 
de Beauchamp (d. 1439). (1°) Prince 
Albert of England (d. 1 861). 

Good as a Flay. " An exclamation of 
Charles II. when in Parliament attend- 
ing the discussion of Lord Ross's Di- 
vorce Bill. The king remained in the 
House of Peers while his speech was 
taken into consideration, — a common 
practice with him; for the debates 
amused his sated mind, and were some- 
times, he used to say, as good as a 
comedy." — Macaulay. 

Good Earl. Archibald, eighth Earl 
of Angus (d. 1588). 

Good enough Morgan till after 
Election. " Thurlow Weed was one of 
the foremost of the anti-Masonic agi- 
tators in New York State. The disap- 
pearance of Morgan, and the discovery 
of what was supposed to be his dead 
body, created intense excitement. Weed 
took full advantage of this feeling j and 
when doubt was cast on the identity of 
the body thus found, he is said to have 
remarked in private that it was a 'good 

enough Morgan till after election.' " — 
American Political Dictionary. 

Good Friday. This is probably a 
corruption of " God's Friday," the Fri- 
day before Easter Day, on which a 
solemn fast has long been observed by 
Christendom in remembrance of the 
crucifixion of Christ on Friday, April 
3, 33 (or Friday, April 15, 29). Its 
appellation of "Good" appears to be 
peculiar to the English Church and its 
branches; the Saxons denominated it 
" Long Friday," because of the length 
of the offices and fasting enjoined on 
that day. It may be news to some 
that the religious observance of Good 
Friday, now so general, is not the con- 
tinuation of an ancient custom so much 
as a revival of modern times. In the 
earlier part of the reign of George III. 
many church-going folk took no notice 
of the day ; and in his " Restituta " Sir 
Egerton Brydges speaks of the " clamor, 
uproar, and rage " with which an order 
of Archbishop Cornwallis " to observe 
decently Good Friday" was received 
by persons of a different way of think- 
ing from his Grace. But the ani- 
mosity of what Sir Egerton Brydges 
calls "the Presbyterian newspapers" 
seems to have been chiefly directed 
against Porteus, afterward Bishop of 
London, who was supposed to have 
been the Primate's adviser in this mat- 
ter. Good Friday is a legal holiday 
in Florida, Louisiana, Minnesota, and 

Good Gray Poet. Walt Whitman, 
the American poet. 

Good Hater. This phrase was first 
used by Dr. Johnson, who said of Bath- 
urst, a physician : " He was a man to my 
very heart's content. He hated a fool, 
and he hated a rogue, and he hated a 
Whig ; he was a very good hater." 

Good Lord Cobham. A nickname 
of Sir John Oldcastle, who was the first 
among the English nobility to suffer 
martyrdom, Dec. 14, 141 7. 

Goodman of Ballengeich. A name 
assumed by James VI. of Scotland dur- 
ing his peregrinations through the coun- 
tryside around Edinburgh .and Stirling, 
in which he imitated Louis XL and 

Goodman Palsgrave, Goody Pals- 
grave. Satirical nicknames bestowed 
on Frederick V., Elector Palatine, and 
his wife Elizabeth, daughter of James I. 
of England. 



Good Old Men. See Caloyers. 

Good Parliament. Held in the 
time of Edward III., and so named 
from the rigor which it meted out to 
the hated Lancastrians. 

Good Queen Bess. Elizabeth of 
England (fl. 1533-1603). 

Good Regent. James Stewart, Earl 
of Murray, who was made Regent of 
Scotland after the arrest of Queen 

Good Samaritan of London. Silas 
Todd, one of John Wesley's assist- 

Good Wine needs no Bush. The 
bush formerly hung out at the doors of 
taverns was always of ivy, probably in 
allusion to Bacchus, to whom the ivy- 
bush was sacred. The old poets and 
dramatists have many allusions to the 
custom of hanging out a bush. In 
Lily's "Euphues," A. 3, we have, "Things 
of greatest profit are set forth with least 
price. Where the wine is neat, there, 
needeth no ivie-bush." Allot also, in 
his " English Parnassus," in a sonnet to 
the reader, says : — 

" I hang no ivie out to sell my wine ; 
The nectar of good wits will sell itselfe." 

The proverb means that where the wine 
sold was good no bush or other sign was 
necessary; customers would find their 
way to the place without. In the reign of 
Eciward III. all the " taverners " in the 
city of London were summoned to the 
Guildhall, and warned that no sign or 
bush would henceforward be allowed to 
" extend over the king's highway beyond 
the length of seven feet." A new ex- 
planation of the proverb " Good wine 
needs no bush " is proposed by R. R. 
Sharpe, who presides over the manu- 
scripts in the Guildhall of London. 
" Bush " appears to have been a term for 
a spray of rosemary or other herb which 
was laid in the bottom of a drinking-cup, 
by publicans, " either to give a particular 
flavor to the beverage, or, as was probably 
more often the case, in order to disguise 
the inferior quality of the wine." He 
cites a confession by Alice de Caustone 
to Mayor Adam de Bury, in the reign 
of Edward III., in which she acknowl- 
edges that she was in the habit of fill- 
ing the bottom of her quart measure 
with one and a half inches of picche, 
and laying thereon rosemaryn, in simili- 
iudinem arboris, "so as to look like a 
bush in the sight of the common 

Goose Dubbs. A locality in Glas- 
gow, the counterpart of the London 
Alsatia {q. v.). Dubbs is colloquial 
Scottish for a filthy puddle. 

Goosey Goderich. A nickname fas- 
tened by Cobbett on Viscount Goderich, 
afterward Earl of Ripon, because of his 
incapacity as a statesman. He was 
Premier in 1 827-1 828. 

Gopher. This curious Americanism, 
from the French gaufre, honeycomb, 
was originally given by French -voy- 
ageurs to many burrowing animals from 
their habit of honeycombing the earth. 
At the present day the name is appended 
in Canada and Illinois to a gray bur- 
rowing squirrel, in Wisconsin to a 
striped squirrel, in Missouri to a brown 
pouched rat, in Georgia to a snake, and 
in Florida to a turtle. Minnesota is 
called the Gopher State from the fact 
that the striped squirrel formerly there 

Gopher State. See supra. 

Gordian Knot. The subject of one 
of the most interesting fables of anti- 
quity. The story runs that " Gordius, a 
Phrygian peasant, was once ploughing in 
his fields, when an eagle settled on his 
yoke of oxen, and remained till the la- 
bor of the day was over. Surprised at 
so wonderful a phenomenon, he sought 
an explanation of it, and was informed 
by a prophetess of Telmissus that he 
should offer sacrifice to Zeus. He did 
so, and out of gratitude for the kindness 
shown him, married the prophetess, by 
whom he had a son, the famous Midas. 
When Midas grew up, disturbances 
broke out in Phrygia, and the people 
sent messengers to the oracle at Delphi, 
to ask about choosing a new king. The 
messengers were informed that a king 
would come to them riding on a car, and 
that he would restore peace. Returning 
to Phrygia, they announced these things, 
and while the people were talking about 
them, Gordius, with his son, very oppor- 
tunely arrived in the requisite manner. 
He was immediately elected king, where- 
upon he dedicated his car and yoke to 
Zeus, in the Acropolis of Gordium (a 
city named after himself), the knot of 
the yoke being tied in so skilful a 
manner that an oracle declared who- 
ever should unloose it would be ruler 
of all Asia. When Alexander the Great 
came to Gordium he cut the knot in two 
with his sword, and applied the proph- _ 
ecy to himself." 



Gordon Riots. See No-Popery 

Oorgona. In classic myth Stheno, 
Euryale, and Medusa, daughters of 
Phorcus and Ceto. They had wings, 
brazen claws, and long teeth ; their 
bodies were covered with scales, and 
their hair was entwined with hissing 
serpents. Medusa was killed by Per- 
seus, and from her blood sprung the 
winged horse Pegasus. 

Oorham Controversy. A dispute 
arising out of the refusal of the Bishop 
of Exeter to induct the Rev. Cornelius 
Gorham in the vicarage of Brampford 
Speke, " because he held unsound views 
on the doctrine of baptism," maintain- 
ing that spiritual regeneration is not 
conferred on children at baptism. In 
1851 the Privy Council decided in favor 
of Mr. Gorham. 

Gospellers. Adherents of Wycliffe, 
who was named " the Gospel Doctor." 

Gossamer Days. A maiden was ac- 
customed to spin late on Saturday in 
the moonlight. At one time the new 
moon on the eve of Sunday drew her up 
to itself, and now she sits in the moon 
and spins and spins. And now, when 
the " gossamer days " set in late in the 
summer, the white threads float around 
in the air. These threads are the spin- 
ning of the lunar spinner. 

Gossypia. A personification of the 

Goth. Gothic. 

Gotham. (Pseud.) Richard Wheat- 
ley, D.D., in "Zion's Herald," 1888. 

Gotham, (i) A parish of Notting- 
hamshire, England. The people here 
were famed for their crass stupidity and 
simplicity, which obtained for them the 
satirical appellation of the "wise men 
of Gotham." Many nations have des- 
ignated some particular locality as the 
paradise of fools ; for example, Phrygia 
was the fools' home in Asia, Abdera 
of the Thracians, Boeotia of the Greeks, 
Swabia of the modern Germans, etc. (2) 
A colloquial term for the city of New 
York. Thus applied, it first appeared in 
" Salmagundi," by Washington Irving 
and James K. Paulding, and is sup- 
posed to hint sarcastically at the worldly 
wisdom of its inhabitants. 

Go to Bath and get your Head 
sbaved. Formerly persons who showed 
symptoms of insanity were sent to drink 
the mineral waters at Bath. Shaving 

the head was always performed where 
insanity was suspected. The obvious 
meaning of the proverbial saying is, 
therefore, satirically, " You are going 
mad; you had better 'go to Bath and 
get your head shaved.' " 

Go to Grass. This is a common ex- 
pression in America. It is equivalent 
to the English " Be off ! " or " Get out ! " 

Got the Mitten. This is an Amer- 
ican phrase, used when a young man is 
discarded by a lady to whom he has 
been paying his addresses. Sam Slick 
(" Human Nature," p. 90) says, " There 
is a young lady I have set my heart on ; 
though whether she is a-goin' to give me 
hern, or give me the mitten, I ain't quite 
satisfied." This seems to be the only 
remaining use of the old English word 
" mi ttent " (Latin OT2V^«« J, sending), which 
Johnson defines "sending forth, emit- 
ting." " Mittent " itself is obsolete, but 
it survives in the compound " intermit- 

Gottlieb Ackermann. (Pseud.) 
Franz Xaver Mayer. 

Gourmet. (Fr.) "A wine-taster." 
A judge of wine. 

Gourre. A nickname bestowed by 
the Parisians on Isabella of Bavaria. 
The term indicates a debauched woman. 

Gov. Governor. 

Gov.-Gen. Governor-General. 

Govt. Government. 

Gowiie Conspiracy. A plot formed 
by the Earl of Gowrie in 1600 to de- 
throne James VI. of Scotland, and usurp 
the government. For this end the king 
was decoyed into Cowrie's house in 
Perth, August 5, 1600. The plot was 
foiled, and the earl and his brother 
Alexander were slain on the spot. 

G. P. Gloria Patri. " Glory be to 
the Father." 

G. P. O. General Post-Office. 

G. R. King George (Georgius Rex) ; 
Grand Recorder. 

Gr. Greek; gross. 

Gr., Grs. Grain; grains. 

Grace Card. The'six of hearts. The 
story goes that in 1688 one of the fam- 
ily of Grace, of Courtstown, Ireland, 
equipped at his own charge a body of 
soldiery to assist King James. William 
III. offered him weighty rewards if he 
would join the new party, but the indig- 
nant Jacobite hastily wrote on the back 
of a card : " Tell your master I despise 
his offer." The card was the six of hearts. 



Ghrace Darling of America. Ida 
Lewis, the keeper of a lighthouse near 
Newport, R. I. Like her English name- 
sake, she has been directly instrumental 
in saving a number of lives from ship- 

Grace Greenwood. (Pseud.) Mrs. 
Sara J. Lippincott, American litterateur 
(b. 1825). 

Grace Hawthorne. The stage-name 
of Mrs. John Murray, n^e Cartland. 

Graceless Florin. The earliest issue 
of the English two-shilling piece; so 
named because the letters "F. D." 
C" Fidei Defensor," " defender of the 
faith ") were omitted. There was no 
room for the letters, it was said; so the 
omission was not through inadvertence 
or carelessness. 

Graces. In classic myth Aglai^, 
Euphrosyne, and Thalia, daughters of 
Jupiter and Euron)rme. They were the 
sources of all grace, beauty, and favor. 
They attended on Venus. 

Grace Thorne. The stage-name of 
Mrs. Frazer Coulter. 

Grace Wharton. (Pseud.) Mrs. A. 
T. Thompson (Katherine Byerley), 
(1 8 1 0-1862). 

Grad. Graduated. 

Gradual Fsalms, Fsalms of the 
Steps, or Songs of Degrees. A name 
given, both by Hebrews and in the Chris- 
tian service-books, to the fifteen psalms, 
cxx.-cxxxiv. (cxix.-cxxxiii. in the Vul- 
gate). The origin of the name is un- 

Gradus ad Parnassum. (Lat.) " A 
step to Parnassus." A well-known book 
containing aids to writing Greek and 
Latin verses. Parnassus, a mountain in 
central Greece, sacred to Apollo and the 
Muses; on a steep declivity on its 
southern slope were situated the town 
of Delphi and the famous temple con- 
taining the oracle of Apollo. 

Grahame's Dike. The Roman wall 
between the Clyde and the Forth was 
so named by the peasantry from the 
fact that a chief named Grahame was 
the first to scale it after the Romans left 

Grain Coast. A former name for 
Liberia, Africa. See Guinea Coast. 

Gram. Grammar. 

Granary of Europe. The island of 
Sicily was so named by the ancients on 
account of its productiveness. 

Grand, Le. Corneille, the French 
dramatist (fl. 1606- 1684). 

Grand Alliance. A treaty between 
England, the Emperor, and the States- 
General, principally to prevent the union 
of the French and Spanish monarchies 
in one person, which was signed in 
Vienna, May 12, 1689, and to which 
Spain and Savoy afterward acceded. 

Grand bien vous fasse. (Fr.) Much 
good may it do you. 

Grand cordon. (Fr.) The broad rib- 
bon of the Legion of Honor. 

Grand Corneille. The French dram- 
atist (i 606-1 684). 

Grand Corrupter. Sir Robert Wal- 
pole (fl. 1676-1745) was so named in the 
lampoons of his time and by his enemies. 

Grand Dauphin. Louis, Due de 
Bourgogne, eldest son of Louis XIV., 
was so named. See Delphin Classics. 
His son was named the " Little Dauphin." 

Grande Mademoiselle. The Du- 
chesse de Montpensier, daughter of 
Gaston, Due d'Orldans, and cousin of 
Louis XIV. 

Grande parure. (Fr.) Full dress. 

Grand gourmand. (Fr.) A great 

Grand homme. (Fr.) A great man.